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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 10/2017
Contents of Issue № 10/2017
Social philosophy
Tyugashev E. - Philosophy as a sociocultural phenomenon pp. 1-8


Abstract: The object of this research is the philosophical phenomenon, which within the social philosophy is traditionally described as a form of public consciousness, and lately – as self-consciousness of the culture. It is suggested to identify these descriptions as sociocentrism and culturocentrism in interpretation of the phenomenon of philosophy. Culturocentric interpretation of philosophy is viewed as problematic due to the fact that often perceives the emergence of philosophy only in separate cultural centers; as well as using the definition of culture as a system of programs, does not reveal the mechanism of establishment of self-consciousness within such system of programs. Thus, is relevant the critical reflection of culturocentrism and its alignment with the position of sociocentrism in describing philosophy as a sociocultural phenomenon. The dilemma of sociocentrism and culturocentrism is resolved based on using the sociocultural approach in its reflective interpretation. Such interpretation leans of the public historical understanding of culture as a specific historical version of evolution of the society, as well as proposes considering the society as an ensemble of interacting cultures; while sociocultural – as a social in the cultural diversity. The conducted analysis of the concept of philosophy as the culture’s self-consciousness allows concluding that the establishment of self-consciousness of such subject requires realization within the framework of external reflection of cultures, in other words, among the interacting ethno-social organisms. The practical, ordinary philosophy emerges in practice of sociocultural mediation. For the complex of social organisms that comprise a civilization, the professional philosophers fixate in abstract general form of establishment of the world structure in such form as they are grasped in the civilizational experience. Professional philosophy manifests as self-consciousness and reflection not of just local culture, but rather cultures that claim to achieve the scale of world civilizations. This circumstances explains the existence of the centers of origin of philosophy, namely the institutionalized professional philosophical activity within the contact zones of the largest civilizations.
Connection of times
Ivanova M.G. - Socio-philosophical analysis of the national archetypes of Russia pp. 9-17


Abstract: This article analyzes the methodological issues of the study of archetypes of the Russian political culture. The author proceeds from the assumption that the hidden patterns and foundations of the collective unconsciousness have significant impact upon the world political culture, including Russia. It is demonstrated that analysis of the content of the collective unconsciousness is heuristically justified to realize based on the examination of in-depth essence of the traditions of national culture, which makes relevant the problem of formulating a valid interdisciplinary methodological apparatus adequate to the problem at hand. Using the analyzed in the article philosophical approaches of C. G. Jung, S. A. Nizhnikov, and A. E. Lukyanov, the author suggests highlighting the basic archetypes of the Russian culture, through which it becomes possible to analyze the political and social phenomena. The conclusion is made about the high heuristic potential of the theory of archetypes and the need for its further development on the basis of interdisciplinary and inter-paradigmatic scientific synthesis. In particular, the article explores the archetypes of Truth, Way, Faith and Death/Rebirth. The approach, proposed by the author, can be applied as a universal method for studying of the archetypes in national cultures.
Space and time
Spektor D.M. - Time and transcendental subject. Kant and Hegel pp. 18-33


Abstract:  The subject of this research is the refinement of the concept of transcendental subject interpreted by Kant and Hegel, as well as the connection of this concept with the category of time. As demonstrated in the article, the initial prototype of its institutionalization is manifested by the "process" in duality of its interpretation, on one hand,  substantiated by technological invective, and on the other – by judicial allusions, which predetermined the implicit a priori of transcendental temporality, particularly, the principle of distancing from the incident, exclusion of reference from the composition explicitly-authentic, role of the procedure (codification) in its reconstruction, etc. The method of research is based on the analysis and reconstruction of the concepts of "time", "procedure" and "judicial proceedings" (substantiated in its unity, including the etymological closeness of the concepts of "history", "truth" and "the plaintiff"). The scientific novelty consist in revealing the relationship between "time" and "history" as the form and content of existence in terms of the German classical philosophy. It is shown that the efficiency of such dilution imposed high cost on philosophy: the concept of the transcendental subject and the categorical conceptual apparatus of dialectical logic have been acquired at the cost of loss by notion of time of the link with human being, assigning to the “transcendentality” of natural allusions that have yet to be overcome.
Frontiers and theories of knowledge
Petrosov T.A. - The logic of truth: on the relevance and impossibility pp. 34-40


