Электронный журнал Genesis: исторические исследования - №5 за 2015 год - Содержание, список статей - ISSN: 2409-868X - Издательство NotaBene
Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Contents of Issue № 05/2015
Contents of Issue № 05/2015
Historical time and space
Boltaevskii A.A. - The First World War and the Balkans: A look a century later pp. 1-19


Abstract: The First World War radically changed not only the political map of Europe, but also social relations, will largely determine the development of the XX century. Balkan Peninsula was at the epicenter of events: that's where the war took place first Slavic countries with the Ottoman Empire and then the conflict between the former allies. Sarajevo assassination, it is not without the knowledge of the Serbian military officers, led to a Europe-wide disaster. Part of the world wars in the Balkans were the defense of Serbia in 1914-1915, The Dardanelles operation, Thessaloniki and Romanian companies. The article uses the historical-genetic, historical, comparative, historical and typological method. Considerable attention is paid to the diplomatic documents, recreate the atmosphere of the era. The Balkans appeared region where not only started, but actually determined the victory of the Entente in 1918. Through narrowcasting personal policy of the leading world powers have contributed to the same tendency in the Balkan states. This led to a radical revision of the borders after the war, that does not take into account, and could not take into account the interests of all countries and peoples. Currently, the unresolved issue of the Balkans continues to aggravate the situation in Europe.
Evolution, reform, revolution
Balynin I.V. - Establishing the Constitutional Russia during the reign of Alexander I: preconditions and opportunities pp. 20-28


Abstract: The object of the study are part of the public relations in the constitutional development of the Russian state at the beginning of the XIX century. The subject of the research are preconditions and opportunities of adopting the Constitution during the reign of Alexander the Great.The author examines in detail the projects such as the Most Gracious charters Russian people, Introduction to ulozheniju state laws (Plan of universal public education), State Charters of the Russian Empire. Particular attention is paid to the last project developed by NN Novosil'tsev and PA Viazemsky, which included 191 article.Methodological foundation is based on scientific methods (analysis, comparison and description), and on special (problem-chronological and synchronic).The main conclusions of the study are the following: the ability to create a constitutional Russia in the 19th century was quite real, and under certain conditions, the country could become a constitutional monarchy. But for some reason Alexander I was forced to give up their constitutional ideas.The novelty of the research is to investigate the insufficiently explored the possibility of establishing the Constitutional Russia during the reign of Alexander the Great. The practical significance of the study results is the ability to use the application the student and faculty community in the educational process in higher and secondary specialized educational institutions.
Rabkin S.V. - Reforms Kosygin: the historical aspect of the search immaterial factors of institutional development pp. 29-50


Abstract: The subject of study is the impact of immaterial factors of economic development for implementation the reforms of Kosygin. The article deals with scientific issues such as the causes and consequences of the reforms, the problems of the Russian Economic School, the implementation of the model interaction between the center and regions, forming basic enterprises and strategic industries of the economy. Indicated on the institutional nature of the changes and their historical significance, in terms of the formation of the modern scientific and practical approach to economic reform. On an example formation of transport infrastructure Republic of Komi defined the mechanism of implementation of the soviet management model by the economic development of regions.Based on the method of historical analogy and methodology of institutional analysis, concludes the need to consider the impact of immaterial factors of economic development during the current economic reforms. These factors contributed to the no implementation of reform Kosygin. However, in the long term, policy reforms revealed new opportunities for the development of the Russian Economic School, created the prerequisites for the formation basic enterprises and strategic industries, identified the institutional problems relations between the federal center and the regions in future. Therefore, it is essential to use the historical experience of these reforms in the formation system of economic security and national priorities of modern Russia.
History of law and state
Gromova G. - Historical and legal study of administrative law for the Council Code 1649 pp. 51-62


