Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue є 07/2019
Contents of Issue є 07/2019
History of ideas and teachings
ISAEVA O. - Modification of philosophical ideas of classical Eurasianism in the artistic heritage of A. G. Dugin pp. 1-10


Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of the original ideological-philosophical direction among White Émigré of the 1920’s – 1930’s – classical Eurasianism and its modern interpretations. The subject of this article is the socio-philosophical ideas and principles of classical Eurasianism, as well as their transformation in neo-Eurasian doctrines. Within the framework of this research, the author focuses on the development of Eurasian ideas in the teaching of A. G. Dugin. The main content of the philosophical doctrine of classical Eurasianism is revealed, The author also highlights and analyzes the basic concepts and theses of the Eurasian doctrine that underlied their social project and were reflected in the concepts of A. G. Dugin: Russia-Eurasia, developmental space, symphonic personality, communal spirit (“sobornost”), pan-Eurasian nationalist, autarchy. The scientific novelty consists in reconstruction of a range of positions in the philosophy of classical Eurasianism, as well as neo-Eurasian ideas of A. G. Dugin; comparison of their philosophical ideas and views; determination of the common along with incompatible aspects in their views. It is demonstrated that A. G. Dugin centered his attention just on the development of geopolitical ideas; the projective considerations of the thinker do not have philosophical substantiation.
Vavilov A.V. - Subject without ontology and oblivion on existence: Heidegger reads Descartes. Part I pp. 11-21


Abstract: This article presents the analysis of Martin Heidegger’s critical reading of the philosophical system of Rene Descartes in the contexts of fundamental ontology and existential-historical thinking as the two pivotal stages of Heidegger’s philosophical path. Since the early lectures until the late seminars, the German philosopher consistently referred to Descartes, seeing in the Cartesian mediations the philosophical substantiation of subject-centrism as the new beginning in history of metaphysics, characterized by drastic change in the essence of truth and new role of human in the world. Contemplating on Heidegger’s texts through analytical and hermeneutical approaches along with the method of historical-philosophical reconstruction, the author turns particular attention to the conceptual solutions of the German thinker on determination of Descartes’ metaphysical position as the key pattern defining the entire further philosophizing, including the thought of Nietzsche and phenomenology of Husserl. For the first time in scientific literature this article explicates and analyzes not only the evident conceptual grounds of Heidegger’s critical attitude towards Descartes’ system, but also the hidden agenda of his polemics with the French philosopher. The author reveals the theoretical principles of Heidegger’s convergence of Descartes with Husserl, and later with Nietzsche. The author draws a conclusion on the continuity and gradual amplification of criticism of the Cartesian philosophy by Heidegger, which subject-centrism manifests as the major “obstacle” on the way towards the truth and gleam of existence.
Philosophy of liberty
Yurasov A.A. - Critical analysis of I. KantТs concept of free will pp. 22-36


Abstract: The subject of this research is Immanuel Kant’s concept of free will. The article presents critical analysis of this concept and demonstrates its ambiguity. Special attention is given to Kant’s teaching on the transcendental and practical freedom, as well as the concept of the autonomy of will. If during precritical period, Kant adhered to the traditional compatibilism, then during critical period, the philosopher created compatibilistic concept of the new type. Its distinction from his previous views is defined by the idea of independence of the free will from external circumstances. Research methodology synthesizes the historical-philosophical reconstruction of the Kant’s concept of free will with the critical conceptual analysis of its main principles. The article demonstrates the invalidity of opinions of the researchers who attempted to show that Kant advocated incompatibilism. The difficulties faced by Kant’s concept of free will relate to ambiguity of his perceptions on the thing in itself, autonomy of will, as well as improper substantiation of the thesis and antithesis of the third antinomy. The incorrectness of Kant’s teaching on the autonomy of will has a range of aspects: 1) impossibility to release the idea of universal legislation from the idea of the autonomy of will; 2) inaccuracy of the teaching on categorical imperative; 3) groundlessness of the opinion that only moral acts are free; 4) cognitivism; 5) ambiguity of Kant’s perception on the definition of will.
The dialogue of cultures
Voronina O.A. - Multiculturalism: politicization of cultural differences or the path to dialogue pp. 37-48


