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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Finance and Management" > Contents of Issue № 04/2017
Contents of Issue № 04/2017
Financial politics
Evteeva M.V. - Modern Trends of Funding Russia's Research Institutions pp. 1-10

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7802.2017.4.24850

Abstract: The subject of this research article is the modern state of funding Russia's research institutions, the process that is accompanied with integrated reformation covering all elements  of the academic sector. In her research Evteeva compares the main sources of funding Russia's fundamental science. She underlines that the role of the agricultural sector may start to play a crucial role under new conditions of the post-industrial era. The author also emphasizes the importance of proper definition of objectives when preparing government orders. According to the author, it is an important factor of increasing efficiency of research institutions in Russia. To analyze the process of funding the academic sector, the author of the article uses the dialectical method. To find answers to particular questions related to the subject of the research, the author uses the method of formal logic. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author analyzes the current state of funding Russia's research institutions. She underlines that Russia's business sector should pay a bigger role in funding researches carried out by research institutions. The author also emphasizes the need to raise up a detailed special purpose funding of research institutions. Search for new ways to compensate for research costs apart from the federal budget is also an important and topical issue. The current system that unites research institutions based on their territorial attribute is contradictory and ineffective because research institutions of different majors do not have so many crossing points and interaction of their researchers is difficult. 
Government and municipal revenue
Zotova A.I., Korobko S.A. - Fiscal Autonomy of Municipalities: Experience of the Southern Federal District pp. 11-22

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7802.2017.4.24957

Abstract: The object of the research is the local budgets of the Southern Federal District constituents. The subject of the research is the fiscal autonomy of municipalities as a legal and financial ability of local government to define revenue sources and value, directions and methods of budgetary funds cost incurrence when solving local questions. The author of the article views fiscal autonomy as an important financial feature of municipality budgets that reflects the level of budgetary independence, opportunities, limitations and risks of the municipal government when performing profitable and expenditure competences. The methodological basis of the research involves principles and basic provisiosn of the fiscal federalism concept, formal logic, systems approach and structure-function analysis. The authors have also used the methods of descriptive statistics and comparative analysis and offer their own indicators to evaluate the level of fiscal autonomy of municipal budgets. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the authors use the aforesaid indicators for comparative analysis of the level of fiscal autonomy of different types of municipalities in different territories. The results of the analysis have demonstrated the following: insufficient level of fiscal autonomy of the Southern Federal District municipalities, dependence of local budgets on the financial policy of the local government, in particular, allocation of subsidies and grants, significant influence of spacial features and socioeconomic disparities on the indicators of fiscal autonomy. At the end of their research the authors conclude that recommendations aimed at raising fiscal autonomy of municipalities should take into account particularities of the territorial organisation of the budgetary process, dynamic features of budgetary asymmetry and regional determinants of financial flows into budgets of the Federation constituents. 
Financial regulation
Talalaeva N., Murav'eva N. - Assessing Efficiency of Industrial Enterprises’ Financial Management under Inflationary Conditions. Method Development pp. 23-36

DOI:
10.7256/2409-7802.2017.1.21224

Abstract: The financial management of Russian enterprises is the object of research. The process of efficiency of industrial enterprises’ financial management under inflationary conditions is the subject of research. Information about the financial status and efficiency of financial management under inflationary conditions is true and accurate if it’s adjusted for inflation. The methodology for assessment of efficiency of industrial enterprises’ financial management under inflationary conditions was described. This technique of estimation allows to separate the inflationary component from financial statements by using the price deflators taking into consideration the branch and regional special aspects of a particular enterprise. The methods of empirical research include observation, description, comparison; methods of theoretical research are the method of abstracting; and general logical methods are analysis, synthesis, etc. The scientific novelty is that written methodology includes the computation algorithm of separating the inflationary component. Financial indicators «cleaned» from inflation will be the basis for making rational investment and management decisions.
Zhebit E.V. - Casus Brexit and Prospects of European Science Funding pp. 37-46

