Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue 05/2017
Contents of Issue 05/2017
Methodology of philosophical learning
Mekhed G.N. - Thought experiment in philosophy and ethics pp. 1-13


Abstract: The relevance of this article is substantiated by the popularity of thought experiment as one of the key methods of modern philosophy. The author examines the differences between the thought and empirical experiments. It is demonstrated that the role of thought experiment is far from being reduced to the study of theories of internal consistency, but rather that it can be presented as an independent, primarily, critical method of philosophical analysis, as well as a mediator between the intuitions of common sense and abstract theoretical constructs. Based on this, the author underlines the role of thought experiment as an important tool for examination of the limits of rationality itself, as well as formulation of the “complex issues” of philosophy. The article also reviews the various strategies of application of thought experiment in the normative ethical discussions – on the example of theories and thought experiments of Nozick, D. Thompson, and others. At the same time, the author notes the closeness of the thought experiment in its narrative-metaphoric form to fiction, which has already gained the status of an interpreter of the philosophical and normative-ethical theories onto the figurative language of intuition.
History of ideas and teachings
Klimkov O. - Hesychia and philosophy in Gregory Palamas doctrine pp. 14-30


Abstract: The object of this research is one of the most important and relevant questions of hesychast polemic in Byzantine Empire of the XIV century, namely the status and meaning of philosophy in the concept of its prominent representative Gregory Palamas. The subject of the analysis if the particular historical discussion, during the course of which the philosopher established and consolidated his views upon the role and place of philosophical knowledge within the spiritual teaching of hesychasm. The author also carefully examines the views of Palamas’ opponent Barlaam, tracing the features of intellectualism of the antique philosophy within it. Using the phenomenological analytical method, the author analyzes the problem of correlation of mind and body in the process of spiritual improvement, which leads to the conclusion about the two antagonistic approaches towards understanding of the link between psychic and physical in human nature. The work explores the profound for Palamas distinction between the essence and energy of mind, as well as his teaching about theosis. The author underlines a close interconnection of gnoseological and anthropological problematic, because the ability of cognizing God directly depends on the way of human existence, which includes not just the intellectual and emotional spheres, but also the corporeal practices. The article reviews the question of expression of mystical experience, which is connected with the problem of religious and metaphysical authority. The conclusion is made that Palamas’ clarification of mind outgrows the initial ethical-psychological level, and reveals its essence in gnoseological and ontological dimension.
Cycles and tides in the global world
Rusanova A.A., Luk'yanova N.A. - Constructive and destructive role of symbol as an object of cultural identity in globalization processes pp. 31-44


Abstract: The object of this research is the problematic of globalization processes and cultural identity. The subject is the symbol as an object of cultural identity within the framework of transformation of the value-conceptual sphere of identity under the influence of globalization. The authors examine such aspects of the topic as the emerged problem of “Westernization” of cultural values in Russia, which results in correlation of the value orientations of a person in accordance with the axiological and symbolic forms postulate by the modern mass media. It is noted that for preservation of cultural identity and unity of the Russian society, attention should be turned to the globalization processes that possess a certain set of templates and stamps, symbolic schemes and images, which subconsciously manipulate a person by putting specific behavioral and thinking models into the worldview structure of a person. The conclusion is made that such aspects of cultural identity as the language, system of rituals and symbolic schemes manifests as the description of cultural affiliation, as well as the type of collective consciousness of each society, and thus, must be protected from the effect of the global equating “cult”. The author also believe that symbol as an object of cultural identity gas binary nature, but as a result of globalization processes, attains a more destructive character.
Man and mankind
Horlynskyi V. - Phenomenological explication of existential security pp. 45-61


