Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue 03/2019
Contents of Issue 03/2019
Religions and religious renaissance
Furtsev D.O. - History of establishment and functional meaning of the fasting in Judaism pp. 1-7

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2019.3.29618

Abstract: This article examines the tradition of temporary abstinence from food – fasting in Judaism. Its establishment relates to the evolution of Ancient Jewish community and the state, which took place over the course of many years. Certain disasters and tragic occurrences in life of the community or an individual served as the circumstances for fasting; there is also a system of permanent fasts for commemorating global scale events. The tradition of temporary abstinence from food in Judaism rarely become an object of research among the modern scholars, except several articles that carry a rather informative character. The article describes the dependence between the emergence of temporary abstinence from food and social, political, historical, and other circumstances. The author determines the role of fasting in life of a religious congregation. The conclusion is made on the objective factors of the appearance of fasting tradition in Judaism. The article can be valuable for further research of food traditions in Judaism, as well as in educational courses on Judaism.
Ontology: being and nihility
Faritov V.T. - The paths of Russian religious philosophy in light of the crisis of European metaphysics: S. N. Bulgakov and F. Nietzsche pp. 8-19

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2019.3.25722

Abstract: The subject of this research is the philosophical and religious views of S. N. Bulgakov in the context of crisis of the European metaphysics. The doctrine of F. Nietzsche is viewed as the sign expression of the crisis of European metaphysics. The author conducts a comparative analysis of the conceptual development of S. N. Bulgakov and F. Nietzsche; as well as the views of both thinkers upon the questions of God, Christianity, culture, history, and humanity. Special attention is given to the questions of ontology, pursuing correlation between the philosophers’ approaches towards solution of the problem of existence, unity and diversity. The article apples the methodological principles and patterns of philosophical comparativism, semiotic analysis, and approaches of ontological research. The main conclusion lies in the thesis on the proximity of conceptual horizons and initial situation of the formation and evolution of the philosophical and religious ideas of S. N. Bulgakov and F. Nietzsche. The author underlines that the main intention in the doctrines of both philosophers is the vector towards overcoming the gap between transcendent and immanent. Although, there are crossing points in their views, both philosophers take different paths, trying to decipher the crisis of European metaphysics.
Space and time
Spektor D.M. - The sense of time. Preliminary notes pp. 20-33

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2019.3.26924

Abstract: This article reviews the ideas of transcendentalism mainly in the context of temporality. As each now exists (truly), conforming with the idea (prototype), in a simply existent it remains in “gray zone” of yet not being (undetermined veracity); its identification, representing “endowment with being” unfolds in space and time; in such relation, appropriate become a question on the nature of the factors of anamnesis, which outside the comparison with “prototype” (correspondingly, regulation and procedures of determining the veracity of the idea of such comparison)  cannot be established. This leads to actualization of the alternative paths of the ontology of anamnesis: whether it can be realizes in the “empirical” forms of space and time, or in the imposed conditions of anamnesis itself, which (as its transcendental figures) include space and time (determination of veracity of space and time). The reconstruction of analytical approaches towards temporality, conducted in accordance with the signified pattern, notes the hypostatized forms of time (perception, realization) to the detriment of its (form) content; the latter (content of universality of form of time) in this regard reveals in the main areas of identification (phenomenology) and (historical) sources (immanent basis of transcendental factors) of perception.
Social dynamics
Goncharov V.V. - Socio-historical conditions of the emergence and development of global constitutionalism pp. 34-45

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2019.3.19750

Abstract: This article analyzes the socio-historical, socio-political, and socio-legal conditions of the emergence and development of global constitutionalism as a social concept over its main stages:-  the stage of formation of the social concept of global constitutionalism, determination of its framework characteristics, and formulation of the universal democratic values;-  the stage of establishment of international and supranational political-legal institutions, manifesting as the unified executive centers of regulation and control;- the current stage of the development of social concept of global constitutionalism, consisting in the forcible export of the values of constitutional democracy in planetary scale.The author believes that global constitutionalism as a social concept is mediated by certain socio-historical conditions of the emergence and development (socio-economic, socio-political and historical-legal), which in correlation and interdependence formed the basic requirements for this social concept, as well as determined the vector of its development.
Hermeneutics
Korotkikh V.I. - Hermeneutic aspects of I. A. Ilyins historical-philosophical concept (to the 100th anniversary of the book The Philosophy of Hegel as a Doctrine of the Concreteness of God and Humanity pp. 46-55

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2019.3.26491

Abstract: The subject of this research is the methodology and practice of the historical-philosophical activity reflected in the book by I. A. Ilyin “The Philosophy of Hegel as a Doctrine of the Concreteness of God and Humanity”. The author attempts to demonstrate that Ilyin’s concept contains the ideas that can be adequately understood considering the development of hermeneutics in the XIX-XX centuries. Special attention is given to Ilyin’s attitude towards romantic hermeneutics and the concept of “substantive understanding”. The research is based on a set of the traditional historical-philosophical methods, hermeneutic methodology, and the tradition of comparative analysis of historical-cultural phenomena. The article substantiates a thesis that the fundamental hermeneutic ideas of historical-philosophical concept of I. A. Ilyin on the need for independent vision of a subject that received reflection in the philosophical concept, and the necessity of reproducing the “soulful-spiritual” experience of the philosopher, as the conditions for understanding his doctrine, connect only through the method of “consciousness' experience” formulated in the “Phenomenology of Spirit”.
Philosophical anthropology
Novikova ?. - Game as a phenomenon of gender identification pp. 56-63

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2019.3.29527

Abstract: The subject of this research is game as a phenomenon of gender identification. In modern culture we can observe the transformation of gender models, their axiological parameters, and existential manifestations, One of the socio-cultural constructs of the formation of gender identity is the game, in which such existential manifestations of personal being, as love, freedom, spirituality, personal relationship with the world, yourself and others, are realizes with consideration of male and female principle. Despite multiple scientific works dedicated to this topic, its relevance is not subsiding, but reinterpreted with consideration of sociocultural, moral and mental, economic transformations and other basis of being. Synergetic approach, phenomenology of E. Husserl alongside the J. Huizinga’a theory of play allow determining the functional meaning of cultural transformation and self-organization of gender game for a human in everyday culture. The scientific novelty consists in attracting scholars’ attention to a particular type of game practices – a gender game and its transformation in the conditions of current information society. A modern gender game forms in the virtual and real world such human behavioral strategies that endow them with a sense of freedom, possibility to avoid the norms and rules in achieving his dreams and aspirations, as well as confirm their importance and harmonize their reality. Gender game in the virtual world plays outs the situations of priority choice, which expands the boundaries of personal and gender identification.
Philosophy and art
Sakurin A. - Surrealism as a response to cultural crisis of the early XX century pp. 64-70

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2019.3.29044

Abstract: This article examines the phenomenon of surrealism and its evolution until the 1930’s. The focus is made on the fact that the origination of surrealism is directly related to the cultural crisis at the turn of the XIX and XX century due to economic reasons of that period and the World War I. The author analyzes the trend of Dadaism, which significantly influence the key representatives of surrealism. The article explores the philosophy of Bergson and Freud; as well pays considerable attention to the persona of André Breton and his political views that largely affected surrealism. Methodology of this work is structured on the historical-cultural, comparative-historical, culturological, and philosophical analysis. As a result, the author was able to demonstrate that surrealism was way more than a cultural movement. It represented the philosophical concept that pursued a goal of social revolution, renunciation of anything old-fashioned and outdated. The previous capitalist society had to be replaced by a new classless society. Namely this was considered a recovery from the crisis.
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