Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue 06/2019
Contents of Issue 06/2019
Frontiers and theories of knowledge
Sorokin R.V. - Post-nonclassical certainty and the basis of structural organization of knowledge pp. 1-12

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2019.6.30310

Abstract: This article turns to one of the key gnoseological problems – the problem of “knowledge”. In the context of the ongoing transition from nonclassical scientific rationality towards post-nonclassical, the author assets the existence of value component of the modern scientific (scientific-philosophical) knowledge. The common to post-nonclassical rationality representation on irrecoverability of the value component of knowledge, confronts the scientific-philosophical rationality and the known modern ideas of relativism, skepticism, pluralism, and postmodernism. In this aspect, the post-nonclassical approach to knowledge is revealed as a topical general philosophical problem of the basis of modern public functioning and development. Therefore, the subject of this research becomes the epistemological specificity and public perspectives of post-nonclassical definition of knowledge. Research methodology leans on the methods of analysis, synthesis, abstraction, idealization, comparison, generalization, systematization, historical-logical method, system approach, hermeneutics and heuristics. The conducted analysis leads to acceptance and recognition of the theoretical productivity of post-nonclassical assertion of the value basis of knowledge. It is revealed that the current and future impact of relativism, skepticism, pluralism and postmodernism is directly attributable to an ultimate focus of modern civilization on ensuring decent and free life of the people. It is underlined that the responsible for emergence, functioning and development of modernist civilization knowledge loses its worldview significance. The modern monistic scientific-philosophical tradition must constantly confirm the leading role in social life in the context of equitable communication on all important questions with all other traditions and points of view.
Spectrum of consciousness
Ivanov E.M. - Deadlocks of naturalistic theories of mind and the way out pp. 13-38

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2019.6.30360

Abstract: The subject of this research is the mind-body problem, its naturalistic and non-naturalistic interpretations. In light of this, the author examines the based problems of the philosophy of mind, which solution within the framework of naturalistic approaches to the problem of consciousness, problem of nature of individuality of the “Self”, and problem of “casual ability” of phenomenal mind. The author also explores the problem of the “reduction of wave function” in quantum mechanics for the purpose of determining the correlation of this problem with the basic questions of the philosophy of mind. Methodology is based on the principle of interdisciplinary synthesis, viewing the related issues of the philosophy of quantum-relativistic physics and philosophy of mind. The author demonstrates the possible constructive solution of fundamental problems of the philosophy of mind beyond the naturalistic paradigm in the context of authorial concept of “consciousness in quantum world”, which represents a modernized version of the interpretation of quantum mechanics of Everett-Mensky. The study substantiates the idea of the existence of extrasomatic component of the function of consciousness, associated with the “insight” mechanism and long-term memory.
History of ideas and teachings
Tolkachev P., Davtyan T.A. - Hermeneutics of history of Paul Ricœur: two techniques for interpreting the past pp. 39-55

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2019.6.30134

Abstract: Referring to the two key for Ricœur’s hermeneutics interpretation techniques – philosophical and historical. This article attempts to reconceive the problematic of isolation/proximity of philosophy and historical discipline, considering such methodological changes that determines the formation of historical knowledge in the second half of the XX century. The author assumes that the discernible trend within the modern historical discipline of constant methodological revision of communicative systems allows redefining the critical attitude of hermeneutics towards the unified consumer technologies of the “past”. Research methodology contains the general historical-philosophical analysis of various approaches of the historical disciplines to the concept of the philosophy of history, as well as application of interdisciplinary approach to determining the role of hermeneutics in social sciences. The author reveals the importance of hermeneutics in refocusing of historical discipline from the traditional course towards the communicative theory, which prefers a metaphorical form of the dialogue with the past, rather than its unidirectional research. Based on the criticism of historicist and eschatological approaches to history, the author demonstrates the formation of Ricœur’s ethical position in relation of the aforementioned question. In view of this, the author analyzes the concept of “good subjectivity”.
Philosophy of religion
Efimova L.N., Shekhireva N.A. - Philosophical-religious parable The Great Divorce The Idea of Salvation as a centerpiece of C. S. Lewis poetics pp. 56-62