Abstract: The author examines the possible approaches established within the Western European philosophical and logical traditions towards the definition of truth for the purpose of revealing the possibility of consistent and adequate notion of truth. In particular, the article reviews the correspondent concept of truth, negation of truth, notions of a priori knowledge applicable to the definition of truth, as well as notions of coherent and absolute truth. The indicated concepts are subject to analysis from the well-known perspectives along with the author’s original. Leaning on the logical methods of argumentation, the author finds the established within the Western tradition approaches towards definition of truth as self-contradicting or inadequate. The conclusion is made that each of the listed methods has strong contradictions or difficulties, which as a result leads to the necessity for double position relatively to the notion of truth: impossibilities of its nonexistence and impossibilities of its definition, i.e. the absence of its presence.  
Natural philosophy
Boldin P.N. - Semiotic analogy in ontology of the accurate scientific knowledge pp. 41-64


Abstract: Over the recent decades, the philosophical foundations of sciences demonstrate keen interest in the problem of correlation between the theoretical knowledge and reality. First and foremost, such problem is common to the philosophy of accurate scientific knowledge. For its resolution, it is necessary to establish the ontological model of exact sciences, which within the framework of universal notions would allow revealing the metaphysical nature of the objects at hand. The historical and metaphysical analysis shows that the natural foundation for constructing such model lies in the semiotic analogy that found its reflection in metaphor of the Book of Nature. The establishment of such ontological model of the accurate scientific knowledge becomes the subject of present work. As a result of interdisiplinarity of this research, the applied methodology is based on the methods of comparison and analogy with the use of empirical analysis of the exact sciences. The author substantiated the need for involving the semiotic analogy in resolving the set task, as built a semiotic ontological model of accurate scientific knowledge, which leans on the analogy between the position of each of the sciences within the structure of scientific knowledge and correlation between the semiotic aspects of language as a semiotic system. This model allows not only finding solution to the problem of correlation between the theoretical knowledge and reality, but also opens an opportunity for solving an entire list of problems in relations between the exact sciences.
Philosophy of history
Demin I.V. - Heinrich Rickert’s philosophy of history: between metaphysics and post-metaphysics pp. 65-82


Abstract: This article analyzes the philosophical-historical concept of Heinrich Rickert, as well as identifies the difficulties and contradictions faced by this concept. Special attention is given to the question about Rickert’s concept in the context of classical and nonclassical historiosophical teachings. It is demonstrated that the Rickert’s philosophy of history became one of the first attempts to overcome the classical (speculative) historiosophy of Hegelian type. Distancing from Hegelian metaphysics, Rickert was trying to avoid the two extremes in understanding of history naturalism and historicism (relativism). However, if naturalism in historical writing is actually being overcome by postulating the two irreducible to each other methods of comprehending reality (generalizing and individualizing), then avoding the historical relativism for Rickert is possible only through the return to the ontological model of speculative type, The experience of philosophical conceptualization of history within the framework of Neo-Kantian concept of H. Rickert shows that the logical analysis of the structure of historical knowledge, even complemented by the philosophical theory of values, does not allow solving the essential questions on nonclassical philosophy of history. The methodology of “reference to the values” cannot go without ontology, in other words, the representations about nature and specificity of historical existence.
The dialogue of cultures
Nagdalieva S.A. - Azerbaijan’s model of multiculturalism in cross-cultural communication: problems and solutions pp. 83-98


