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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 06/2018
Contents of Issue № 06/2018
The history of humanitarian science
Khadyev D.V. - Humanism and religion in the works of Johann Gottfried Herder pp. 1-8

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2018.6.26163

Abstract: This article examines the concept of humanism of the German philosopher-enlightener J. G. Herder in the context of his philosophy of religion. The doctrine of this thinker presents interest as an important stage in the history of European freethought. Herder, being in the epicenter of German Enlightenments and actively participating in literary life of the country, has laid the foundation for the subsequent flourishing of the German thought. It significantly affected the establishment of liberal theology and distribution of the pantheistic ideas in Germany. Primarily on the materials of the mature works of Herder, particularly his fundamental composition “Outlines of a Philosophy of the History of Man”, the author attempted to identify the specific features of humanism of the German philosopher and refer him to a certain historical-philosophical type. The author concludes that Herder considered religion a product of anthropogenesis, i.e. the emergence and evolution of religion was viewed by him from the materialistic perspective. Supranaturalism is practically excluded. This point of the teaching puts the philosopher in well-known opposition to the Orthodox Christian doctrine. Freethought with regards to religion, however, does not make Herder an ardent anti-clerical and atheist. He finds in religion multiple positive aspects, as well as claims that the religious contemplation of the world is primary, and human culture takes its roots namely in religion. Although Herder’s teaching is not free from the religions elements as a whole, he defends human dignity, his right to happiness in earthly life, and therefore, his views can be characterize as the secular humanism.
Fates and outlines of civilizations
Ugrin I.M. - The problem of development of Russian civilization in terms of globalization pp. 9-22

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2018.6.26216

Abstract: This research examines the problem of existence of the Russian civilization; however not from the usual perspective of the debates whether or not Russian is a separate civilization and its relationship with the European civilization, but rather from the perspective of the question about its evolution and transformation as a factor of such development. On one hand, the author demonstrate the scientific purposefulness of the use of civilizational approach for analyzing the current state of Russian society and state. On the other hand, civilizational approach is inseparably associated with the problem of historical development, which manifests in this article as a value imperative. Civilizational paradigm is not opposed to the idea of historical renewal, but couples with it; the historical development is understood as a process inscribed into the existential forms of local civilization, although not limited by them. The author comes to a conclusion that the only way out for Russia’s self-preservation under the established geopolitical, geoeconomic, and geocultural circumstances is the reference to the internal resources of civilizational development. However, such return is not a revival of the traditional institutions in forms of their existence in the past or simple reproduction of the traditional practices, but a renewal based on the creative response in the context of civilizational development (rather than strictly national or modernization), a renewal through the sociocultural evolution.
Space and time
Tolstukhin A. - R-I-G constructs for the logics of time pp. 23-32

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2018.6.26354

Abstract: The subject of this research is the problem of stopping proof in modal logics, particularly the logics of time. Form consideration, the author selected the logics of tine with the linear transitive and dense time flow. One of the approaches in solution of the task at hand lies in application of the mosaic method, which essence consists in the presence of the finite set of fragments that can be added on towards the infinite model for proving the formula. The mosaic method allows structuring various computations, for example the R-I-G computations, which combines the mosaic method, loop-check procedure, and intuitive clarity of tabular computation. The research applies formalization in terms of describing the time flow, as well as deductive method of structuring the computation. The scientific novelty consists in introduction of an original approach towards solution of the problem of stopping proof within the logics of time. Leaning on the idea of mosaic method, the author suggests the computation of R-I-G constructs, which in virtue of its rules builds the end conclusion. Having complemented the systematic procedure with the saturation rules, an attempt can be made to acquire a saturated set of mosaics that manifests as a proof for the feasibility of formula.
Mysteries of the human being
Mekhed G.N., Mekhed N.G. - Once again about the faith, mind and competence of science, or a F. M. Dostoyevsky’s philosophical essay about a bedbug pp. 33-40

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2018.6.26432

Abstract: The subject of this article is a small chapter from the preparatory materials to Dostoevsky’s novel “Demons”, which in the authors’ opinion is a completed philosophical essay. This chapter, which lead character becomes a regular bedbug, represents value not only as a visual illustration that cracks a door into the creative laboratory of a prominent Russian writer and demonstrates the specific features of this artistic-philosophical method, but also as an imagery-symbolic insight or anticipation of the questions that engrosses the modern philosophy of mind. Particularly, reasoning on the limits and boundaries of the contemporary to Dostoevsky science, through his characters he questions: “what it is like to be a bedbug?” Those who at least merely familiar with the current situation within the philosophy of mind is bound to feel the close relation of similar wording with the famous article by T. Nagel “what it is like to be a bat?”, where this question and obvious failure of sensible answer from the third-person perspective, is used as a demonstration of non-reduction and fundamentality of the first-person perspective, and this the fundamental limitation of science.
Philosophy of knowledge
Pris F. - Knowledge as a genuine substantiated opinion and the Gettier-cases pp. 41-52

