Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 05/2018
Contents of Issue № 05/2018
Philosophical anthropology
Rakhimova M.V. - “Second code” and biology of destiny: what does epigenetics say about the textual nature of a human? pp. 1-11


Abstract: This article discusses the problem of human textuality as an interdisciplinary philosophical problem. Within the framework of the claimed problem, human is textual on biological, as well as social levels of matter patterning. The author leans on the analogy between genome and book, language, scenario, library, text that is often use by Western genetic scientists to explain the biochemical processes taking place at the genetic level. Attention is given to the second (epigenetic) code that is responsible for independence and individuality of the cells, their cellular “memory” (epigenetic program, epigenetic switches). The article also considers the problem of human biological destiny controlled by the second epigenetic code. The author underlines the dependence of the second code from external factors that can affect a human (epigenetic landscape). The scientific novelty is defined by examination of the textual nature of a human as holistic nature, which include genetic, epigenetic, social, and cultural levels. It is assumed that Human is a text that is infinitely written by the Nature, as well as Human himself at all levels of matter patterning.
Mekhed G.N. - The idea of meta-subjectivity and the problem of autonomy in Kant’s ethics pp. 12-25


Abstract: This article examines Kant’s ethics through the prism of general philosophical idea of meta-subjectivity, the most basic theoretical foundation for which is the embarked by Kant in the “Critique of Pure Reason” substantiation of the principles of critical rationalism. The author demonstrates how the idea of meta-subject (transcendental subject), introduced by Kant in the theory of cognition, affects his interpretation of a number of fundamental traditional concepts of ethics, such as “moral subject”, “freedom of will”, and especially “autonomy”. It turns out that the concept of autonomy and its interpretation by Kant is associated with a number of emanating problems, particularly the problem of moral evil and problem of responsibility, “authorship” of the doings. Methodology of the research leans directly on Kant’s texts with fairly loose interpretation, as well as comparative research of the key sources of Kant studies with regards to autonomy. The article allows tracing the conceptual link between Kant’s transcendentalism and other related philosophical teachings, all the way from Upanishads in Antiquity until the contemporary “open individualism” of D. Kolak, as well as the concepts in spirit of the “integral approach” of K. Wilber.
Ontology: being and nihility
Naumov O.D. - Oblivion of the antiquity as an origin of philosophical inquiry on existence pp. 26-36


Abstract: The object of this research is the phenomenon of archaic mythological ontology, while the subject is the inquiry on existence established within the framework of the indicated cultural-historical era. The main goal of the article is to represents the phenomenon of oblivion as one of the major strategies of inquiry on existence in the context of the era of antiquity. The phenomenon of oblivion is conceptualized and considered in the following aspects: metaphilosophical, ontological, epistemological, and anthropological. As a result, the phenomenon of oblivion is analyzed as one of the mechanisms that realizes the transformation of the archaic Myth into the ancient Logos. A tacit argument of raising an inquiry on existence in the archaic myth is a subject that acts within the realm of the myth as a character, which key function is reduced to determination and support of the existing world order through preservation and restoration of differences, realized by the ritual practices. Thus, the condition and cause of the established unity of the world, represented by an archaic myth, is a distinction, which loss is perceived by the primeval society as a submersion of the world into chaos. However, the distinction alongside the subject in the archaic mythological ontology, in the parlance of Derrida’s language, are the structure of the absent presence. It is justified by the fact that the main task of archaic strategy of comprehension of existence is reduced to seeing the world as it is revealed in the view, excluding the process of world establishment. An archaic myth represents a historically first and genetically similar to the philosophy strategy of apprehending existence. The peculiarity of such mythological ontology lies in its manifestation as a pre-symbolic ontology of a gesture: coition and struggle. It can be concluded that the mythological ontology of an archaic myth forms leaning on the following principles: a) onto-gnoseological interpretation of a sensation, preceding and explaining any attempt of establishment and manifestation of the world as an integral whole; b) mostly topographic perception of the world, subsequently complemented by the historical dimension, necessary for inclusion of a subject into the sacred dimension of dynamic existence, illustrated by the scheme: space-gods-people. As a result, the archaic mythological ontology is a type of pre/conceptual prologue towards the Western European philosophy, which history is realized as a process of interaction between the subject and existence, with the common feature of the phenomenon of oblivion that manifests as a way of actualizing the inquiry on existence in one or another cultural-historical era.
History of ideas and teachings
Skorokhodova S.I. - To the question of Slavic mutuality in 1920’s – 1940’s in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia pp. 37-46


