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Genesis: Historical research
Reference:

Language situation and law in Ancient Rus during the period of feudal fragmentation and foreign yoke

Akishin Mikhail Olegovich

Leading Scientific Associate, Laboratory of the humanitarian researches, Scientific Research Center of the Novosibirsk State University

630090, Russia, Novosibirskaya oblast', g. Novosibirsk, ul. Pirogova, 2

Akishin-MO@yandex.ru
Другие публикации этого автора
 

 

DOI:

10.7256/2409-868X.2016.2.17870

Review date:

05-02-2016


Publish date:

01-04-2016


Abstract.

This article examines the language situation in the Russian lands under the conditions of feudal disunity, Tatar-Mongol invasion, Golden Horde; the language situation in the southwest of Rus as a part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth is also being reviewed. The subject of this research is the legal regime of Russian and foreign languages, as well as the development of legal language in the Russian lands of the XIII – XV centuries and its lexical-semantic field. Within the historical legal science these questions have never been discussed, nor raised. Thus the author makes an attempt to fill this gap based on the interdisciplinary research. It is determined that the feudal fragmentation not only destroyed the state unity of Ancient Rus, but also led to the formation of different dialects of the Russian language as the official languages of the appanage principialities and veche republics. Under the conditions of the yoke, the Turkic-Tatar language became the state language of the Russian lands that were included into the Golden Horde; but at the same time, various dialects of the Russian language, as well as the Church Slavonic language were de facto recognized as official in the Russian lands by the conquerors. Restoration of statehood in the Ancient Rus lands was taking place under the different circumstances, which reflected on the language situation. Cultural identity of the Southwestern Rus, which in the XIV – XV centuries became a part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, has suffered to the most extent. The official language of this region became an artificially created “simple Russian speech”. In Novgorod and Pskov the language significantly differed by its local specificity.  Most success in restoration of statehood was reached in the Grand Duchy of Moscow, which led to the establishment of the legal language.

Keywords: Feudal fragmentation, Tatar-Mongol invasion, Golden Horde, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Official language, Legal language, Simple speech, Old Tatar language, Russian language, Church Slavonic language
This article written in Russian. You can find full text of article in Russian here .

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