Abstract: The subject of this research is the contradiction between the principle of preserving cultural diversity, supported by the concept of multiculturalism, and personal rights to moral autonomy and choice of cultural identity. The relevance of this topic is justified by the need for pursuing ways to overcome conflicts arising from such cause. In the world of global transformations, an individual involved into transnational networks cannot be locked only within the confounds of his national culture. However, in parallel to globalization takes place the process of glocalization, aimed at preservation of the national ethnic culture in its traditional version. This situation escalates especially due to the growing migration flows and formation of ethnocultural enclaves. The problem is studied on the basis of scientific implications of the philosophy of culture, cultural anthropology and social philosophy in the context of relativistic methodology. The author analyzes the data from a range of political and socio-philosophical research conducted by the national and foreign authors. The scientific novelty consists in the comprehensive consideration of multiculturalism. This allowed demonstrating that the concept leans on the limited understanding of culture as a set of ethnic norms, principles and traditions, and does not take into account the philosophical understanding of culture as a semiotic system forming the profound values. Negative consequences of such approach are illustrated on the example of discussions unfolded around wearing hijab in Europe. The conclusion is made that the dialogue between cultures is possible upon the condition of accepting the common ground to recognize the values of preservation of national traditions; and such instrument can become the concept of human rights. Such approach eliminates the essential contradiction between the collective rights of ethnoses to preservation of the distinction of their cultural traditions, as well as the personal rights to cultural identity and moral autonomy.
Philosophical anthropology
Khlebnikova O. - Gender discourse of the Good in the context of modern nonclassical philosophy pp. 49-59


Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of the separate principles of philosophical problematization of the classical topic of Good by the modern gender discourse. Particular attention is turned to interaction between the basic theses of gender discourse and the global presumptions of nonclassical philosophy. The article reviews the vectors of the relevant gender deconstruction of the concept of Good, grasped as a relative scale of all future ontological certainties. The author reveals critical potential of the category of “gender” in correlation to reflection with regards to indifference of “Self, otherness of the female if compared to male, pursuance of the new forms of sociocultural representation of a human. The foundation of the conducted analysis is the postmodernist paradigm with its core idea of the need for drastic deconstruction of the signature cultural meanings. The scientific novelty of the author’s approach consists in demonstration of the essence of gender discourse as a version of nonclassical conceptualization of the continuity of life occurrences. The author’s special contribution lies in studying the establishment of gender representations on insignificance of the Good as an existential model, producing reevaluation of the perception of Good as a measure of sufficiency and God as a repressive instance. The article describes the interaction of gender discourse with the modern socio-critical and psychoanalytical theories of the pathological essence of rationality. The author reveals the logics of perception on the possibility of true deliverance of a human through his gender-based corporeality. The conclusion is made on the ambiguous character of the impact of gender discourse upon the stereotypes of socially important sensemaking.
Philosophy and culture
Lapatin V.A. - From life tragedy to cultural tragedy: interpreting F. Nietzsche intellectual heritage pp. 60-69


Abstract: The subject of this research is the correlation between the teachings on tragedy in the early period of philosophical writings of F. Nietzsche and his later criticism of the contemporary of European culture. It is noted that tragedy within the framework of Nietzschean philosophy is a broader concept that the genre of dramatic art, attaining the meaning of the cultural category and manifesting in the three interrelated aspects: life tragedy, scenic tragedy and cultural tragedy. The author demonstrates how in the context of studying the three types of tragedy, F. Nietzsche determines the origins of the future decline of European civilization back in Antiquity, reflected in the fact that the Apollonian beginning of culture expels the tragic worldview in Ancient Greece characteristic to Dionysianism. Pessimistic views of F. Nietzsche upon the European culture implied pursuing of ways to overcome the crisis. The scientific novelty consists in the ability to assess the Nietzschean ideological heritage on the topic, considering the historical transformations and current realities. The author comes to the conclusion that despite having the admittedly strong sides, cultural criticism of F. Nietzsche has not always been fair to Apollonianism; as well as demonstrates why Dionysianism cannot become a decent means of renewal and restoration of culture.
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