Электронный журнал Философская мысль - №2 за 2020 г. - Содержание - список статей. ISSN: 2409-8728 - Издательство NotaBene
Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 02/2020
Contents of Issue № 02/2020
Philosophy of science and education
Surovyagin D.P. - Reduction of term in scientific theory pp. 1-14


Abstract: The subject of this research is the concept of reduction in logics and methodology of science. On the one hand, reduction is understood as a relation between the term and its defining expression within the scientific theory; while on the other – it represents the relation between two theories. Since the extension of theory is possible through introduction to its vocabulary of new terms by means of nominal definitions, the reduction represents an inverse operation – removing the terms from the vocabulary of the theory. At the same time, the theory itself is defined in accordance with the theoretical-multiple approach as a class of sentences closed in relation to derivability. The scientific novelty consists in examination of semantic and epistemological aspects of the formal definition of reduction. Particularly, the explication of reduction relation between two theories leans in the concept of functional equivalence of the theories. It is established that the list of basic terms of the theory can be set only conventionally. All terms introduces by the means of nominal definitions turn out to be reducible. Therefore, a distinctive feature of theoretical terms is the possibility of its reduction.
The new paradigm of science
Zheltikova I.V. - Research into future and role of the concept “the image of future” therein pp. 15-32


Abstract: This article reviews the research approaches, the object of which is future as an element of relevant social reality. The author familiarizes the Russian audience with such trends in studying future as “realization of future”, “orientation towards future”, “foresight”, “projectivity”, “futures literacy”, “anticipation”, and “image of future”. An original interpretation is given to the concept “image of future” as a reflective of collective representations of future that imply a complete or almost complete picture, but yet non-existent social reality.  The author examines the existing methodologies for studying the images of future and proposes the original one – comprehensive humanity analysis, which allows finding common denominator of social expectations in various types of sources. Unlike other angles of viewing the representations on future, the image of future enables reconstructing the pictures of future that functioned in the past, ant correlate them with realistic future. Examination of the image of future allows assessing the inclusion of society into time perspective, its attitude towards the present, level of content with reality, as well as particularize the perceptions of the purpose of social development and social values, within which it exists. Studying the images of future functioning in the past can also help to understand the connection between representations on future and future itself; and in case of establishing such connection it can be extrapolated upon the images of the future of our present and our future.
History of ideas and teachings
Gorokhov P.A., Yuzhaninova E.R. - Philosophical representations on evil in the works of classicists of German idealism pp. 33-52


Abstract: The object of this research is the philosophical heritage of German idealism, while the subject is the philosophical views of the prominent representatives of German idealism upon evil and its dialectical correlation with the good. The article solves two key problems: 1) analyze and compare the views of classicists of German idealism upon the essence and main manifestations of evil; 2) determine the genesis of the views of Kant, Hegel, Fichte and Schelling, as well as the ways and degree of their influence upon further development of perceptions on evil within world philosophy. Research methodology is based on the historical-philosophical and comparative-historical analysis, culturological approach, and philosophical comparativism. The representatives of German idealism associated a range of negative in the ethical aspect qualities with a human. Their reasoning on good and evil were tightly related with comprehension of socio-historical problems of the past and modernity. Evil was viewed as an essential consort of social progress, while overcoming of evil by each individual was understood as a booster of spiritual growth and improvement. In evolution of views of the European philosopher on the nature of evil, the author clearly traces the genetic link from Jakob Böhme through fundamental works of the classicists of German idealism to the writings of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, who synthesized and advanced to a new artistic and intellectual level the ideas of European philosophy.
Philosophy of science
Iashin B.L. - Paradoxes in scientific cognition and nonclassical logics pp. 53-64


Abstract: The subject of this research is the scientific paradoxes and such means for its resolution as nonclassical logics. The author defends a thesis that paradoxes often stimulate the scientific development. It is demonstrated that most vividly the problem of paradoxes manifested in crises in the fundamentals of mathematics; the attempts for its resolution in many ways contributes to the emergence of nonclassical logics. It is substantiated that nonclassical logics helped to resolve and explain the paraded occurring in scientific cognition. Comparative analysis is conducted on the capabilities of  three-valued “quantum logics” of Garrett Birkhoff and John von Neumann and “logics of complementarity” of Hans Reichenbach. Potential of the three-valued logics of D. Bochvar and nonclassical systems of A. Zinoviev in resolution and explanation of logical paradoxes, as well as importance of temporary logics of G. H. Wright for the philosophy of science is revealed. Special attention is paid  to the paraconsistent logics. The author determines two points of view in understanding of their essence and value for science and philosophy, which juxtaposition shows that none of them fully complies with the actual state of affairs. The main conclusion consists in the statement that paradoxes of scientific cognition should not be assessed just negatively; they also carry a positive meaning: detection of paradoxes in the theory testifies to the need for their elimination, more detailed research and stricter approach towards development of the theory, which in solution of this task can be accomplished by nonclassical logics.
Philosophical anthropology
Rusakov S.S. - Ideas of F. Nietzsche in the context of the concept of subjectivation pp. 65-72


Abstract: The subject of this research is the link between the concept of human in the works of F. Nietzsche and the concept of subjectivation proposed by M. Foucault. The author meticulously describes the problem of seeking the element of the concept of subjectivation in writings of the German philosopher, and demonstrates why F. Nietzsche should be referred to as one of the main critics and reformers of classical concept of a subject. Special attention is paid to correlation of the early and late works of the German critic, which intertextuality leads to understanding of the wholeness of Nietzsche’s doctrine and consistency of his views upon the problem of a human. It is underlined that some of his works feature the practices of self, similar to the classical and Christian culture of self-nurturing. The article applies critical, comparative and intertextual method of analysis of the works of F. Nietzsche and some of his interpreters. The main conclusion lies in establishment of the link between the criticism of Platonism, Christianity and gnoseology of Modern Age through determination of strict sense of human as a subject and his connection with the world reflected in the works of Friedrich Nietzsche. Despite his disagreement with multiple classical and Christian philosophers, he acknowledges some ethical and individual practices proposed by them within the framework of the concept of subjectivation.
In memoriam
Gorelik K.V., Grechanyi S.V. - To the memory of philosopher V. V. Grechany (1940-2019) pp. 73-78


Abstract: Obituary for the rubric “In memoriam”: to the 80th anniversary of the Doctor of Philosophy, Professor V. V. Grechany.  February 11, 2020 would have mark the 80th birthday of the prominent Russian philosopher, leading scholar in the area of axiology, Doctor of Philosophy, Professor Vyacheslav Vasilievich Grechany. He died just a few month before his jubilee, on May 20, 2019. The article provides an overview of scientific and pedagogical activity and fundamental scientific works of V. V. Grechany. The author examines the fields of his scientific writings, first and foremost, axiological problematic: values, system of values, value attitude of human towards the world; as well as other paramount areas of study, such as philosophical anthropology, linguistic pragmatics, ethics, political ethics, and concept of practical humanism.
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