Abstract: Administrative law has been and continues to be one of the most important public-law sectors of the Russian legal system, governing a vast range of relations and containing a substantial part of the law. There is therefore a need to streamline the existing instruments and provisions that contain legal and administrative regulations. On the background of the analogy between the formation of the rule of law in the XVII century. and the development of legislation in the present, including -administrativnogo, seems quite topical treatment to the first attempts to systematize legislation and division lines and branches of the law, the formation of administrative law, such rules of ordering. In this context, a retrospective analysis of the political and legal experience allows us to trace the Russian state: the development of the internal practices of governance, formation of management bodies, development of administrative and legal thought in Russia, political and historical specifics of Russia, which ultimately affected the appearance of the existing at present time administrative law - a unique industry domestic legal system, containing a list of the most regulated relations and extensive conglomeration of normative legal acts.In the historical and legal literature very little work on the subject of a comprehensive study of administrative law in the ancient monuments law. Everything that has been said about the absolute relevance of the theme of this article.In connection with the above, the author draws attention to the Cathedral Ulozhenie 1649g., In which the first attempt to systematize the law and are decorated in the modern sense, legal and administrative regulations, scattered on the individual chapters.To achieve the objectives the author used structuralchastnonauchnogo functional and formal-legal special methods of investigation.Scientific novelty of the article is characterized by reference to the issues of understanding of the place and role of administrative law in the Cathedral Ulozhenie 1649g., A place dedicated to the issues of state structure in this code of laws, the issues of formation and development of administrative law and basic legal categories and concepts that exist in contemporary legal science . The author concludes that the Council Code and the structure and its contents had an impact on the further development of the legal and public relations. The work is written on the basis of archival material, so it can be used in the development of research in the study of those courses.
Shayakhmetova T.E. - Medical police in the Russian Empire of the XIX – beginning of XX centuries pp. 63-78


Abstract: The material welfare of the people depends on the implementation of government measures aimed at protecting the health of the population. The preservation of life and health it is necessary for the purpose of man, and to the safety and welfare of the state. These measures are the subject of the medical activities of the police. Under medical police should understand the system provided for by the legislation of the measures undertaken by the government and aimed at ensuring healthy living conditions, prevention of illnesses by removing the causes that contribute to their occurrence, and termination of diseases encountered.Methodological basis of research is the dialectical-materialist method of cognition of socio-legal phenomena, and the legal history, systemic-structural, comparative legal, logical-theoretical and specific scientific methods of study regulatory documents in conjunction with a systematic approach and analysis. The main conclusion of the conducted research was the provision that the police took an active part in activities aimed at protecting the health of the population of the Russian Empire in the XIX – early XX centuries, which was one of the ways to ensure the safety and welfare of the state. Measures of medical police were concentrated in the Arch of institutions and statutes on medical civil part, which was included in T. XIII of the code of laws of the Russian Empire of 1832, published in the edition of 1857 as Charter medical has become the fundamental legal act regulating medical-sanitary activities in Russia until 1917.
Parsukov V.A. - Role of the Separate body of border patrol of the Russian Empire in counteraction against terrorism and contraband pp. 79-90


Abstract: This article examines the experience of the Separate body of the border patrol in counteraction against terrorism and contraband during the period of XIX-XX centuries. Special attention is given the analysis of the legal acts regulating the activity of border patrols throughout the various parts of the Russian border. Based on the conducted analysis of the normative legal acts, the author concludes that the Separate body of border patrol plays a significant role in increasing the efficiency in the fight against terrorism and contraband in the Russian Empire. Scientific novelty of this work consists in the examination of the questions related to the legal regulation of organization of the service of border patrol, in the interest of protection the population from terrorism and political contraband. The author is the first to conduct such analysis within the Russian historical legal science. The legal aspects of protection of national borders of the Russian Empire are being researched.
Odegov A.E. - Influence of the revolutionary terrorism of the late XIX century upon the transformation of the judiciary of the Russian Empire pp. 91-102


Abstract: The object of this research is the complex topic, in which two key aspects can be highlighted. The first aspect is the phenomenon of the revolutionary terrorism in the Russian Empire of the late XIX century, precisely specific terrorist acts aimed against the emperor, imperial government, and government officials. The second aspect consists in changes in the judiciary of the Russian state and associated with them transformations of the administrative, criminal and penal legislation of the Russian Empire during the aforementioned period. The interconditionality between the state phenomena compile the subject of this research, while the goal of this work is the determination of these connections and regularities. The scientific novelty lies in the fact, that currently the question on the direct effect of the revolutionary terror as a whole, including the separate terroristic acts upon the precise changes in the judiciary of the Russian Empire is still understudied. In the conclusion, the author reveals the direct cause-effect connections between the terrorist acts of the revolutionaries and the changes in the judicial system of the Russian Empire, which were not spontaneous, but rather systemic and gradual, at the same time carrying an evident reactional character.
Belkovets L. - A fight of the Soviet Russia for an exit from the World War. pp. 103-192