Abstract: This article analyzes the Azerbaijani model of multiculturalism from the perspective of its goal, civilizational, ideological-value, historical-cultural, everyday bases and political prospects. The identification of the characteristic features of the Azerbaijani model of multiculturalism as "Azerbaijanism" - the cultural code of the Azerbaijani identity - is the topical task not only in a narrowly local, but also general theoretical manner, as is poses a question about the additional impetus for the strategy of multiculturalism, which in the author’s opinion that yet have not exhausted its potential. The methodological basis of the research was culturological analysis, based on a complex interdisciplinary study of the ethnic, religious, social, domestic, cultural, political, legal and ideological traditions of Azerbaijan. Such approach allows tracing the origins and prospects of "Azerbaijanism" in the current environment. Modernization introduces certain aspects into the process of translation of the traditional values. However, in general, the orientation towards flexible combination of historically proven methods of social adaptation of the population of a polyethnic and polytheistic country to the practice of maximally non-confrontational cross-cultural communication demonstrates its relevance relatively to the new challenges of a global world. Based on the analysis of legal acts and practice of realization of multiculturalism in Azerbaijan, the author concludes that during the implementation of state cultural policy, the only benefited cultural directions and "local cultural environments" that correspond to "Azerbaijanism" as the adopted in the country system of values. Consideration of the increasing role of religious factor alongside the specifics of negative propaganda of political opponents of Azerbaijan, allowed tracing the "problematic points" that comprise the field of potential ideological conflicts within the framework of the strategy of multiculturalism, as well describe the possible ways for its prevention.
Philosophical anthropology
Nilogov A.S., Kutyryov V.A. - Philosophy of medicine of the anthropological disasters (discourse of A. S. Nilogov with V. A, Kutyrev) pp. 99-113


Abstract: The discussion of A. S. Nilogov with V. A, Kutyrev from the perspective of philosophical anthropology reviews the problematic of modern medicine, which more and more develops within the framework of transhumanism (posthumanity). The professor from Nizhny Novgorof V. A. Kutyrev relies upon the conservative perception of human as an ancestral creature, whose bodily conflicts with the scientific and technological progress. The discourse raises the topical issues of anthropology, biopolitics, bioethics, health and medicine (particularly the problem of euthanasia).  V. A Kutyrev presses the point that the technogenic era, which allows manipulating the nature and human corporality, leads to blurring of the essence of real biopolitics, which stops playing the role of the guardian of life. Such transformation received a name of “thanatopolitics” – politics of allowance and protection of death, paradoxically up to immortality, but now artificial, particularly – posthuman.
Mysteries of the human being
Kulieshov A.V. - The metaphysical foundation of John McTaggart’s concept of personal immortality pp. 114-125


Abstract: The subject of the article is the concept of personal immortality, developed by the British philosopher of the late XIX – early XX century John McTaggart. The analysis focuses on the main metaphysical works of the philosopher: "Some dogmas of religion," "Studies in Hegelian cosmology", "The nature of existence." The study reveals the links of the concept with the principles of idealistic metaphysics, based on a rethinking of Hegel's philosophy. In this context the article deals with the idea of the Absolute reality, the ideas of individuals as a fundamental differentiation of reality, the integrity and perfection of the world. The relationship of the concept of immortality with McTaggart’s understanding of time and eternity is examined. The study allows one to conclude about a certain heuristic potential of McTaggart’s concept. The article highlights the four key arguments of McTaggart  that prove the personal immortality. These are the arguments indicating independence of consciousness from the matter, from the substantiality of personalities, from the illusory nature of time, from the values of asymmetry of the universe. All arguments combine the content that was rejected by modern science and philosophy, as well as promising from the scientific and philosophical perspective.
Dasein of the human being
Bogdanova V.O. - Philosophical practice of solitude: existential expansion of the limits of consciousness pp. 126-138


