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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 10/2016
Contents of Issue № 10/2016
Philosophy of science
Astakhov S.S. - Critical reception of the actor-network theory: from Machiavellianism to the problem of the Other pp. 1-15

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.10.2056

Abstract: This article represent a review of the most widespread arguments against the actor-network theory (B. Latour, M. Callon, and J. Law). In the first part of this work the author examines the accusations in descriptivism, Machiavellianism, and intentionally esoteric language. As a separate issue, the argument of S. Schaffer is being highlighted, regarding the fact that Latour does not touches upon the “status quo” in distribution of the authority between the acting powers. In the second part, the author describes the conflict between the actor-network theory on one hand, and sociology of the scientific knowledge on the other. The differences between the Bath and Edinburgh Schools are being clarified. In the third part of the article, the author explores the arguments of the researchers supporting Latour. The author proves that Latour can be included into the relativist tradition, because he takes to the boundaries of logic the thesis on incommensurability of the theories. A hypothesis is proposed that the most importance for the development of the actor-network theory lies in the criticism of the internal circle and overcoming of the problem of the Other. It is also suggested to generalize the problem of the Other to the formal problem of the off-network.   
The rational and the irrational
Vetushinskiy A.S. - Anti-spiritualism, anti-idealism, anti-obscurantism: three periods in development of the Western materialism pp. 16-31

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.10.2057

Abstract: In this article the author problematizes the history of materialism and the way it has established within the tradition of dialectical materialism. Referring to the works of the materialists from La Mettrie, d'Holbach, Engels to Žižek and Meillassouxm, the author detects that not nearly all of the materialists argued and continue to argue against the idealism. In addition to that, the author believes that we should not forget that explicitly materialism has opposed idealism just in the XIX century; and materialism in its clear form has been existing since the XVIII century. Thus, the question arises: with whom in this case the materialism has struggled against the entire century. Moreover, does the taking place in the XIX-XX centuries fight between the materialism and idealism guarantee that the modern materialism in reality struggles namely against the idealism? Analyzing the texts by the materialists of the XVIII-XXI centuries, the author suggest the question: whom in reality the materialists of the past and the present argue against? The conclusion made by the author consists in the fact that the history of materialism should not be viewed as homogeneous and not containing the gaps; but on the contrary, it should be viewed through the prism of the series of changing each other conflicts. The first conflict is materialism vs spiritualism. The second is materialism vs idealism. The third is materialism vs obscurantism. At the same time, the author believes that namely the third conflict and peculiar attention towards it can allow us to understand and realize the specificities of the modern Western materialism.
Ontology: being and nihility
Kachay I. - Linguistic, praxeological, anthropological, and ontological grounds of correlation between the notions “artistry” and “creativity” pp. 32-49

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.10.2064

Abstract: The object of this research is the creative work as the ontological phenomenon. The subject of study is the various grounds of correlation between the notions of “artistry” and “creativity”, which act as the criterial base of the conceptual separation of the original phenomena. The notion of “artistry” is being understood as internally free, spontaneous, unpredictable, and altruistic process of the improvised formation of the qualitatively new being that has sociocultural importance, high level of perfection, and oriented towards the integral cognition of reality, spiritually-ethical improvement of the universe and self-realization of the subject. The notion of “creativity” is substantiates as dependent from the external factors, algorithmic, technological, and pragmatic process of the stereotype combination of the already present being, which represents the value for mass consumer with low level of performance, as well as aimed at the fragmentary cognition of the world, public recognition, and outrageous self-presentation. The scientific novelty consists in substantiation of creativity as similarity, imitation, and surrogate of the constructive process that is characterized by the plagiarism, pragmatic, and mechanistic nature, and manifesting as the creative work of public and consumer designation. The author’s main contribution lies in formulation of the original understanding of creativity as the pseudo-creativity, substantiation of the level of legitimacy of the use of the notion of “creativity” in scientific works, as well as actualization of the anti-synonymous approach towards the correlation of the terms of “artistry” and “creativity” be means of development of the linguistic, praxeological, anthropological, and ontological grounds of their interaction. The main conclusion is the postulation of the inadmissibility of identification of the notions of “artistry” and “creativity” for avoiding the processes of dehumanization of social relations and devaluation of the personal beginning.
Philosophy of language and communication
Nilogov A.S. - Library of philosophy of the anti-language: definition of anti-language in interpretation of H. Wirth and A. G. Dugin pp. 50-62

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.10.1838

Abstract:   This article examines the traditionalistic interpretation of the notion of “anti-language” in the Nordic esotericism of Herman Wirth and Aleksandt Gelievich Dugin. In the process of critical deconstruction of the Wirth-Dugin text, the author determines not only discriminative character of the concepts of the preached and racial dualism, but also dispute the very principle of linguistic competence of the American linguist Noam Chomsky, simultaneously using the alternative interpretations, namely the philosophy of the anti-language that studies the grounds and limits of the semiotic nomination on the language and dependence of the cognitive process from the anti-language. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that the example of the Wirth-Dugin racial understanding of the anti-language, again confirms the Heidegger’s funded ontological and ontical diversification of the essence of the natural human language, lending to non-consumer (occasional) and consumer (usual) manifestation. In addition to that, the author introduces the “principle of linguistic incompetence” into the philosophical-linguistic discourse.   
History of ideas and teachings
Martynova O.A. - Peter the Great and his work in philosophy of the early Slavophiles pp. 63-70

