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Genesis: Historical research
Reference:

The system of Orthodox fasts in Russia as the means of deterring migration of peasants and the actions of rebel or bandit squads

Sennitskaya Elena Vladimirovna

Mater's Degree student of the Department of General Psychology and History of Psychology at Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University

630090, Russia, Nso oblast', g. Novosibirsk, ul. Tereshkovoi, 33, kv. 58

lenasen@ngs.ru

 

 

DOI:

10.25136/2409-868X.2020.12.31096

Review date:

20-10-2019


Publish date:

31-12-2020


Abstract.

The object of this research is the Orthodox fasts and customs that prohibited consumption of certain food products. The author examines the history of evolution of fasts, namely the circumstances of emergence of the first printed Charter (Typicon) in 1610; as well as compares the articles on fasts of the Typicons of 1610, 1633, and 1641. The article employs the following methods: 1) geophysical (comparison of the time of fasts with the periods of ice drift, high water, freeze-up, and agricultural cycles in Central Russia); 2) comparative-historical (reveals the logic of prohibitions and their development stages); 3) systemic (prohibition of certain food products is viewed an element of government policy aimed at prevention of migration); 4) ethno-psychological (substantiation of prohibitions); 5) linguistic (analysis of the texts of Typicon). The conclusion is  formulated that the system of fasts set by Typicon of 1610 served the following goals: 1) to consolidate the traditional agricultural practices; 2) to prevent the free movement of rebel bandit squads; 3) to create obstacles for independent sale of agricultural products by peasants and, thus benefit the feudales via wholesale purchase of peasant goods and their sale; 4) to hinder peasant transitions (serfdom). The hypothesis is advanced on the mechanism of enslaving peasants based on toughening the system fasts. The Charter of 1610 itself was passed due to imminent threat for the government Vasiliy IV Shuisky during the Time of Troubles for the purposed of reducing the influx of rebels and impede the transitions of peasants, which deprived the feudales of northern territories with less fertile lands were deprived of workforce, and thus the ability to equip the military at their own expense. The system of prohibitions implied the food obtained by hunting, so the peasants would move solely via river channels controlled by the government. The impact of such prohibitions may explain the irrational river routs Y. Pugachev instead of the road path to Moscow.

Keywords: fast of the apostles, Christmas Fast, Great Lent, peasant migrations, genesis of serfdom, food taboos, history of Orthodox fasts, Orthodox fasts, Dormition fast, Christianity
This article written in Russian. You can find full text of article in Russian here .

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