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Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 12/2020
Contents of Issue № 12/2020
Philosophy of knowledge
Levin G.D. - Gnoseological research of geometric (by origin) method of analysis and synthesis pp. 1-14

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2020.12.34503

Abstract: The subject of this research in the method of finding proof of theoretical hypotheses based on their content. It demonstrated that historically this method emerged in geometry, and thus is called geometric (by origin) method of analysis and synthesis. Then it was shifted to mechanics by Galileo, and later to other sciences, never obtaining the status of the universal method for confirming theoretical hypotheses. The author conducts gnoseological analysis of this method. First, gnoseological analysis of the three initial forms is carried out on the basis of the three elementary geometric theorems. Then description is given to qualitative transformations that followed its transfer to other sciences. The author discusses the correlation of this method with the classical method of analysis and synthesis, as well as with experimental and hypothetical-deductive method. The main conclusion consists in the thesis that in accordance with its gnoseological status, the method of geometric (by origin) analysis and synthesis is on the same level as the classical method of analysis and synthesis, as well as experimental and hypothetical-deductive method. The author’s special contribution lies in substantiation of the thesis that with the development of science, this method of geometric origin was generalized to the method of finding proof of any theoretical hypotheses. Determination of qualitative changes that occurred in terms of its transfer from geometry to special sciences has an important methodological meaning. The author notes the role of idealization in the process of shifting into theoretical description of researched objects the results of practical actions with them.
Aesthetics
Dai C. - Philosophical-aesthetic reflection in China in the century: Wang Guowei and Zong Baihua pp. 15-29

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2020.12.34614

Abstract:  This article is dedicated to examination of the philosophical-aesthetic reflection in China in the XX century, and the impact of European aesthetics upon the development and transformation of the traditional Chinese aesthetics. The article employs the method of historical and cultural with elements of structural analysis of aesthetic text of the modern Chinese philosophers. In the XX century, a number of Chinese thinkers made attempts of reforming the traditional Chinese aesthetics, complementing it with the viewpoint of European philosophy. The article examines the paramount aesthetic thoughts of the modern Chinese philosophers Wang Guowei and Zong Baihua, and determines the impact of European philosophy upon them. The scientific novelty of this study lies in assessing the impact of the concepts of European aesthetics upon self-reflection and development of Chinese aesthetics in the context of cross-cultural problematic. It is demonstrated that Chinese modern aesthetics in many ways retains its connection with the tradition, which determines its specificity and imparts peculiar semantic symbolism. The conclusion is made that in the XX century, Chinese philosophers sought to complement the existing traditional Chinese reflection on art, which is based mostly on the ideas of Taoism and Buddhism, with what can be referred to as the Western viewpoint, associated with a scientific approach and scientific interpretation. Another vector in the area of humanistic understanding of the phenomenon of art was related to the attempts of interpretation of the European aesthetic thought from through the prism of Chinese traditional philosophy. The philosopher Wang Guowei tried to incorporate the European aesthetics into the scientific problematic of China. The philosopher Zong Baihua wanted to synthesize the Chinese and European aesthetic theories, and create what he believed is the modern Chinese aesthetics. 
Philosophy of science
Fedorin V.V. - Human genetic modification: prospects, inevitability, and the question of moral-ethical justification pp. 30-41

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2020.12.34403

Abstract: The subject of this research is the genetic engineering of a human, risks it produces, prospects, and moral-ethical aspects. Technological progress inevitably leads to infiltration of cultural sphere into human corporeality through genetic engineering. The development of innovative technologies in the area of manipulation with the genetic code necessitates to choose how these technologies would be used. In this regard, there is a possibility of transition towards a new type of corporeality, not limited by biological predetermination alone, but rather culturally substantiated, being a result of implementation of the human-created project, which underlines the need for socio-humanitarian analysis conducted in this article. Viewing medicine as one of the fields of culture allows concluding that humanity to some extent has already faced certain projection with regards to human corporeality. In this aspect, medicine manifests as a tool for implementation of the project of a “healthy human”, and genetic engineering, as its part, would inevitably implement this project, and gradually expand the field of culture and fulfill the project of an “improved human” as a natural advancement of the idea of expansion of freedom through modification of corporeality.
Information and ideas
Tuzovskii I.D. - Post-truth as a syndrome of Digital Age: ultimate understanding of the phenomenon and scenarios of the future pp. 42-60

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2020.12.34257

Abstract: The subject field of this research is the combination of cultural phenomena, which correlate with the initially highlighted concept of “post-truth” through generalization of its criteria. The traditionally narrow understanding of post-truth is associated with news reports of mass media. However, the distortion of actual picture, using the techniques of heuristic rhetoric and mechanisms that instigate cognitive biases is a more common situation in modern society, which unites various communication phenomena, touches upon news and everyday communication, artistic endeavor, and many other areas. The specific subject of research is the range of possible scenarios of social development depending on its response to proliferation of the phenomena that comprise the cultural-communication complex of “post-truth”. This article is the first attempt of scientific summary of the phenomenal picture of post-truth based on the competent expansion of the criteria from the partial instances to the general mechanisms. Partial criteria, such as neglecting objective factors in the report, appeal to human values and ideologies, use of emotional pressure for substantiating own opinion, the author replaces with the general: media distortion of reality as a goal of report, use of cognitive biases, use of mechanisms of heuristics. Based on the highlighted criteria, the author analyzes the question of semantic and cultural correlation with post-truth of such as the phenomena as the fan theories of two types, litbaits, pop science, folk history, astroturfing, fan fakes, clickbaits, narrative journalism, etc. Scientific novelty also consists in outlining the possible scenarios for social development and its communication environment depending on the strategies of response to expansion of the sphere of post-truth.
The dialogue of cultures
Mishchenko I.E. - Representation of the images of army and military man in the U.S. mass cinematography of the 2010s pp. 61-75

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2020.12.34522

Abstract: The author explores the problematic of the images of army and military in mass cinematography on the example of U.S. film industry of the second decade of the XXI century. The object of this research is the sociocultural representation of army and war via expressive means of cinematographic art. Within the Russian science, this problematic is poorly studied; at the same time, its relevance cannot be overestimated, since cinematography is an important component in formation of “soft power” of the country. According to the testimony of numerous Russian experts, namely cinematography of the United States has highest impact potential and forms mental images of the army and military not only among the U.S. citizens, but also for the Russian society, which always triggers questions related to the cultural aspects of national security. It is worth noting that modern U.S. military cinematography becomes the special subject of scientific research for the first time. The author comes to the conclusion that in the recent decade, U.S. film production in military genre has undergone substantial transformations. The films on the World War II and the Vietnam War are replaced with the films on global war on terrorism and local national conflicts. Among other peculiarities of recent years in U.S. military cinematography, the author notes female film directors in this sphere, personification of the images of enemy, deconstruction of the image of military man as a mythological defender and rescuer. The latter noticeably contradicts the Russian film tradition and culture, for which the army and military history remain the important points of national self-identity, key components of formation of images of the great past and common future.
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