Philosophical Thought
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Philosophical Thought" > Contents of Issue № 11/2014
Contents of Issue № 11/2014
Ontology: being and nihility
Faritov V.T. - Transcendence as the ontological horizon of scientific discourse (Heidegger's philosophy of science) pp. 1-31


Abstract: The subject of the study is the specificity of the interpretation of the phenomenon of science in the doctrine Martin Heidegger. Since the approaches to understanding of being as such, Heidegger begins with the development of existential analysts, before this study is twofold purpose. First, the interpretation of the phenomenon of science as a modus of human existence, that is, as the way in which things become accessible to man in his being. The study revealed the existential-ontological and metaphysical bases of scientific knowledge. Second, we show how the phenomenon of science represents being as such or transcendence.Along with the traditional methodology used in the article methodological arsenal of non-classical philosophy: hermeneutics, semiotics and deconstruction.The main result of the study is the explication of the ontological base of scientific knowledge in the context of fundamental ontology of M. Heidegger. Ontological foundation of science is to present things as objectivity, existing outside and independent of human existence. It follows that science is one of one of the modes of being in the world, or transcendence. Science is the way in which things become available in being human.
Spectrum of consciousness
Maximov L.V. - Reduction of Consciousness to Cognition as the Methodological Principle of Cognitive Science and Humanities pp. 32-71


Abstract: Object of research and the critical analysis in this article is the epistemological reductionism – the methodological approach defining the main contents and structure of cognitive science. The basis of this approach is made by idea, very widespread in philosophy of consciousness and psychology, that human mentality (spirit, mentality) in general and in all the manifestations can be reduced to knowledge and knowledge and is respectively described and explained in terms of an epistemologiya. In cognitive science the specified traditional approach changed a little, language of a classical epistemologiya gave way to a conceptual framework of the theory of information, however these changes left the general kognitivistsky interpretation of consciousness in inviolability. In article other methodological approach – a nonkognitivizm according to which the consciousness (spirit, mentality) includes a number of phenomena, essentially irreducible to knowledge is opposed to an epistemological reductionism of cognitive science; these are emotions, estimates, interests, the purposes, etc. Novelty of research consists that it allowed to reveal and theoretically to articulate characteristic for "sciences about spirit" a methodological mistake, namely – the unilateral cognitive and information approach to consciousness which is excessively simplifying its structure and by that considerably distorting results of scientific searches in this area. Correction of the specified methodological approach from a position of an anti-reductionism has to promote successful advance of science in the solution of a number of actual problems, in particular – an applied problem of "artificial intelligence", a psychophysical problem and some other.
The torment of communication
Emel'yanova N.N. - Scientific Communication: On the Problem of Demarcation of Publicity Borders pp. 72-85


Abstract: Object of this research is the modern system of scientific communications. An object of research – changes of modern scientific communications in the conditions of the new information and media environment. Stable development of science as social institute is impossible without broad public support which inquiries change with development of communication and media technologies. However cardinal changes in development of communication opportunities and alternatives led to prompt changes in information space of modern science. A reverse side of this process was almost exponential growth manipulative the practician which are actively used in generation of the information streams connected with scientific knowledge that, without exaggeration, is the real call to the scientist and their activity. The presented scientific question is in area of interdisciplinary researches (on a joint the nauchnofilosofskikh, the naukovedcheskikh, political and historical disciplines), demands complex use of a number of the methodological principles. Among them: analysis and synthesis, and also principles of historicism and systemacity. Novelty of research is that in this article the perspective directions of development of the scientific communications connected with rehabilitation of the original bases of publicity in modern society are planned.The conclusion that the unique way of development of scientific community in Russia in its relationship with media Wednesday is defined by fight for finding of subjectivity in media is drawn.
Philosophy of science
Loktionov M. - Critics of the Implementation of Critical Theory and Critical Systems Approach in Modern Concepts of Social Development pp. 86-106


Abstract: Object of research of this work is the criticism of application of the critical theory and critical (emansipatsionny) system approach in the theory of management and modern concepts of development of society in general. The review of the criticism which is "external" in relation to the critical theory and, therefore, calling in question its philosophical and methodological bases and "internal" who is generally kindly adjusted in relation to the critical theory is provided and concentrates the attention on difficulties which the critical theory meets during implementation of the research program. Method of research is detection of distinctions between criticism "external" in relation to the critical theory and calling in question its philosophical and methodological bases and "internal" which is generally positively adjusted in the relation to the critical theory. The conclusion that critical system approach is based on various assumptions of the nature of society developed in other system approaches is drawn and acknowledges the possibility of contradictions in social systems, existence of the conflicts and suppression of one groups of interests by others. Is shown that to the relation to other system methodologies critical system approach inherently anticipates development of the complementarist approaches.
Translations of philosophy classics
Fedorova Y. - Farid ud-Din Attar's Philosophical Poem 'Speech of the Birds': Translation and Retelling of Selected Chapters pp. 107-150


Abstract: The translation from the Persian language of the main the syuzhetoobrazuyushchikh of fragments of the major monument of the Persian sufiysky philosophical tradition - the philosophical poem "The Speech of the Birds" (Mantik at-tayr) Farid of ad-Din Attar Nischapuri (the XII-XIII centuries) is presented in article, and also are considered a number of questions, connected with studying of a literary heritage of Attar: disputes on number of the literary works written to them are conducted, there is no accurately established chronology of writing of compositions, besides, there are some poems attributed to Attar however there are no direct historical evidences that their author he. In research philological methods, and also the historico-philosophical and conceptual analysis of the text that allows to define strategy of interpretation of a number of poetic constructs (such as "soul bird", by "Simurg", "valleys") are used mainly thanks to which Attar opens the maintenance of important concepts of medieval sufiysky philosophy. Novelty of research consists first of all in translation from the Persian language of the medieval poem "The Speech of the Birds" (with a total amount about 800 couplets) relating both to poetry masterpieces and to the most authoritative works of sufiysky thought in tradition. This composition was repeatedly translated into the European languages (Garsen de Tassi, Edward Fitzgerald, D. Davies and. A. Darbandi, P. Everi) and Arab (M. Dzhum'a). The translation of separate parts of the poem into Russian and its partial retelling was executed by domestic iranist E.E. Bertels and A.E. Bertels. Only in 2006 the translation "Parables about the sheikh San'ana" from the poem "The Speech of the Birds" was published, and in 2009 — the translation of the poem executed by M. Borzui into Russian under the name "Logic of Birds" is published. However this translation of the poem is incomplete and is almost completely deprived of the scientific comment. In this regard the author counted necessary to make own translation of considerable part of this philosophical monument that will allow further more objectively and fully to cover philosophical ideas of Attar and to define his place in the context of Islamic medieval philosophical tradition.
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