Abstract: The subject of this research is the philosophical practice of solitude, the essence of which consists in overcoming the fear and accepting the solitude as the basic state of existence, because in every choice an individual is lonesome, and his solitude is aggravated by the sense of insecurity and fear. Despite the severe pressure of life circumstances and surrounding people, a person must follow the call of selfhood. Solitude for him becomes a productive, creative state, revealing the authenticity of existence, giving joy to the acquisition of the meaning of life. The acceptance of solitude does not imply a complete social isolation. Interpersonal relations in the state of loneliness can manifest through love or compassion for another person. Love originates from the comprehension of the common destiny for all people doomed to existential solitude. The research is based on constructivist and phenomenological approaches, substantiated by the internal isolation of consciousness, which leads to the fact that the universal principle of human existence lies in solitude. The subject is incapable of understanding another person, since for him the initial reality is the "Self", while everything else appears as an external projection of the subject. The article provides a detailed explanation of the statement that, in terms of the apparent impossibility of achieving the spiritual unity and understanding between people, which is impeded by the existential solitude, namely it manifests as a "purgatory" through which a person gets through on his path to psychological maturity and spiritual growth. Philosophical practice gives an opportunity to work with solitude. It ceases being perceived as a tragedy, because by accepting the solitude, a person retreats into himself, and thus strengthens his connection with the world and other people.
Translations of philosophy classics
Titlin L. - Polemics with Nyaya-Vaisheshika about the existence of an actor in Shantarakshita’s Tattvasamgraha pp. 139-163


Abstract: The subject of this article is the philosophical polemics between Buddhism and Indian School of Nyaya-Vaisheshika on the question of existence and qualities of an actor as it presented in the chapter Atmapariksha (literally, "Study of the Atman") in Shantarakshita’s Tattvasamgraha). Shantarakshita is a Buddhist philosopher of the VIII century, one of the prominent Buddhist thinkers in India and Tibet, a representative of the school of Svatantrika-Madhyamaka. An outstanding oeuvre of Shantarakshita is "Tattvasamgraha" ("Compilation of Essential Problems", or "Compendium of Principles"). It is an extensive polemic work, containing 26 chapters that subject to criticism the identical number of the fundamental philosophical schools of India (Sankhya, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimansa, Lokayata, Yoga, Vedanta, and also Jainism and Buddhism of other schools). The author concludes that the key postulate of the Nyaya-Vaisheshika regarding the actor lies in the fact that for the mental phenomena (for example, desire, etc.), which are considered as qualities within its system, necessitates the presence of a certain substrate, namely Atman. Shantarakshita, in turn, criticizes the position of the Nyaya-Vaisheshika that the numerous perceptions are comprehended by "self" and, therefore, pertain to the same actor. This article is first to introduce translation from Sanskrit into the Russian language of a substantial passage from Shantarakshita’s Tattvasamgraha with commentaries of Kamalashila dedicated to the question of the existence of actor, as well as philosophical analysis of the aforementioned fragment of text.
Ontology: being and nihility
Vetushinskiy A.S. - “We live within a computer game”: video gaming metaphor and its metaphysical potential pp. 164-172


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the critical reevaluation of video gaming metaphor that is more and more often used in the literary works and speeches of contemporary intellectuals. Although video gaming metaphor is a particular case of the usual to the natural and humanitarian sciences of a computer metaphor, namely the video games, being a central product of digital culture, at the present stage become the environment for comprehending the world and the place of human within it. Considering the fact that eventually the significance of video gaming metaphor will only grow, the author suggests to think how valuable this metaphor can be.  In order to evaluate the potential of video gaming metaphor, the article refers to Nick Bostrom’s simulation argument, who attempt to convince that we actually live within a computer game. Having analyzed Bostrom’s argument, the author turn to the theory of digidal media by Lev Manovich, which paradoxically appears to be identical to the theory of object within the framework of modern realistic plain ontologies. Metaphysical meaning of stimulation argument, as well as complete identity of the theory of digital objects and modern metaphysical realism, allow claiming that that world can actually be viewed as digital. In this case, the comparison between real and virtual loses it meaning, and videogames become a speculative instrument for polishing the skills of ontological analysis and search for the language that can be applied for describing the structure of digital worlds (our own world can be acknowledged as one of those).
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