Abstract: The article investigates the first steps of the Soviet government in the solution of one of the main problem for Russia - an exit from imperialistic First World War. Fight for a withdrawal from a war was the beginning of the fight for recognition of the Soviet state of the world community.
Sosenkov F.S. - About the constitutional legal mechanism of counteraction to separatism in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia pp. 193-211


Abstract: The subjects of research are constitutional and legal mechanisms for counteraction to separatism in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. To some extent, also addressed political and legal views of a separate Serbian and Croatian political leaders about the unity of Yugoslavia, as well as the ideas expressed by the Communist party of Yugoslavia, subsequently given legal expression. The aim of the work is to analyze legal (especially constitutional) mechanisms to counter the centrifugal political forces as provided for in the Yugoslav legislation. Special attention is paid to the measures enshrined in the Constitution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia of 1974. During the work used a chronological and historical approaches, the method of system analysis and partly modeling. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the formulation of the problem and the involvement of the materials previously underutilized for the needs of history of state and law of foreign countries within the affected perspective. The work performed allows us to conclude that the Yugoslav Federal authorities , despite the constant desire to improve the national-state system, was not developed effective measures to combat separatism and the preservation of the common state. However, the author comes to the conclusion that the experience of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (primarily bad) for the prevention of centrifugal forces and open to counter separatism is very useful for modern Federal States, built to national or mixed (national and territorial) principle.
History of regions of Russia
Esikova M. - Economic and demographic peculiarities of the development of Tambov governorate immediately prior to and at the beginning of the World War II pp. 212-225


Abstract: The subject of this research is the effect of the World War I upon the state of industry and agriculture, as well as the position of the working class and peasants of the Tambov governorate. The author points out that the general level of industrial production of the governorate prior to the war remained low. The majority of the industrial facilities were scatter throughout towns and villages. The Tambov workers were closely connected to land. The pre-war problems of the governorate’s agriculture consisted in the low level of technical equipment, work efficiency and crop capacity; it resulted in the prevalence of the subsistence economy with the improper organization of the territory, forced crop rotations, and the extensive production. Due to the war, industry and agriculture were experiencing the lack of the workforce, which became one of the key causes for the deep disruption in the economy. The author analyses the increase of speculation, and growth of the market prices on bread. It is noted that with the worsening of the economic situation in the country, the government intensified its interference into the economic life; however, it increased the uncontrollability of the economic processes. Scientific novelty consist in the attempt to solve certain issues which currently remain controversial: influence of the World War, mobilization of human and material resources for the army, importance of the government policy with regards to the working class and peasants on the example of Tambov governorate. The author highlights the negative effect of the war upon the functioning of the economy, and agriculture in particular, as well as the intensification of social differentiation and social tension in the village.
Ippolitov V.A. - Regulation of social structure of the Komsomol organization of the Central Black Earth Oblast at the initial stage of thorough collectivization pp. 226-242


Abstract: The author examines the following factors of regulation of social structure of Komsomol in the early 1930’s: collectivization, fight against “centering” of the union, strengthening of the brotherly-proletarian core. In the history of Komsomol of this little-studied period, the author notices a legitimate connection between the policy of the party and the criteria of social selection of those who entered the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League. The author comes to a conclusion that in the early 1930’s that the ideal characteristics of the members of Komsomol were considered proletarian-poor descent, commitment to the “general line of the party”, as well as membership in the collective farm (kolkhoz). The main sources for this article became the unpublished archive materials from the funds of State Archives of Public Political History of Voronezh Oblast and Tambov Oblast. It is demonstrated that the strict regulation of the party’s structure according to the class affiliation negatively affected the quality of the work of Komsomol. The scientific novelty consists in the reframing of the importance of social selection in the youth communist union.
World history: Eras and seasons
Bekishieva S.R. - The Treaty of Gulistan between Imperial Russia and Persia (Iran) of 1813: historical significance for Russia and Dagestan pp. 243-251


