Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue 05/2019
Contents of Issue 05/2019
Philosophy of science
Poberezhnyi I.A. - Intuition in mathematics: from intuitivism of Henri Poincaré to intuitionism of L. E. J. Brouwer Hermann Weyl pp. 1-6

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2019.5.30076

Abstract: Leaning on the works of H. Poincaré, H. Weyl, A. Heyting, V. F. Asmus and other, this article demonstrates the correlation between the ideas of intuitivism of H. Poincaré and the ideas of intuitionism of L. E. J. Brower and H. Weyl. The subject of this research is the role of intuition in formation of the fundamentals of mathematical science. The author examines the state of mathematical science at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries, as well as the crises of the foundations of mathematics. The firs trend of the philosophy of mathematics pursuing to overcome this crisis became the Russell’s logicism – an attempt to form mathematics on the logical basis, excluding the intuitive elements. Leveling criticism at this trend, H. Poincaré develops a doctrine on the priority of intellectual intuition in the formation of mathematics. The article reveals the heuristic value of Russell’s ideas for both, the advancement of science, and comprehension of the nature of scientific creativity. The author describes their correlation with the ideas of H. Poincaré regarding the priority of intellectual intuition. The ideas of intuitionists, in turn, expressing the moods of scholars with humanistic reasoning, became a fruitful ground for the development of ontological and gnoseological foundations of mathematics.
History of ideas and teachings
Savintsev V.I. - Space and time in metaphysics of S. N. Trubetskoy pp. 7-14

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2019.5.30211

Abstract: The subject of this research is the analysis of the concepts of “time” and “space” in S. N. Trubetskoy’s concrete idealism. The object of this research is the Russian religious philosophy of the XIX-XX centuries. The author examines such aspects of the topic as the origin of temporal concept of S. N. Trubetskoy on the background of German idealism, English empiricism, positivism and voluntarism; substantive innovations introduced by the Russian philosopher into interpretation of these concepts; as well as the question of the feasibility of their implementation in realization of the gnoseological principle of  “universal compatibility of all that exists”. The author applies the traditional set of methods: philosophical reconstruction, system-structural analysis, hermeneutic and comparative methods. The following conclusions are made: space and time in the views of S. N. Trubetskoy have a real ideal nature of manifestation, which differs his approach from Kant’s and Solovyev’s; being the forms of sensuality, they, on the one hand,  “really” substantiate the unity of the world, and on the other – “ideally” present to the consciousness things in their diversity. The author’s special contribution into this research consists in the systemic analysis of dialectical approach of S. N. Trubetskoy in conceptualization of space and time. The similar specialized research dedicated to S. N. Trubetskoy’s concrete idealism has not been previously conducted.
Question at hand
Bezlepkin N.I. - Historical dialectics of L. P. Krasavin pp. 15-24

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2019.5.30118

Abstract: The subject of this research is the historical dialectics of L. P. Krasavin, which obtained its substantiation and application in solution of theoretical-methodological problems in his work “The Philosophy of History”. The author examines the fundamental metaphysical principles of pan-unity and trinity, based on which the philosopher substantiates the ontological and epistemological basis of historical dialectics. The article states that the philosophical-historical concept of Krasavin reflected the common to European and national thought attention to the subject of cognition, when the researchers focused not only on studying the interactions of human individuality with the surrounding world, but also how such interaction was implemented in knowledge, activity, and social existence of a human. Using the cross-cultural methodology, philosophy of polylogue, as well as the method revival of philosophical-historical heritage of L. P. Krasavin, the author determines the differences of Krasavin’s historical dialectics from the rationalistic dialectics of Hegel; presents the arguments of the Russian philosopher against application of the causal explanation in history, and dominance of “mechanistically-atomistic theories” within it. The revival of Krasavin’s historical dialectics allows revealing the complex dialectics of historical subject, which remains relevant to the present. The main conclusion consist in the scholar’s significant contribution to the establishment of nonclassical paradigm of the development of historical science, its alignment with the European concepts of historical cognition of B. Croce, W. Dilthey, the Annales School. The scientific novelty lies in substantiation of Krasavin’s contribution to formulation of the fundamentally new methodology of scientific cognition of the historical process, rising philosophy to the status of theoretical science, and imparting the creative-predictive character upon it.
Man and mankind
Koptelova T.I. - The phenomenon of the uncertainty of existence of a modern human within the paradigm of organic philosophy: comprehension and overcoming pp. 25-36

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2019.5.30028

Abstract:  The subject of this research is the problem of the uncertainty of existence of a modern human viewed within a paradigm of organic philosophy that overcomes contradictions emerging in mechanistic and dialectical comprehension of a human, nature and technology. Organic philosophy allows reconstructing various intellectual traditions in understanding of uncertainty of human existence as a loss of ability to adjust to the changing natural and cultural conditions. Restoration of the sustainable spiritual values and understanding of the meaning of human existence is essential for the future generations. The solution of the problem ontological, moral and natural uncertainty in the existence of modern human requires integration of the achievements of different sciences, unity of human reason, imagination and experience (organic combination of the various forms of cognition: science, art, and religion). Organic philosophy possesses a rich capability and experience of knowledge integration. The scientific novelty consists in examination of the problem of the uncertainty of human existence from the perspective of organic philosophy. Although the paradigm of organic philosophy helps overcoming contradictions between the material and spiritual components of nature and technology; combines the static language of classical science with the dynamic language of art; as well as integrates the religious Christian tradition with the intellectual achievements of materialistic worldview.  
Philosophy of liberty
Viazinkin A. - The phenomenon of Russian nihilism in ideological legacy of A. I. Herzen pp. 37-48

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2019.5.30228

Abstract: The subject of this research is the problem of “Russian nihilism”, developed in the philosophical works of Russian thinker Alexander Ivanovich Herzen. Placed in a more extensive context of revolutionary-democratic thought and philosophy of populism (Narodnichestvo), the phenomenon of “Russian nihilism” requires a profound gnoseological analysis. The results of this historical-philosophical analysis testify to the fact that the phenomenon carries rather philosophical-anthropological importance rather than socio-philosophical importance, as its core is the idea on the type of “nihilist”. Question about the genealogy of nihilist type aroused debates between D. I. Pisarev and A. I. Herzen, which became one of the key sources of interpretations of the “Russian nihilism” as a social and spiritual-cultural phenomenon of Russian civilization. The scientific novelty consists in considering the worldview of the Russian thinker through the prism of his aesthetic interpretation of nihilism. Russian nihilism is described as a polygenetic phenomenon of national culture, and Herzen as one of the ideological forerunner and inspirer of the “Russian nihilism”, Herzen synthesized the main problem of the Russian philosophy – liberation of man, with the idea of radical individualism (sovereign personality) and libertine. Based on a number of analytical theses, formulated in the article, Herzen’s worldview of the late 1940’s – early 1850’s is characterizes as “aesthetic nihilism”.
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