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Philosophical Thought
Reference:

Ethnic Fragmentation of Nations in the Era of Globalization: Socio-Philosophical Aspects
Safonov Andrey Leonidovich

Professor, the department of Philosophy, Tula State University

300012, Russia, Tul'skaya oblast', g. Tula, ul. Pr. Lenina, 92

zumsiu@yandex.ru
Другие публикации этого автора
 

 

Abstract.

In his article Safonov offers the integral paradigm of sociogenesis that explains social mechanisms of such socio-cultural phenomena of globalization as ethnic fragmentation of nations, actualization of ethnic communities, ethnicity and ethnic identity and systemic crisis of contemporary nations, national identity and national idea. The researcher also touches upon the problem of limits to applicability of primordialism and constructionism as the basic approaches to sociogenesis. Safonov puts forward the problem of defining the essential grounds and attributive features of globalization as a qualitatively new historical epoch that generates, among other phenomena, ethnic fragmentation of nations and actualization of ethnic identity. The researcher criticizes the one sided view on globalization according to which globalization is the process of establishment of the single global social community unifying ethnocultural differences. The methodological basis of the paradigm of sociogenesis offered by the researcher involves the definition of nation and ethnos as a long-existing nonidentical and ontologically different social communities an invidual simultaneously participates in. Globalization is views as a global systemic crisis that unites the world through the universal conflict of social communities and other actors of global changes who have antagonistic interests that objectively generate processes of social divergence, differentiation and social fragmentation including ethnocultural fragmentation. The main conclusions and the scientific novelty of the research include the following. In the era of globalization the phenomenon of ethnic fragmentation of contemporary nations and actualization of ethnicity is explained by  the fact that an individual simultaneously participates in both nation and ethnos. His simultaneous participation in ethnos and nation relates to different and community-specific spheres of social existence, the sphere of political existence for a nation and the sphere of everyday existence for an ethnos. Nation can be defined as a social community which is non-identical to ethnos but co-exists with ethnos. Nation first appeared when the state institution was established. Ontology, genesis and peculiarities of the development of the nation have been determined by the political life of the society which is best described by constructivist approaches. Ethnos can be defined as a social community which genesis and regeneration relate to the sphere of everyday life with its attributive social inheritance. This defines the main features of ethnos which are inertance, evolutionary development and relative independence from the political sphere.  Different historical forms of ethnos exist in all historical epochs including industrial and post-industrial eras and ethnos tends to be actualized in the era of globalization. Genesis and features of ethnic development are better explained by the primordialist approach to sociogenesis. Different stages of the historical development have had a particular balance and forms of the development of ethnic and national communities. Combination and interaction of these ethnic and national communities create a social structure of the society with all its complexity which ca be reduced neither to political processes with their domination of one subject nor ethnocultural processes with their evolutionism and inertance nor economic phenomena. The systematic crisis of contemporary nation as a result of globalization processes actualize commitment of an individual to his ethnos as a more inertial and sustainable community that is less dependent on the crisis of the political sphere or social institutions. Thus, ethnic fragmentation of the society caused by the crisis of nation as a more developed social community and the social progress of the XIXth - XXth centuries objectively generates the phenomena of social regress and archaization of soial relations which, in their turn, is the key factors of the further exacerbation of the crisis of nation, national state and national institutions. 

Keywords: ethnos, nation, globalization, global issues, sociogenesis, ethnogenesis, ethnic fragmentation, constructionism, primordialism , social community

DOI:

10.7256/2409-8728.2015.6.15796

Article was received:

16-07-2015


Review date:

17-07-2015


Publish date:

24-08-2015


This article written in Russian. You can find full text of article in Russian here .

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