Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue 04/2016
Contents of Issue 04/2016
Space and time
Afanaseva V.V., Pilipenko E.A. - Polyonticity of time pp. 1-14

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.4.18376

Abstract: The authors constitute the idea of polyonticity of time. Natural sciences along with humanitarian knowledge introduced many and versatile ideas about various forms of time: physical (natural universal, objective) and multiple “human-measured” times (psychological, existential, social, historical, political, cultural, etc.); the latters could be divided into individual (subjective) and collective (intersubjective). With regards to post-nonclassical ontology, all of the existing and imaginable multiplicity of times can be unified by the virtue of the ideas on polyonticity – the unity of ontologically distinguished forms of existence of the same object of the world. Accepting the complexity of time and attempting to contemplate about the possibility of forming its ontology, let us use the principles of post-nonclassical rationality and the ideas of post-nonclassical ontology. In such key, the time acts as a phenomenon of polyonticity, presented by the ontologically diversified forms of being, as well as defines the existence of multiple realities. Among the “human-measured” times, the authors point out the individual (subjective) and collective (intersubjective). Collective times are represented by the synergy effect, the result of overlapping, cooperation, resonances of various individual times. The speed of the flow of “human-measured” times is defined by the “energy” of psychological and social cooperation, as well as their effect upon the natural and technogenic processes.
Spectrum of consciousness
Zhul'kov M.V. - Energy aspects of consciousness in the philosophy of the XX century pp. 15-28

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.4.18226

Abstract: The subject of this research is the energy paradigm of the XX century philosophy of consciousness. Among them are such concepts as: the materialistic, William James’ flow of consciousness; the concept of Arthur Schopenhauer; psychodynamic concept of Sigmund Freud; Albert’s Veinik thermodynamics concept; Lev Gumilev’s theory of ethnogenesis; Vladimir Vernadsky’s doctrine of bioenergy, and others. The existing concepts the author classifies using the systematic approach and the triad “substance-energy-information” proposed by I. V. Dmitrevskaya. As a result, these concepts are divided into substance- substrate, structural-energy, and information. The majority is referred to as “substance” or “information”. This article demonstrates that energy characteristics are present in many concepts of the XX century, and this fact confirms the fundamentality of the energy approach towards studying the consciousness. Energy concepts along with information and substrate are mutually complemented, and can become grounds for the future creation of the integral doctrine on consciousness. One of the important directions of the research on consciousness is the conjunction of the energy approach with noosphere, which will allow combining within the framework of a unified approach the psychical-energy and subjective, natural scientific and humanitarian paradigms of consciousness, adequately describing the processes of formation of the global consciousness.
Methodology of philosophical learning
Selivanov A.I. - The concept of development of specific objects as a methodological basis of understanding the socio-economic development pp. 29-38

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.4.18427

Abstract: The subject of research is the problem of forming the methodological platform for the strategic management system in Russia on the basis of the modern theory of the development of specific sites. The object of study is the concept of development in historical context, the notion of development, list of research questions. The author briefly describes the evolution of research development, summarizes the achievements of the theory of development.Special attention is paid to the study of the concept of development.A list of the fundamental problems of developing knowledge objects.Is the problem of formation of system of knowledge development and developing objects (science development).Research methods: the method of ascent from the abstract to the concrete, the tools methods of the materialist dialectic, synergetic and system approaches, historical method. Novelty:1. As a basis of methodology of knowledge of complex developing objects in the framework of the dialectical approach proposes the concept of developing specific objects, which relies on the definition of development as the emergence of the new object type or complex organizational interactions and binding (retention) in the number sequence States object with all its internal and external interactions.2. In the system of knowledge development are three major areas cognitive, design, institutional, invited a group of interrelated epistemological issues and knowledge development is presented as an organic complex philosophical and metascientific ones and specifically research-oriented developing objects and processes development
Social philosophy
Parkhomenko R.N. - Discourse, democracy, political publicity as the components of German normative concept of liberalism pp. 39-49

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.4.18411

Abstract: The object of this research is the main definitions of the social theory of one of the most reputable contemporary German philosophers Jürgen Habermas that received a title of “deliberative democracy”. Special attention is given to the examination of liberalism, which tends to exaggerate the role of the negative individual freedoms that in turn, leads to unacceptability of the so-called “Western individualism”, predominantly within the Eastern societies. At the same time, entire legal power of the Western democracies ranges itself on the side of personal interests of an individual. The author thoroughly explores the question on how the instrumentalist understanding of the principles of democracy sharply contradicts the republican “variant” of democratic freedoms. The author’s main contribution consists in an attempt to determine the merits and flaws of the J. Habermas’ theory. The fact that the main positions of the theory of discursive democracy are substantiated fairly convincing id considered a positive side of the social philosophy of Habermas. However, the disadvantage of the concept of deliberative democracy consists in the fact that Habermas as an unconditional prerequisite accepts a postulate that all people are rational creatures, whose behavior is being strictly regulated by the rational principles expressed by the virtue of language.
Political philosophy
myurberg i.i. - History as an analytical activity (development of the concept of historical time in the modern sciences on nature and society) pp. 50-74

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.4.18500

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the examination of the emerged in the XX century new approaches towards understanding of history and historical time. The search for the contemporary answers to the question: “What is history?” began with the parallel innovative research of physicists and philosophers, and continued throughout the entire XX century. Each of the participating disciplines was moving towards the new understanding in its own unique way. The goal of this work is to demonstrate the interdisciplinary character of the established concept, its central notions (irreversible time, historical event), and also give special attention to the singularity of theoretical solutions, discovered by the political philosophy at the brink of the XX and XXI centuries. The results acquired during the examination of the established interdisciplinary concept, allow concluding that the present research initiative belongs namely to the political theory; particularly, the author gives a clear theoretical explanation of the fact that philosophical analytics as a method produces a different affect depending on its application to the various elements of the studied process (political event).
Philosophy of history
Demin I.V. - The problem of historical identity in the philosophy of Frank Ankersmit pp. 75-88

