Philosophical Thought - 3 2020
Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue 03/2020
Contents of Issue 03/2020
Methodology of philosophical learning
Gashkov S.A. - Subject and history: reasoning of Castoriadis on modernity in the context of this philosophical polemics (Heidegger, Ricoeur, Habermas) pp. 1-9

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2020.3.32349

Abstract: The subject of this research is the historical-philosophical and polemical context of philosophical reasoning on the history of French philosopher of Greek descent Cornelius Castoriadis (1922-1997). The philosopher builds a complicated polemical model that vividly responses to all attempts to determines society, being, history, and a human. Even such prominent philosophers of the XX century, such as M. Heidegger, J. Habermas. And P. Ricoeur, who do not show prejudice attitude towards philosophical knowledge, become subjected to critical analysis. The scientific novelty consists in attracting the new to the Russian audience historical-philosophical material, as well as a distinct attempt to reproduce of such polemics and debated that took place within the French intellectual environment of the late XX century. However, the author did not pursue the task of historical and biobibliographical description; the emphasis was made on the so-called return to the origins of the philosophy of history, revival of philosophical reasoning on history based on the examined material, demonstration of the complicated, aporetic, heterogeneous and heuristic nature of relationship between philosophy, humanities and social disciplines. The conclusion is made that the work of Castoriadis mostly represents philosophical criticism of theoretical grounds of humanities and social disciplines, rather than a poststructuralist philosophy of history; but this criticism, studied in the context of philosophical thought, acquires an independent scientific meaning.
Ontology: being and nihility
Demenev D.N. - Artistic will as the ontological basis of art pp. 10-24

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2020.3.32338

Abstract: The subject of this research is the artistic will as the ontological basis of art. In the process of comprehension of the nature of art as on object of research, emerges the problem of identification and determination of the ontological will with regards to arts as a fundamental factor in “conception” of an artful work. The will is an ontological link in the chain “author – willful acts – creative process – artwork”, which allows the latter to manifest from nothingness. This leads to understanding of the “relative mechanism of conception” of an artwork, which comprises the goal of the research. The scientific novelty consists in the thesis that two types of will coexist at the current stage of the development of art: will of a modern artist and artistic will (will to beauty). Due to the fact that the will of a modern artist doesn’t always shift him towards aesthetization of the environment, whole the artistic will is particularly aimed at aesthetization of the phenomena of surrounding reality, the author underlines the crucial difference between the two wills. The conclusion is made that the “artistic will” as an aestheticizing will or the will to beauty is the ontological basis of art.
Cycles and tides in the global world
Zhul'kov M.V. - Global revolution: consciousness and form of its manifestation pp. 25-43

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2020.3.31547

Abstract: This article explores the process of global revolution reflected in the globalization of consciousness and society. Human world faced the integration of two worlds – the information world of consciousness and thought, and the world of social reality. Consciousness and society correspond and complement each other. The concept of global revolution is defined as the revolution within consciousness, individual and global. Individual consciousness should endure the group flows of energy, reach more integrity, enhance moral component, which would create conditions for the formation of global consciousness. The research methods include the developed by the author concept of noospheric energitism; systemic, synergetic and energy-information approaches, as well as dialectics of fundamental principles of the existence. Global revolution encapsulates not only the revolution in consciousness, but also in forms of its manifestation, i.e. the forms of social reality. The incipient global consciousness needs a new environment, since it cannot manifest itself in the old forms. Social organization gives way to social orderliness, mobile and dynamic forms of self-discipline. The modern global reality is represented by the model of network mind-civilization , consisting of the planetary web of cities as civilizational centers, which hold the major changes, connected by material, energy and information circuit. This model explains the mechanism of unfolding a global revolution that unites civilizational and consciousness-based components, allows to adequately describe and understand the global revolutionary and evolutionary transformations within consciousness and other forms of social organization, plan and guide panhuman development, foresee risks and reduce the possible negative consequences.
Social philosophy
Zobkov R.A. - Social philosophy, philosophy of politics and ontological status of the concepts of power and law in Rene Guenons discourse pp. 44-57