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2018.6.23396

Abstract: This article examines the definition of knowledge as a genuine substantiated opinion, as well as considers certain quasi-standard definitions of knowledge. The arguments are adduced that in order to solve its issues, epistemology requires the philosophy of language and philosophy of consciousness. Particularly, the author pursues parallel between a “difficult problem” of the philosophy of consciousness and the problem of definition of knowledge. The article suggests the definition of knowledge as a “successful” opinion, namely a genuine substantiated opinion, on the condition that an epistemological “gap” between the substantiation (opinion) and the fact (knowledge) is “pragmatically” closed in the sense of Wittgensteinian problem of rule-following. The second Wittengstein’s philosophy combines with the knowledge first epistemology of Timothy Williamson. Knowledge is accepted as a fundamental epistemic rule (norm) for the opinion. It is stated that the so-called Gettier-cases first and foremost have a conceptual status, underlining that the standard definition of knowledge leaves something out of account. The proposed point of view on knowledge is similar to such of Stephen Hetherington, according to which knowledge is a genuine substantiated opinion, on the condition that any specific circumstance is being understood in epistemological sense.
Information and ideas
Gizha A.V. - Information in complicated systems pp. 53-65

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2018.6.22877

Abstract:  This article examines the phenomenon of information in the aspects of scientific and technological approach and socio-historical being. The concept of complicated system of non-natural type associated with the growth of internal information value alongside the conceptual limitedness of scientist description of the phenomenon of information are being foregrounded. The ontological concretization of such concept is possible with regards to the human world. Special role of information in the modern context is defined by the two factors – its ontological aspect and the accomplished ideological function. The question of the supposed generalization of the concept of information requires a proper articulation and concretization of the role and meaning of information in the socio-historical context. The key research method is characterizes as dialectically demarcation, which on one hand allows to drastically differentiate the functionality of the natural and sociocultural, historical systems, while on the other – conduct their categorial analysis in a unified conceptual manner. The main conclusions lie in speculation on the existing gnoseological limitedness of the concept of information; information is understood as an abstract side of knowledge; on specificity of the perception of information in the area of non-natural systems; on the alienating character of the existing information value that aligns information with the consumable things turning it into commodity. For concretization the concept of information, the author determines its symbolical qualities as the key intentional characteristics of the actual knowledge, which include the organization, awareness, historicity, and directed connectedness of information. 
Philosophy of science
Grebenshchikova E.G. - The ethos of extra-institutional forms of the production of knowledge in the area of biotechnologies pp. 66-72

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2018.6.25199

Abstract:  The DIY-bio movement (do-it-yourself biology) unites the amateurs, enthusiasts, students and scholars that attempt to introduce such principles of hacker ethics as openness, decentralization, free access to technologies into the sphere of bioscience, and reorganize the biotechnological research towards achieving the equality and social justice. The ethical-axiological landmarks of the movement can be conceptualizes in view of the two models – American and European – the relationships with society, commercial organizations and government structures. At the same time, the activity of “garage biologists” is  considered not only as a new type of network and socially distributed methods of the production of knowledge, but also as a possible response to the criticism of modern academic science and industrial sector. The “garage biology” contributes into the establishment of new communication channels between the science and society, which are not limited by the initiatives “from the top to bottom”, but rather focus on cooperation patterns and social interests.  
Social philosophy
Belyaev V.A. - From sociology of philosophies to sociology of marginal theories pp. 73-95

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2018.6.23565

Abstract: On the one hand, this article represents a critical analysis of R. Collins’ positions regarding the philosophy and sociocultural reality, expressed in his monograph "The Sociology of Philosophies". On the other hand, the author suggests a unique version of historical development of the sociology of philosophy, titled the “sociology of marginal theories". The main principles that distinguish the "sociology of philosophies" from "sociology of marginal theories". The main principles that distinguish the “sociology of philosophies” from the “sociology of marginal theories” are historicism and projectivity: philosophy is involved in criticism and projection of sociocultural reality, as well as qualitatively evolves in the process of transformation of such reality. The attempts to demonstrate that the implicit assumptions of Collins’ position are counter-systematicity, counter-historicism and the counter-projectivity. The result of the article is the system of principles of the “sociology of marginal theories" that can serve as an exploratory program for the specific research. In conclusion,  the author formulates the following system of principles for the sociology of philosophies: principle of sociological materialism, principle of systematicity, principle of historicism, principle of projectivity, principle of connectivity with sociocultural processes, principle of symbolic mediation, principle of globality, principle of sociocultural priority, principle of multiplicity and interaction of between the  forms of marginal theorization, principle of the prominence of philosophy among other forms of marginal theorization.
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