Abstract: The subject of this research is the peculiarities of the accession of Dagestan to Russia as a result of the 1813 Gulistan Treaty concluded between Imperial Russia and Persia (Iran). During this historical period the accession of Dagestan to Russia became possible due to the need to choose patronage by the people of Dagestan, because Dagestan historically appealed all neighboring states because of its advantageous geopolitical location. This became possible as a result of Russia’s flexible and long-term policy towards Caucasus, which was based on the economic incentives. The author uses n interdisciplinary approach that allows studying this topic from multiple perspectives. Examining the peculiarities of the accession of Dagestan and its rural communities to Russia, the author comes to a conclusion that these nuances emphasize the necessity for Russia to carry out its policy on Caucasus as a whole, and Dagestan in particular, which made its historical choice more than two centuries ago.
Regions of the world in the global historical process
Bekishiev A.A. - Dagestan within the strategic plans of the Russian Empire and Iran during the early 1740’s pp. 252-258


Abstract: The subject of this research is the historical events in Dagestan during the period of the early 1740’s, when the new heroic page has started in the history of Dagestan people associated with the fight against Persian hegemony. Towards the end of the Indian campaign, which infatuated Persian ruler Nader Shah, he was focusing on the Dagestan question. Dagestan had an advantageous strategic position, thus neighboring states were attracted to it. For more than two centuries, Dagestan was a “bone of contention” between Iran, Turkey, and Russia. Nader Shah’s Dagestan campaign of 1741-1743 that became one of the major military interventions of the Persian ruler, ended in an embarrassing failure. The enraged people of Dagestan in the face of fatal danger, were able to unite and fight back the mutual enemy. The heroic actions taken by the people of Dagestan against Persian invaders, alongside with the targeted actions of Russian related to the recognition of Dagestan as an important part of Russia’s policy on Caucasus, forced the army of Nader Shah to withdraw his army from Dagestan; this lead to the fact that the foreign policy orientation of the Dagestan people towards Russia became a reality.
Boltaevskii A.A., Pryadko I.P. - Peninsula conflicts: the Balkans in the early twentieth century pp. 259-268


Abstract: The Balkan region has long been a key in Eurasia. To him over the centuries gaze riveted the world's leading powers. But it was the beginning of the XX century. a continuous succession of local wars and delimitation of borders coined the term "powder keg of Europe". Ultimately, the events of those years were the beginning of the change of the underlying foundations of not only European but also the entire world civilization. Sarajevo shot was the beginning of a new era. The article reconstructs the events of a century ago on the basis of journalistic materials at that time, archival documents, modern research. Balkan knot led to large-scale fighting in the struggle for the redivision of the world. Most dramatically affected the First World Slavs: the war became Golgotha for Russia, Serbia, Bulgaria. Russia, like a phoenix, reborn in the Soviet Union, Serbia has lost himself in Yugoslavia, and Bulgaria received a second consecutive humiliating. The revival of the Slavs occurred only at the end of World War II.
Factors of historical development
Pletnikov V.S. - Discretion as one of the factors of state legal structuring and administration pp. 269-278


Abstract: In the introduction the author examines such aspect of the topic as the level of scientific development of the category of “discretion”. Later the author concentrates on the historical and modern examples of discretion related to the questions of state legal structuring and administration. A special attention is given to the public law, including the issues of discretion within the private legal relations. The main part of the research is completed with the demonstration of the issues of discretion pertaining to the questions of serving in military and law enforcement, as  two types of service that are subject to the effect of the unrestricted discretion. Among the main conclusions are the following: 1) category of “discretion” in the area of public legal relations did not receive a corresponding scientific and theoretical conceptualization; 2) discretion, depending on its nature, can have various manifestations; 3) in most cases, the processes taking place within the state legal structuring and administration in the past, as well as in the modern Russia, are predetermined by the discretion of  a particular individual, endowed with certain authorities, usually of state power.
Interdisciplinary research
Tsendrovskiy O. - The evolution of theory and practice of PR in the history of social communication pp. 279-337


Abstract: The author of the article attempts to determine the concept of the phenomenon of “public relations” and its internal borders, as well as to demonstrate its historical development and place within the modern society. For this purpose, the following goals are set: to gradually expound the history of persuasive communication and its main instruments (advertising, propagation, PR); during the course of the historical-social research, to revise and correct their definitions and common understanding; as a result of the analysis of the current state of social communication, to give practical recommendations for the advertising and PR and, as well as the forecast of their development in the nearest future. The author’s main contribution consists in postulating of the multi-component nature of public relations, which despite the absolutely predominant opinion, cannot be reduced to a single foundation. The author formulates three independent elements of public relations: informative, suggestive, and adaptive; and describes their origin, specificity, and concept. The author claims that the initial instrument of PR – the creation of special events with the powerful dramatic layer of semantics that are interesting and entertaining – gains a great significance and advantage over all other ways of communicational influence under the conditions of prevalence of the virus model of spreading information (horizontally, from user to user).
Sulimin A.N. - Nonlinear dynamics of the Russian political orders through a prism of historical process pp. 338-364