Abstract: The subject of this study is the constitution of phenomenological existential security structure adopted as a phenomenon of consciousness. The object of analysis is the cognitive paradigm of existential security. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of existential security of basic meanings.We use a phenomenological approach, with its inherent methods intentional, semantic and etymological analysis. The novelty of the research lies in the fundamental features of the new cognitive paradigms. It is aimed at identifying the ontological basis of the preservation of human existence as the limit values of human existence; appeals to the inner world of man; access to the vital foundations of semantic value as key regulative focus of human activity. It was concluded that the process of constitution of existential security is an actualization of existential "apprehensions" caused by an existential threat to the life of the world. This phenomenon is generating a pulse of human activity that occurs under the influence of existential threat, it is a semantic unit, primary meaning lying at the base of the constitution of existential security. The semantic component of this structure is formed in the process of unfolding and enrichment of meanings in its movement from primary meaning to ultimate meaning, where the latter is represented as a transcendent horizon of unfolding all the possible meanings of the security as intersubjective reality and the phenomenon of the collective consciousness, inherently carries a cultural codes of human existence. Axiological component of existential security structure is represented as an aggregate of universal transcendental values, expressing the ultimate meaning of human existence, playing the role of the cultural codes of human life, the core of which acts as a human life.
Tradition and innovation
Inyushina I.A. - The formation of culture of philosophical thinking: M. K. Mamardashvili's ideas in the context of contemporary philosophical praxis pp. 62-67


Abstract: The goal of this article is the identification within the modern philosophical praxis of the most efficient concepts of formation of culture of philosophical thinking that refer to the archetypal nature of philosophical knowledge. The article substantiates the need for formation of culture of philosophical thinking by means of the philosophy itself. Therefore, the author emphasizes the importance of M. K. Mamardashvili's ideas in the context of philosophical praxis. Analysis of the state of modern philosophical thought, which is characterized by the distribution of non-academic forms of philosophizing, has determined the controversy in the structure of philosophical praxis of the end of the XX – beginning of the XXI centuries. The majority of forms of practical philosophy represent the synthesis with psychotherapy, and their essence are aimed at resolution of the private existential questions, rather than establishment of culture of the philosophical thinking. Similar controversy in views upon philosophy is absent in the works of M. K. Mamardashvili, which clearly define its practical function.
History of ideas and teachings
Markhinin V. - The origin of the word "philosophy" as a problem:to discussion of W. Burkert's concept. Part I pp. 68-95


Abstract: This article considers the problem of origin of the word φιλοσοφία as it was formulated in the key article by Walter Burkert "Plato or Pythagoras? Origins of the Word ‘Philosophy'" ("Platon oder Pythagoras? Zum Ursprung des Wortes 'Philosophie'") (1960). It is noted that the concept created by Walter Burkert has had a large influence on the historiography of this issue and still remains topical. Walter Burkert believes that, contrary to the commonly shared opinion (based on reports of ancient authors, primarily Heraclides), it was not Pythagoras, but Plato who invented the word φιλοσοφία in its proper sense. This sense implies that a philosopher is not a man of wisdom (as only God is wise), but someone who “loves wisdom” selflessly not expecting honors or fame, someone who is devoted to the pursuit of truth about the world. The proposed paper reviews W. Burkert’s conception from the position of historical and genetic approach and the principle of philosophics (the term proposed by the author), which assumes that the most adequate means of studying the essence of philosophy is the scientific explication of its ancient archetype. The sources studied by Walter Burkert to address this problem are analyzed and a new critical look is taken at his linguistic and sociocultural hypotheses. It is demonstrated that, contrary to Burkert’s opinion, it is quite possible that the word φιλοσοφία was invented by any of the Pre-Socratic philosophers such as Pythagoras, Heraclitus and/or someone else. As reliable doxographical sources show, the style of life and thought implied by the word φιλοσοφία (though the word itself had not yet been invented) was demonstrated already by Thales whom the classical tradition originating from Antiquity calls (quite rightfully, as it seems) the first philosopher. The word φιλοσοφία was invented as a result of emerging understanding of this cognitive mode, and most likely it was first done by Pythagoras. The author of this article believes that the history of Pre-Platonic thought on the world order should be treated as the process of genesis of philosophy. It is concluded that Plato’s achievement was not the invention of the word φιλοσοφία, but assimilating this word from the existing tradition (mainly through Socrates) and developing its meaning into a doctrine of philosophy, thus completing the process of establishment of this way of living and thought.
Social philosophy
Gomboeva L.V. - Genuine authoritarianism: justification, substantiation, and goals pp. 96-106