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7802.2017.4.24815

Abstract: The object of the research is the referendum about participation in the European Union that was held in the Great Britain. The subject of the research is the main economic consequences of Brexit including domestic and foreign policy of the European Union and Great Britain. Within the framework of this research, Brexit is viewed as a factor that reflects the global process of transfer to a new geopolitical reality. The author of the article pays special attention to European scientific cooperation and major international research projects. The author demonstrates that the scientific sphere gradually loses its financial independence and faces a growing migration of science and research specialists. In the course of this research the author has used historical, logical, statistical and prognostic methods that allowed to achieve the targets of the research. The author concludes that Brexit may cause recession for the Great Britain including the fall in British currency rates, inflation growth, poorer investment conditions, reduced volumes of the external trade with the EU, etc., up to a real threat of the Kingdom collapse. At the same time, the EU experiences the influence of crucial geopolitical, economic and military factors which, in its turn, may significantly weaken the role of the EU on the global arena. 
Finances of the financial market professionals
Bogucharskov A.V. - Renewal of Securitization Mechanism Using Blockchain Technologies pp. 47-55

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7802.2017.4.24784

Abstract: The subject of the research is the economic relatins that arise in the process of implementing blockchain technologies for securitization of assets. At the present time low transparency and high complexity of the securitization mechanism as a result of the need in a great number of supporting documents generated by a lot of companies and agencies make it essential to apply blockchain technologies to this sphere. The author of the article describes the process of assets securitizaton and problems that may arise in the process of its implementation. The aim of the research is to study efficiency of blockchain technologies in the securitization process. To achieve this aim, the author has used such research methods as analysis, synthesis, generalisation and comparison. The author of the article offers his own model of a decentralized infrastructure of interaction during the securitization process that allows to find solutions of existing problems. This model can be applied to all kinds and stages of the securitization process. Such a decentralized infrastructure allows to reduce the time for document processing, transation costs and raise the level of the process transparency. The securitization process will become cheaper, more stable and efficient which will draw more interests of investors and allow emitents to find an integral solution of risk distribution tasks. 
Accounting and audit
Kovaleva A. - Assessing the Level of Materiality According to International Audit Standards pp. 56-63

DOI:
10.7256/2409-7802.2017.1.20346

Abstract: The article is devoted to assessing the level of materiality in audit according to international audit standards. To fully understand this term, the author of the article has analyzed the following: definition of materiality based on the International Audit Standard 320 'Materiality in planning and conduct of an audit', the aim of materiality, responsibilities of an auditor such as audit risk, errors and omissions in an auditor's report and report with reservations. The author has also studied the International Audit Standard 450 'Evaluation of errors and omissions in the process of audit' and compared IAS 320 to its Russian Federal Audit Rule (Standard) No. 4 'Materiality in audit' as well as analyzes the term 'modified auditor's report' as it is set forth in IAS 705 'Types of modified auditor's reports'. An auditor must understand that even though particular errors and omissions do not necessarily play an important role, their combination may significantly change a report. Thus, assessment of the materiality level in audit should be based on synthesis that allows to get a better insight into phenomena under study. It is also necessary to note that first of all during an audit it is important to define the level of materiality for the entire report. This indicator should be the basis for assessing other elements of materiality which will be further used to plan audit procedures and interpret audit results. 
Regional economy
Ryabova S.G., Balandina S.V. - Competitive Position and Prerequisites for Improving Competitiveness of the Republic of Mordovia on the Market of Tourist Services pp. 64-72

DOI:
10.7256/2409-7802.2017.1.19746

Abstract: Due to its geographical position and an array of cultural, historical and natural sights the Republic of Mordovia presents a considerable interest to tourists, however, the Republic’s traditional concern with manufacture of agricultural products has put tourism aside as economi-cally insignificant industry. Nevertheless, the need for creating a competitive tourist guidance facilities is proved by international and domestic nation-wide positive tendencies in the devel-opment of tourism as one of the most promising industries of the world economy, as well as by its wide multiplier effect, providing a stimulating effect on related industries such as transport, construction engineering, production and sale of souvenirs, agriculture, public catering industry, insurance, etc. The paper reveals the competitive advantages of the Republic of Mordovia and presents the results of the SWOT-analysis of development of tourist facilities and assessment of tourist-recreational potential of the region. The research is based on the systems approach with application of comparative analysis and economic-statistical methods. The authors substantiate the necessity for intensive activities aimed at broadening competitive position and creating conditions that extend the Republic’s competitiveness in the market of tourist services. The main conclusion of the study is that the authors underscore that only the use of state incentives adequate to new realities and support measures for tourism, formulation of necessary legal, institutional and economic basis will help to increase the competitiveness of the Republic of Mordovia in the market of tourist services.
Balandina S.V., Ryabova S.G. - Incomes and Living Standards at the Regional Level pp. 73-83