Abstract: The article considers of the evolution of the Russian political orders in historical process from the point of view of a synergetic paradigm. The author identifies historical types of the Russian political orders, considers nonlinear dynamics of their formation, the organization and degradation. The concept of the author argues that Post-Soviet Russia has gone through several microbifurcations and is in a phase of disintegration of the Soviet political order. By results of research the author refers to conditions and necessary factors of origin of a new political order in modern Russia.
Philosophy of history, historiography, chronology/source studies
Bredikhin V.E. - Problem of mobilization of finances of the Russian village during the World War I (1914-October of 1917) within the modern Russian historiography pp. 365-382


Abstract:   This essay presents the analysis of modern Russian historiography of the state fiscal policy and the local self-governance with regards to agricultural manufacturers during the period of the World War I. The object of this research became the conclusions of the scholars on various aspects of fiscal policy: tax structure; mechanism of collection of taxes; government projects on improving tax system; methods of carrying out tax campaigns; reaction of peasantry upon tax policy during the war period; fiscal role of peasant land community; socio-economic importance of tax reforms of 1916-1917; influence of the 1917 revolution upon tax discipline in the village. Scientific novelty is substantiated by the need for systematization of the latest scientific results in the conditions of the increased attention of the scholars to the issues of economic history of the WWI associated with its 100th anniversary. The author makes a conclusion on a low level of scientific attention of the modern Russian researches-agrarians towards the problems of taxation of peasants in Russia during the WWI; the fundamental scientific material is contained in the works on financial and tax history of Russia.
Auxiliary historical disciplines
Nilogov A.S., Bogdanova I.I. - What is the origin of the Roerich Dynasty? pp. 383-400


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the solution of the question pertaining to the origin of the Roerich dynasty, one of whom was the renowned Russian painter Nicholas Roerich (1874-1947). The object of this research is the bloodline of N. K. Roerich, and the object is his direct male bloodline, which has been studied based on the material of metric books of the St. Petersburg Central State Historical Archive. Despite the fact that the painter himself was leaning towards the concept that he takes his roots from the chronical Novgorod duke Rurik, the discovered archive documents allowed him to completely reject this Varangian hypothesis. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that for the first time into the scientific discussion were introduced the authentic metric records on the representatives of the Roerich dynasty who resided in St. Petersburg during the late XIX and the early XX centuries. As a modern objective method of research, the author proposes to use the genetic expertise in order to determine the Y-haplogroup of one or another male representative of the Roerich dynasty.
Ethnography and ethnology
Sopov A.V. - Reflections about the past and the future Cossacks pp. 401-415


Abstract: What is «Cossacks» in the past, what was it? At what stage of development it is now? What future awaits him? Whether we will permit «the Cossack question» from the theoretical point of view today? Exhausted if the development potential of the Cossacks? How do the dreams of the Cossacks of service to the motherland of Russia's modernization and development of civil rights-based society? In the given work these questions are mentioned, and also practical measures under the permission of «the Cossack question» in its present kind are offered.
Beliefs, religions, churches
Ioshkin M.V. - Unregistered religious congregations of Tambov Oblast: their influence upon youth (1958-1964) pp. 416-445


Abstract: The fight for youth always had high priority among the political, as well as religious communities, because it was considered as the fight for their future. Thus, it would be interesting to study the influence upon youth of such communities as the Subbotnik Jews, Khlysts, Molokan, and other officially unregistered groups. Analysis of the activity of the devotees of the untraditional religions in Tambov Oblast during the period of so-called “Khrushchev’s campaign against the Church” is first and foremost based on the materials of the Scientific Research Center of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the authorized representative of the Religious Cults Council of Tambov Regional Executive Committee. Method of retrospective inquiry was used to determine the prime causes of the activity of the religious communities during the researched period of time. For the first time the spectrum of recently declassified documents from the State Archive of the Socio-Political History of Tambov Oblast is introduced to the scientific discussion. The author comes to a conclusion that barely surviving themselves, all of the small religious congregations were still trying to increase their influence upon youth. Members of the illegal congregations were using the extremist calls that carried anti-governmental and anti-social sentiment. The distinctive feature of these religious groups was their orientation towards the social transformation of public.
Historical facts, events, phenomena
Sulimin A.N. - Soviet military advisers in North Korea during the Korean War of 1950-1953 pp. 446-457