Abstract:  This article is dedicated to the examination of genuine authoritarianism as a necessary type of social structure and its goals at present stage of development of the country. The author introduces into the politological discourse the notion of “honesty”, as well as substantiates the position that in modern circumstances it is impossible to approach democracy only by the virtue of laws; the authorities need to be taught same as the rest of the people; honesty is the manifestation of an in-depth essence of human consciousness. The following goals of authoritarian power are being named and revealed: material – on ensuring economic growth and wellness of the nation; destructive – on fight against the “corrupted elites”; educational – on establishment of ethnical and healthy psychological atmosphere in the country; self-confining – limitation of authority for the sake of prevention of ethical degradation of society and the power holder themselves. The scientific novelty consists in introduction of the notion of “hones authoritarianism” into the politological discourse and substantiation of its necessity. The conclusion is made that authoritarianism is still required in our society, but the ruling elites must take care of the financial and spiritual wellness of the people, as well as participate in creating and cultivating of circumstances that limit their authority and conduce the development of society and a man.  
Philosophy of religion
Mishurin A.N. - Jerusalem and Athens. Some introductory remarks pp. 107-128


Abstract: This article of Leo Strauss – Professor at the University of Chicago that summarizes two lectures read by him in 1966, is dedicated to the initial description of the problem of the relation between mind and faith within the questions of social and political life, which is also known as the problem of “Athens and Jerusalem”. The subject field of this work consists in the two cultural heritages, represented in the works of Greek poets and philosophers on one hand, and Biblical traditions, particularly, Torah – on the other. Strauss attempts to elucidate the picture of the world – the beginning of world – in perception of the prophets and philosophers. For achieving the set goal, he used the historical critical and hermeneutic methods, discussing the creation of the world describe in the Bible, and origination of the world and gods presented in the Greek sources. The scientific novelty of this work consist in sequential application of the revised by Strauss hermeneutic method of “attentive reading”. The main conclusion lies in the idea of incompatibility of Athens and Jerusalem, in other words, the necessity to choose a single way of explanation of the world, and this, only one way towards resolution of the issues of social and political life.
Korotkikh V.I. - Relevance of the rational: image of Hegels philosophy in Hans-Georg Gadamers Truth and Method pp. 129-140


Abstract:  This article presents the analysis of Gadamer’s relation to the philosophical heritage of Hegel. The author attempts to demonstrate that Gamader’s contemplation of the points of Hegelian philosophy, in which his aspirations intersect with the content of dialectic-speculative system of Hegel, are capable of substantially specifying the characteristic for the philosophical hermeneutics understanding of historicism.  The article highlights the moments of similarity and differences between the positions of the philosophers, particularly examines Gadamer’s criticism of Hegelian teaching about reflection and structure of the phenomenological experience, as well as demonstrates the importance of the “Phenomenology of Spirit” for comprehending the regularities of development of storyline in “Truth and Method” in one of its key aspects. The scientific novelty consists in substantiation of the idea about the crucial importance of Gadamer’s apprehension of Hegelian philosophy for structuring the philosophical hermeneutics as an independent way of philosophizing within the context of post-classical philosophy. At the same time, the author underlines that the criticism of separate elements of Hegel’s system in “Truth and Method” should not interrupt the profound closeness of the thinkers in understanding the character of mediation of history and modernity.   
Philosophical anthropology
Chugunova I. - Discourse of hatred in F. Nietzsches philosophy pp. 141-152


Abstract: This article examine one of the most ambiguous topics of F. Nietzsche’s philosophical works – the hatred. Interpretation of this topic in Nietzscheanism is associated with specific hermeneutic difficulties: hatred appears through the conceptual multiplicity, neighbors with pathos of human perfection, identifies the paradoxical relations and mutual transitions with the notion of love. Such questions become the center of attention in this work. The author reconstruct a complex background of Nietzschean understanding of hatred in the context of human nature, differentiates the contextual meanings of love and hatred, their transformations and inversions. The article proves that the topic of hatred in Nietzsche’s philosophy does not carry the character of subversion of a human: it is assigned with the opposite – supporting role within the discourse of love and human revival. The nature of hatred is revealed in its destructive and constructive guises. The article traces the fundamental anthropological character of such passion as a reflection of controversy and multidimensionality of human essence.
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