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.4.18331

Abstract: This article examines the F. Anfkersmit’s concept of historical identity, as well as determines its main approaches towards the identity conceptualization within the modern philosophy of history. The author clarifies the correlation between the notions “historical identity” and “sociocultural identity”, and also defines the place of the concept of “elevated historical experience” in the context of post-metaphysical historical philosophical reflection. Special attention is given to the role of oblivion in the process of changing the sociocultural identity. The content of the notions “memory”, “oblivion”, and “trauma” is being revealed within the framework of the problematics of identity. The author pursues parallels between the interpretation of identity of a subject in Ankersmit’s philosophy and the phenomenological philosophy of Jean-Paul Sartre. Unlike the constructivist theories of sociocultural identity, in Ankersmit’s concept the identity of a subject is not constituted via the description of history, but rather logically and ontologically precedes any forms of historiographical representations. Identity is not a construct, but a direct given. The elevated historical experience which reveals to the historical subject its unlikeness, is the experience of an irreversible gap between the past (previous identity) and the present (new identity).
Self-consciousness and identity
Bogdanova V.O. - The image of I. Constructivist approach pp. 89-100

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.4.18336

Abstract: The subject of this research is the constructive nature of “I”, which is presented by the manifoldness of “I images”, interconnected through a unified history of life. These “I” images can be distributed into three main constructs: the physical “I”, the social “I”, and the spiritual “I”. The physical “I” is the source of information about the world, upon which we form the idea of reality and ourselves. The social “I” is revealed through the choice of social roles, which represent typologies of the habitual human activity. The spiritual “I” is the result of understanding of own existence through the prism of values and ideas. The “I” cannot be fixed in form of an object; it manifests itself as a process. The author re-examines the idea of “I” as a sustained core of personality. The understanding of “I” as a dynamic constructs reveals greater prospects for development of psychotherapeutic methods, aimed at helping people in their search of selfness. Since the nature of “I” is unstable, it is not static, but rather dynamic characteristics of “I” that best reflect the structure of identity, as well as serve as the source of the main vital stimuli.  
The history of humanitarian science
Krasikov V.I. - Philosophy in the post-Soviet Russia: Marxist groups pp. 101-113

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.4.18426

Abstract: The object of this research is the history of Russian philosophy of the post-Soviet period. While the subject is the dynamics of changes of the public attitude towards Marxist ideology and philosophy, as well as assessment and reconsideration of their main theoretical positions within the Russian philosophical community. The author thoroughly examines such aspects of the topic as periodization of the essential changes of public and professional-philosophical interest towards Marxism in the post-Soviet Russia; succession and revision with regards to the Soviet Marxism; determination of the main actors in the modern communicative space of the “Marxist discourse”. Methodology of the research is based on the approach, according to which the network structure of the relations between intellectuals defines the general space of intellectual attention, structured upon several competitive positions. The main results of the conducted research are the following:Periodization of evolution of the public attitude towards Marxism, and dynamics of reframing of its main theoretical positions within the Russian professional philosophical community;Classification and description of peculiarities of the contemporary Marxist groups in modern Russia, their theoretical platforms, and determination of the level of their public influence.
Philosophical anthropology
Spektor D.M. - Eros: on the other side of singularity pp. 114-128

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.4.18335

Abstract: The subject of this research is presented by a repeatedly mention, but still quite mysterious connection between Eros, death, and power. It is demonstrated that the specified realities could not be cognized based on the modern meanings and interpretations. The connection between death, Eros, and power includes a number of important historical metamorphoses, the essence of which in fact reconstructs this research. One of its initial points is the proclaimed by Foucault entrenchment of power in “biopolitics”.  Such reconstruction allows stating the reverse pace of the historical logic: domination of “biopolitics”, which equally substantiates the forms of power, Eros, and survival. Method of the research is associated with the analysis of the historical reconstruction of Eros, exogamy, and (symbolic) exchange. Its logical canvas is subordinated to the reconstructing succession of the intercommunity relations that are based predominantly on the two factors: aggression and its only antipode – captivity of wives. Referring to such descriptive sketches, the article underpins the ontology. The scientific novelty consists in proving the fact that collectivity in the eyes of community is the essence of the commonness of genders – male and female. The latters are not created by the nature not being a natural expression and continuation of gender; it’s the ontological predeterminations, from the relationship of which originates the commonness of human (being).
Philosophy and culture
Mostitskaya N.D. - Festivity and mundanity in projection of constancy and dynamicity of cultural being pp. 129-143

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.4.18338

Abstract:  In this article special attention is given to the analysis of cooperation and dynamics of such forms of culture as festivity and mundanity from the perspective of their logical contradictions and synthesis. The author examines the dialectical, metaphysical, and synergy approaches in studying the phenomenon of festivity. Reference to the antique tradition of philosophical thought allows revealing the phenomenon of festivity as the “constancy” of being; while mundanity is presented as the “dynamicity” of being and is defined by means of turning to the postmodern philosophy. In order to substantiate such approach the author suggests the synthesis of metaphysical and dialectical methods of cognition, which aloe explaining the periods of stabilization and changes of the festivity tradition, as well as the dynamics and vector of development of mundanity. The scientific novelty consists in the synthetic approach, which reveals the problem of festivity and mundanity in philosophical-culturological aspect. Festivity and Mundanity as constancy and dynamicity, are being used as the elements of the frame of reference for modeling and communicative space in its vector orientation, as well as the description of bifurcation transition.  
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