Abstract: This article examines the role of the Soviet advisers in Korea during the Korean War. In the early 1950’s on the Korean Peninsula emerged the largest after the World War II armed conflict between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) and the Republic of Korea (South Korea). The Soviet Union positioned itself as a neutral side, however provided the North Korean armed forces with the Russian military advisers. For a long period of time the details of the Soviet participation in the Korean War was classified. The scientific novelty of this work consists in the fact that according to the modern historical researches written based on the declassified archive data, we can determine the details on the participation of the Soviet military advisers on the side of North Korea during the Korean War of 1950-1953. The author emphasizes that a significant contribution into the success of the North Korean armed forces was made by the Soviet ambassadors in Pyongyang, as well as Stalin who was coordinating their activity.
Doctoral Research: reviews
Efimovskikh V.L., Reutov V.P. - Feedback on dissertation of Gotsulenko Akelsey Viktorovich “Organizational Legal Bases of the Work of State Security Agencies in the Ural Region (1934-1941)” pp. 458-474


Abstract: This evaluation of the dissertation is dedicated to the analysis of organizational legal bases of the work of state security agencies in the Ural region during the period of 1934-1941. The state of knowledge on the state legal aspects of the history of establishment of the USSR state security agencies testifies that within the historical and juridical literature have been formed various and at times antipodal assessments of the work of this institution of the Soviet State. During the course of the dissertation, the author examines the peculiarities of the organization of the work of territorial branches basing on the intensity of manifestation of external and internal threats to state security; he also analyzes the system of normative acts that comprise the legal foundation of the work of the state security agencies. Despite of the existence of certain flaws noticed by the authors of this feedback, the dissertation of A. Gotsulenko represents an independent historical legal research, and the author deserves the conferment of a Ph.D. in Juridical Sciences on the specialty – theory and history of state and law; history of studied on law and state.
Smykalin A.S., Suroven' D.A., Nasibullin R.A. - Historical legal research on the US intelligence. Feedback on dissertation of M. Y. Dondukov pp. 475-499


Abstract: This work presents a feedback on the dissertation which is dedicated to the little-studied from the scientific prospective institution within the history of state and law – US intelligence. It is noted that based on the analysis of the new sources, the historical sequence of the establishment of this body within the mechanism of government administration of the country, can be examined. This article is based on the departmental evaluation of the doctoral thesis “Intelligence within the State Mechanism of the United States (historical legal aspect”. The authors thoroughly examine all the negative, as well as positive sides of this work, and note that the scientific novelty consists in the lack of the historical legal research of the establishment and development of the US intelligence within the Russian jurisprudence.  The author of the dissertation works with a large number of sources, the majority of which are foreign, and is for the first time introduced into scientific discussion.
Historical memory
Tsygankov A. - Historical memory about Tsaritsyn in the Soviet and post-Soviet processes of commemoration pp. 500-507


Abstract: This article presents the analysis of the processes of commemoration of the historical memory about the city of Tsaritsyn, which were carried out on the territory of Volgograd during the Soviet and post-Soviet eras. Based on the results of examination of various monuments – the results of the commemoration processes – dedicated to the history of Tsaritsyn – it is stated that there is a genetic correlation between the processes of commemoration and the perceptions on the nature of the history. During the Soviet time, which was dominated by the perception on the linearity of historical timeline and its progress, the history of Tsaritsyn integrated into the Soviet history after the October Revolution. As the result of this research, the author reveals that the working memory of the residents contains mostly the memories on the Battle of Stalingrad, which determines the historical value. During the post-Soviet time, existed the practice of conversion of the memory about the Red Tsaritsyn from accumulative into working memory mode, which greatly depended on the opportunity that was presented by the historical metanarrative. Due to rejection of the metanarrative, the memory on the pre-revolutionary Tsaritsyn could not be referred to as memory-trauma about the sacral battle, which led to the “breach” of the historical memory.
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