Abstract: This article attempts to correlate the Slavic question with the topic of Russian emigration in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, the center of white émigré on the Balkans. A thesis is substantiated that the strain for preserving the Russian world by emigrants in the context of spiritually relative Serbian, led to fusion and mutual enrichment of national cultures. It is claimed that the Russian academic community throughout the period of emigration was seeking to help the Serbs in creating the national intelligentsia; that the ideas of F. M. Dostoyevsky had a particular impact upon the Serbian literature and philosophy, which in its expression and problematic was similar to Russian. The author analyzes some philosophical ideas, such as Missionism and Slavic mutuality, which affected the world of Russian emigration. Having examines the little-known publications in emigrant periodicals and other basic works, it is underlined that event the unbearable times could not break the Russian exiled philosophers, who experienced the high level of creative activity. A conclusion is made that the legacy of Russian emigration in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia reveals an entire layer of the philosophical-political issues, which are exceptionally important for modern Russian in the context of existential dimension of history and human existence.  
Philosophy of science
Iashin B.L. - Pythagoreanism and Platonism in mathematics: history and modernity pp. 47-61


Abstract: The subject of this research is such philosophical and mathematical disciplines as Pythagoreanism and Platonism, which remain relevant at the present time. The author demonstrate the contribution of Pythagoreans to mathematics, their role in creation of geometric algebra, importance of the discovery of incommensurable segments that propelled the Pythagorean mathematics into crisis. The work examines the essence of the concept of mathematical Platonism, reveals its peculiarities, and demonstrates its dissimilarity from the concept of mathematical Pythagoreanism. The presently existing various forms of mathematical Platonism, as well as their peculiarities are explored. The article provides the main arguments of modern critics of Platonism in mathematics and their weaknesses. The author demonstrates the value of the concept of mathematical Platonism as a model visual thinking, and underlines that a large number of mathematicians remain its adherers. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that the work actualized the ideas of Pythagoreanism and Platonism, as well as the consequence of a dispute that originated in ancient times and continues today between the supporters of Platonism and their opponents related to the fundamental grounds of mathematics. The author concludes that the results of modern mathematical science give valid arguments that confirm the performance and high efficiency of the concept of Platonism in comparison with other philosophical concepts of mathematics.
Social philosophy
Nemtsev I.A. - Obstacles standing in the way of sustainable development of the society pp. 62-67


Abstract: The majority of works of the Russian and  foreign scholars dedicated to sustainable development give particular attention to the conceptual ideas, modelling of social structure, separate components, strategies of transitional period, etc. But usually do not mention the difficulties of practical implementation of this idea. This article attempts to critically analyze the possibilities of implementation of sustainable development of the society in practice. The goal of this work lies in determination of the key problems standing in the way of global sustainable development of the society. It achievement is realized on the basis of geopolitical methodology, grounded on the principles of geopolitical dualism, regulations on humanity as a global interrelated and self-developing system (global evolutionism), as well as the principle of universal connection of the events, principle of development, and others. The author determines and substantiates the three most impactful obstacles impeding the sustainable development: lack of the universal concept; decline in the pace of globalization; and human consciousness as a factor of social development. A conclusion is made that overcoming of these three obstacles allows establishing the “sustainable” society in practice.
Philosophy of liberty
Alenevskii I.A. - Three knots in the problem of freedom of will pp. 68-76


Abstract: The subject of this research is the problem of freedom of will within the history of European thought that leads to the actual anthropological situation of modernity – trending towards posthumanism. The problem determines the three parts of knots subjected to untangling: existential, philosophical, and scientific (worldview). The key task lies in development of the adequate theoretical apparatus for the problem of freedom of will that allows detecting the actuality of human existence; collecting and retaining in multiplicity the forms and methods, in which a human shows his will (strong or weak, soft or firm, tense or wise, etc.); as well as making conclusions of worldview character on freedom. The scientific novelty consists in theoretical formulation of the problem of freedom of will that is capable to determine the multiplicity of forms, corresponds to reality that makes a human to grasp and show his will. The character of these forms testifies to the turbulence or crisis of willful consciousness. Unlike the metaphysics that ascribes to free will of a human the universal normative form of the moral law (Kant) or moral responsibility (modern analytical discussions), the article determines the existential part of the problem, which allows structuring the philosopheme of free will and unraveling its distinct theoretical form and practical implementation that can have aesthetic, ethical, and political dimensions.  
Dasein of the human being
Barinov D.N. - Fear as a phenomenon of human existence pp. 77-82


Abstract: This article examines the problem of fear as a phenomenon substantiated by the circumstances of human existence. Such circumstances include: the “biological non-specialization” of a human; evolution of consciousness and self-consciousness; propensity to create; incompleteness and finiteness of a human. The indicated aspects of human existence predetermine the formation of his sociality, but at the same time social fear. Social fear, related to the social in their nature treats, manifests as an inseparable and inevitable component of a human as a social subject, substantiated by the existential constants of human being. The analysis of fear is based on the ideas of philosophical anthropology, E. Fromm’s concept of “The Human Situation”, philosophy of existentialism, works in the field of the psychology of consciousness and activity. The establishment of social beginning in a human transfers him from the sphere of biological predetermination over to the sphere of freedom and unpredictability. Despite the fact that human strains after the formation of the predictable social environment through the social norms, behavioral rules, social institutions, etc., he remains open for development, as well as the unceasing experience of social fear.
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