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.10.1830

Abstract: The object of this research is the philosophical-historical views of the early Slavophiles. The subject is the analysis and assessment of the work of the Russian emperor Peter the Great by the Slavophiles. Special attention is given to the views of Slavophiles upon such arrangements of the emperor as passing the “Decree on Single Inheritance”, church reform, cultural borrowings from the West, strengthening of the authoritarian rule. The work reveals and analyzes the following key aspects: understanding and tracing of the causes of the reforms of Peter the Great by the Slavophiles; determination by the thinkers of the consequences of the emperor’s activity for the Russian history and culture; level of correspondence of the Slavophilic conclusions with the historical facts; objectivity of assessment of the reforms of Peter the Great by the Slavophiles. The theoretical basis of the research is the orientation towards the versatile examination of the problem, determination and synthesis of its diverse aspects. In their evaluation, the thinkers attempt to be objective by highlighting the positive, as well as negative moments of the emperor’s activity. Slavophiles present very few precise facts on Peter the Great and his era, limiting themselves by the general patterns of his reforms. The given by the Slavophiles assessments of Peter the Great often correlates with the positions of the professional historians that do not belong to the Slavophilic direction, which also speaks of their attempt to be objective. The author’s contribution into this work consists in systematization of characteristics of the persona and work of Peter the Great in understanding of the Slavophiles; accentuation of the assigned by the thinkers causes and consequences of the emperor’s reforms; determination of correspondence of the Slavophilic characteristics with the historical facts.
Social dynamics
Polyushkevich O.A., Antonova L.L., Kashchaev A.E. - Empathy and socio-cultural solidarity pp. 71-82

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.10.1850

Abstract: The subject of research is the empathy as a way of understanding the man and the world. The object of the study advocates the epistemological and ontological understanding of empathy place in the social reproduction of society. Particular attention is paid to the processes of social solidarity and disintegration, coming during the action or lack of empathy. Empathy is the condition and the possibility of social solidarity and social dynamics, especially when breaking down the basic categories of the social world order and form new strategies of social interactions and development. The methodological basis of research supports the social constructivism and the theory of social representations. These areas form a common methodological framework for analysis of social processes and allow you to systematically analyze social dynamics. The novelty of the research is determined by the fact that in times of social change, economic and political crises, cultural and spiritual transformation, an important aspect of the integrity of society advocates social identity. Social identity demarcates the social space, clearly is a group of "friends", and gives a sense of security to members of the community. One of the key factors in the formation of social identity acts empathy - a sense of belonging a group, or action that defines the degree of social solidarity community. Social empathy is a complex phenomenon which contains as its structural elements the collective, as well as personal identity. An important element of these processes is the understanding of the formation and the impact of socio-cultural foundations of empathy are not equally manifested in different social groups of the modern Russian society.
Characteristics of society
Goncharov V.V. - Political philosophy of the global constitutionalism pp. 83-111

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.10.2012

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the examination of political philosophy of the global constitutionalism. The author conducts the analysis of the view of socio-philosophical concept of the global constitutionalism upon the political system of society. The work explores the relation of the aforementioned concept to the system of law. The author pursues correlation between the legal regulation and political violation in the socio-philosophical concept of global constitutionalism. The article substantiates the need for preservation of the democratic values and principles in organization and functioning of the state mechanism of the Russian Federation as the necessary condition of preservation of its independence and territorial integrity. The author believes that there is an actual risk of the forfeit of democratic beginnings in organization of the socio-political, state-legal, and financial-economic structure on the level of national government, with the final slide of human civilization into the liberal totalitarianism fraught with the dismantlement of the system of human and citizen rights and liberties in the core countries of the global capitalist system, as well as periphery countries.
Meaning and silence
Napso M.D. - Fashion as the “collective choice” pp. 112-117

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8728.2016.10.2058

Abstract: The object of this article is the phenomenon of fashion; the subject is fashion in Herbert Blumer’s sociological concept, as well as its modern interpretation. The work examines the social aspects of fashion, role of the various actors in its production and functioning, dependence of fashion on the specificity of historical time alongside its changeability and return. This article presents fashion as the consistent and rational phenomenon, as the factor of social prestige and success, as well as demonstrates its presence in all of the segments of society. The author examines the functions of fashion and their stipulation by the social practice. The methodological foundation consists in the principles of objectivity and systematicity, which allow demonstrating fashion as an integral and controversial phenomenon. The scientific novelty lies in substantiation of a thesis about fashion as the crucial social phenomenon. The problematic field of this work allows formulating the following conclusions: 1) fashion is the most important social trend and public demand; 2) the “engine” of fashion is the processes of the “collective choice” as a combination of actions of various actors.
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