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2019.6.30215

Abstract: The subject of this research is the philosophical and religious-ethical views of the British writer, poet, mentor, scholar, and theological Clive Staples Lewis. The article examines the genre of philosophical-religious parable, analyzing the novel by C. S. Lewis “The Great Divorce”. Special attention is given to the parabolic beginning substantiate by chronotope of the composition “The Great Divorce”. It is worth noting that likewise any other parable, the author juxtaposes the spiritual time and biographical, actual time, wherein the first dominates over the latter. The conclusion is made that ethical position of C. S. Lewis consists in salvation through repentance, appeal to God, overcoming of own sinfulness; while the problem of human-world relationship is solved through the prism of Biblical representations about the role of each one of us in this world, as well as such freedom of choice that was granted by God to each human being. The scientific novelty lies in determination of multiple genre specificity of this oeuvre (parable, allegory, tale), which proves the extensiveness of the religious-aesthetic and literary-artistic views of C. S. Lewis.
Religions and religious renaissance
Urbanaeva I.S. - Introduction of meditation into Indo-Tibetan tradition in the context of gradual path of Mahayana pp. 63-74

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2019.6.30234

Abstract: The subject of this research is the Indo-Tibetan tradition of Buddhist meditation, viewed in the context of Indian and Tibetan Buddhist texts, as well as Tibetan oral tradition of Dharma transmission, realized in the past by Je Tsongkhapa, and currently by the 14th Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso and other Tibetan lamas. The goal lies in preliminary consideration of Buddhist mediation as a phenomenon of the Buddhist spiritual practice, an important element of practical functioning of the Teaching of Buddha, determination of the place of mediation in the Noble Eightfold Path, characteristics of its concept and types. The author uses hermeneutic approach that leans on the systemic view of the functional aspect of the Teaching of Buddha, as well as hermeneutic understanding of meditation phenomenon, etymological and contextual analysis of meditation in functional relation with Buddhist ethics and philosophy. The main conclusion consists in the thesis that meditation in Buddhism is one of the three basis practices (morality, focus, and wisdom), as well as an essential technique in exercising and developing higher wisdom, and therefore a quintessential means for realization of Dharma. The Tibetan tradition practices two types of meditation – analytical meditation with such its variety as reflective meditation; as well as unidirectional focus.
Hermeneutics
Kuzmin V. - Ambiguity of understanding as the correlation between inner and outer context. Concept and marginal conditions of understanding pp. 75-87

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2019.6.30159

Abstract: The subject of this research is the phenomenon of understanding, associated with it ambiguity and meaning of the language elements (words, sentences or text). The author examines their dependence on marginal conditions, within which the understanding has taken place. Ambiguity of understanding, in turn, is justified by the dichotomy of intensional (actual) quality of language objects (words, sentences or text). Such quality is given within the inner context (through which the object prevails), but unfolds in regard to the subject within outer context using the corresponding marginal cognitions (natural paradigms). The process of understanding is perceived as a process of achieving completeness of conformity of the actual quality, set in the inner context, its manifestation in the outer context in regard to the subject. Based on phenomenological approach, the author determines the marginal conditions. The author describes the essence of hermeneutic circle, as well as interrelation between expectations and intuition. Understanding as a process always has two vectors of development: horizontal and vertical. This matters in learning. Depending on correlation between the marginal conditions and expectations of the subject itself, the author identifies the difference between possibility and probability of understanding. The scientific novelty consists in substantiation of the ambiguity of understanding through the dichotomy of intensional (actual) quality of language elements. Understanding and sense is examined depending on the accepted by the subject natural paradigms (marginal conditions of understanding). The article analyzes the dialogueness of understanding in communication between “Self” and Other, as well as the influence of marginal conditions in hermeneutic logics. The perceived idea behind the text or its part in communication is often deemed through interrelation of senses: subjective (understood by Self) and intersubjective (meant for understanding by the Other).
Philosophy of technology
Kim D.S. - To the question of the impact of scientific and technological progress upon formation of human ontology pp. 88-96

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2019.6.30055

Abstract: The subject of this research is the impact of scientific and technological progress upon comprehension of human ontology. Emphasis is made on the problematic related to the development of the relevant methodology for studying science and technology. It is ascertained that there is no general theory for considering the technological problem within the framework of modern civilization as an integrated whole of scientific-philosophical objectives. The author’s main contribution to the research consists in the statement that the establishment of ontological model of the universe at the current stage and in such form as deemed by the supporters of technocratism is merely possible. And due ti the fact that the elements of scientific understanding exist mostly on the level of collective consciousness and are speculative in their essence, the objective to modern challenges worldviews as the ethics have not been formed. The author analyzes the questions of human ontological orientation in the world based on scientific implications of the sociology of knowledge, cultural anthropology, and philosophy of technology in the currently topical relativistic methodology. The scientific novelty centers around the thesis that the greatest threat to mankind consists in the material transformation of the surrounding world; the uncontrollable process of technological development inevitably sets the new bars for cognition, entailing a significant transformation of the moral-ethical principles. Therefore, the author speaks not so much of the problem of “primacy” of ontology and gnoseology in human life, as the problematic of formation of the new ethical behavior models.
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