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7802.2017.4.20011

Abstract: The problem of raising living standards and reducing the income disparity in Russian regions is one of the most pressing. It is quite natural since a sharp break in living conditions based on the territorial principle is unacceptable. The authors of the article show the dynamics of cash incomes and expenditures of Mordovian citizens and also the results of a comparative analysis of the Volga Federal District on individual indicators reflecting living standards. The authors concluded that the standard of living in the country remains low, and focus on the negative trends that are emerging in the country in the field of income generation and distribution of public spending, and also on the growing income disparity. The research is based on the systems approach using comparative analysis and economic and statistical methods. The research involved data of The Federal State Statistics Service and Local Agency of Federal State Statistics Service of the Republic of Mordovia. The authors emphasized the need for active measures aimed at improving living standards in the region and creation of conditions that would contribute to the reduction of income disparity. The main conclusion of the reseasrch is that only application of adequate state control measures and establishment of necessary legal, institutional and economic grounds would improve the standard of living. 
Matters of government insurance
Bogoyavlenskiy S. - Minimization of Compulsory Insurance Rates By Using the Single Fund System pp. 84-94

DOI:
10.7256/2409-7802.2017.1.19660

Abstract: The subject of this resarch is the influence of the scheme of mandatory insurance funds on the amount of insurance contributions. It is possible to reduce insurance costs and keep the same coverage and reliability of the system only under the following conditions: efficient fund risk classification, full collectability of rates, unity of regulation terms, combination of all possible risks in one fund, maximum reduction of acquisition costs and exclusion commercial elements from the compulsory insurance system. These factors depend, in the first place on the 'architecture' of the compulsory insurance system which an be based as two principally different schemes: with a single insurance fund and numerous individual insurance organisations. The author of the article defines and evaluates differences in the structure of insurance rates for aforesaid schemes using the methods of comparative and actuarial analysis. Apart from evident conclusions about the scheme with a single insurance fund enabling a lower insurance cost as a result of the large numbers law effect and economizing on administrative expenses, the author has defined other effects as well in the course of his research. In particular, he has proved that under compulsory insurance conditions, the scheme with a single insurance fund allows to recude or even exclude elements of inefficient risk classification, incomplete coverage of insurants, bankruptcy of individual insurers, hidden profit, etc. from the insurance rate structure. The research results allow to make an important conclusion that the scheme with a single insurance fund covers wide layers of population and is a more efficient and just in relation to socially important kinds of mandatory insurance. 
Public Finance comparative Law
Izvekov S.S. - Criticizing the Concept of 'State as an Involuntary Creditor of an Insolvent Taxpayer' pp. 95-114

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7802.2017.4.21278

Abstract: The article is devoted to the question about whether it is advisable for the legislator to use the concept 'state as an involuntary creditor of an insolvent taxpayer' to improve the taxation regime when a company is bankrupt. Today's economic situation forces the government to undertake measures aimed at finding new sources of budget replenishment from corporate tax revenues when a company faces insolvency or insufficiency of assets. The author of the article analyzes prerequisites for state tax requirements taking a priviliged order in the list of credit requirements as well as studies 'pro and con' arguments. The task set forth by the author of the article is achieved through using methods and techniques of historical and international comparative law as well as systems analysis of the legislation and research literature on the matter published in the foreign states. The article may be of interest not only because it raises questions about bankruptcy but also covers issues of comparative and international law. The article gives a reader an insight into competitive legislation of Britain, British colonies and some other countries. As a result of the research, the author makes thesises that oppose to the introduction of the concept of 'state as an involuntary creditor of an insolvent taxpayer' in the Russian bankruptcy law. The author also makes recommendations on how to improve current bankruptcy law of the Russian Federation and to satisfy financial interests of the state without changing the order of credit requirement fulfilment. 
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