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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 06/2018
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Учредитель: Даниленко Василий Иванович, w.danilenko@nbpublish.com
Главный редактор: Спирова Эльвира Маратовна, Doctor of Philosophy, elvira-spirova@mail.ru
Contents of Issue № 06/2018
The history of humanitarian science
Khadyev D.V. - Humanism and religion in the works of Johann Gottfried Herder pp. 1-8


Abstract: This article examines the concept of humanism of the German philosopher-enlightener J. G. Herder in the context of his philosophy of religion. The doctrine of this thinker presents interest as an important stage in the history of European freethought. Herder, being in the epicenter of German Enlightenments and actively participating in literary life of the country, has laid the foundation for the subsequent flourishing of the German thought. It significantly affected the establishment of liberal theology and distribution of the pantheistic ideas in Germany. Primarily on the materials of the mature works of Herder, particularly his fundamental composition “Outlines of a Philosophy of the History of Man”, the author attempted to identify the specific features of humanism of the German philosopher and refer him to a certain historical-philosophical type. The author concludes that Herder considered religion a product of anthropogenesis, i.e. the emergence and evolution of religion was viewed by him from the materialistic perspective. Supranaturalism is practically excluded. This point of the teaching puts the philosopher in well-known opposition to the Orthodox Christian doctrine. Freethought with regards to religion, however, does not make Herder an ardent anti-clerical and atheist. He finds in religion multiple positive aspects, as well as claims that the religious contemplation of the world is primary, and human culture takes its roots namely in religion. Although Herder’s teaching is not free from the religions elements as a whole, he defends human dignity, his right to happiness in earthly life, and therefore, his views can be characterize as the secular humanism.
Fates and outlines of civilizations
Ugrin I.M. - The problem of development of Russian civilization in terms of globalization pp. 9-22


Abstract: This research examines the problem of existence of the Russian civilization; however not from the usual perspective of the debates whether or not Russian is a separate civilization and its relationship with the European civilization, but rather from the perspective of the question about its evolution and transformation as a factor of such development. On one hand, the author demonstrate the scientific purposefulness of the use of civilizational approach for analyzing the current state of Russian society and state. On the other hand, civilizational approach is inseparably associated with the problem of historical development, which manifests in this article as a value imperative. Civilizational paradigm is not opposed to the idea of historical renewal, but couples with it; the historical development is understood as a process inscribed into the existential forms of local civilization, although not limited by them. The author comes to a conclusion that the only way out for Russia’s self-preservation under the established geopolitical, geoeconomic, and geocultural circumstances is the reference to the internal resources of civilizational development. However, such return is not a revival of the traditional institutions in forms of their existence in the past or simple reproduction of the traditional practices, but a renewal based on the creative response in the context of civilizational development (rather than strictly national or modernization), a renewal through the sociocultural evolution.
Space and time
Tolstukhin A. - R-I-G constructs for the logics of time pp. 23-32


Abstract: The subject of this research is the problem of stopping proof in modal logics, particularly the logics of time. Form consideration, the author selected the logics of tine with the linear transitive and dense time flow. One of the approaches in solution of the task at hand lies in application of the mosaic method, which essence consists in the presence of the finite set of fragments that can be added on towards the infinite model for proving the formula. The mosaic method allows structuring various computations, for example the R-I-G computations, which combines the mosaic method, loop-check procedure, and intuitive clarity of tabular computation. The research applies formalization in terms of describing the time flow, as well as deductive method of structuring the computation. The scientific novelty consists in introduction of an original approach towards solution of the problem of stopping proof within the logics of time. Leaning on the idea of mosaic method, the author suggests the computation of R-I-G constructs, which in virtue of its rules builds the end conclusion. Having complemented the systematic procedure with the saturation rules, an attempt can be made to acquire a saturated set of mosaics that manifests as a proof for the feasibility of formula.
Mysteries of the human being
Mekhed G.N., Mekhed N.G. - Once again about the faith, mind and competence of science, or a F. M. Dostoyevsky’s philosophical essay about a bedbug pp. 33-40


Abstract: The subject of this article is a small chapter from the preparatory materials to Dostoevsky’s novel “Demons”, which in the authors’ opinion is a completed philosophical essay. This chapter, which lead character becomes a regular bedbug, represents value not only as a visual illustration that cracks a door into the creative laboratory of a prominent Russian writer and demonstrates the specific features of this artistic-philosophical method, but also as an imagery-symbolic insight or anticipation of the questions that engrosses the modern philosophy of mind. Particularly, reasoning on the limits and boundaries of the contemporary to Dostoevsky science, through his characters he questions: “what it is like to be a bedbug?” Those who at least merely familiar with the current situation within the philosophy of mind is bound to feel the close relation of similar wording with the famous article by T. Nagel “what it is like to be a bat?”, where this question and obvious failure of sensible answer from the third-person perspective, is used as a demonstration of non-reduction and fundamentality of the first-person perspective, and this the fundamental limitation of science.
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