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2020.3.32059

Abstract: This article explores the philosophy of politics, social philosophy and ontological status of the concepts of “power” and “law”. The author reviews the fundamental principles of Rene Guenon’s social philosophy: anthropological inequality, doctrine of “universal human”, methodology of organicism; examines his criticism of the modern bases of the society – egalitarianism, democracy, and equality; as well as analyzes the causes of “social chaos”. The article also discusses the ternary social stratification and its factors, division of society into Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Vaishyas and Shudras; analyzes the criteria “Namika” and “Gotrika” as the characteristics of an individual being. The study reviews the ontological essence of the “political” and its boundaries in the metaphysical-ontological system of Rene Guenon’s discourse; archetype “Manu” and its connotations, functions and comparisons. Comparative juxtapositions of the principles Brahatma, Mahatma and Mahanga in Hermeticism and Christianity, and their social dimensions. The use of systemic-structural analysis allowed determining “Purusha” as a sociological dimension of a “universal human”. Ontological method demonstrated the holistic connotations of subject and society within Rene Guenon’s social organicism. Systemic-structural,  metaphysical and comparative analyses allowed comparing the primary duality of Carl Schmitt and Rene Guenon as the founding areas and aspects of the ontological. Analysis is conducted on the ontological essence of “power” and its splitting into “Spiritual Rule” and “Worldly Power”, correlation between metaphysical and ontological with these principles and their sociological manifestation within the Varna system. The author determines the interrelation of the positions of ultimate realism and ontological status of the universalities “political”, “law”, “social”, and “power”.
Popova A.V. - Internet as a network or hierarchical structure: concept of network in postmodern philosophy and social science of the late XX early XXI centuries pp. 58-67

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2020.3.32282

Abstract: This article is dedicated to philosophical analysis of the phenomena and concepts of network and hierarchy. In philosophy of the postmodern theoreticians, hierarchical structures are subjected to criticism. Thus, one of the brightest images of non-hierarchical organization – rhizome – was suggested by G, Deleuze and F. Guattari in the context of their opposition to the traditional hierarchical image of a tree, which was attributed by the philosophers to the basis of Western culture and civilization. Criticism of hierarchical organization is associated with “dissolution” of a subject. The article analyzes the current state of computer networks and Internet for correspondence to the concept of “network”. The theoreticians of postmodernism associate the promotion of the concept of network with the postmodern reconsideration of a subject, since from now on it does not originate culture, but is originated and inscribed into one of the multiple cultural texts, and none of these texts does not have an advantage over others. The task of retaining integrity of the subject is no longer inherently valued, since any value of the subject simultaneously means establishing the hierarchy of events and occurrences around it. Therefore, the reverse action to integration becomes dissolution, associated with spread of the concept of network. The perception of Internet as a network in philosophy and social sciences is based on the desire to find confirmation to the theoretical model of network. But the Internet in many ways reproduces hierarchical structure within itself, which leaves open the question on the existence of nonhierarchical structures.
Aesthetics
Fokeeva M.P. - Sublime in the aesthetics of trauma pp. 68-73

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2020.3.32311

Abstract: The subject of this article is the concept of sublime. The author examines which transformations has experiences the aesthetic theory of sublime since the XVIII century. In the context of aesthetics of trauma, sublime is a specific form of aesthetical experience that emerges in the context of encountering traumatic experience of the history, where the key concomitant affect is horror. The forms of sublime, associated with encountering the historical trauma, are immeasurable by their influence, as the scales of catastrophe cannot be assessed rationally, and the experience of historical violence discredits the possibility of subjective routine. Research methodology is structured on the philosophical-aesthetic approach. Which is based on analysis of the concepts of sublime and negative sublime. The author comes to the conclusion that sublime in the XX century experiences crisis related to reconsideration of the modernistic values. However, discipline associate with the aesthetic reconsideration of traumatic historical events – the aesthetics of trauma, rehabilitates the concept of sublime, because representation of the traumatic through referring to sublime, opens an opportunity to comprehend the traumatic experience and overcome it.
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