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Dmitrieva E.I., Grubin I.V., Kudryavtseva E.V., Pluzhnikova I.I. - Translation of the grammatical meaning of past tense forms in a professional text (on the example of the railroad theme) pp. 8-17


Abstract: The subject of this article is the grammatical category of tense. The majority of linguists tend to define tense, the ratio of action to the moment of speech. The object of this research is the ways of translating past tense forms from English to Russian. The goal of this article consists in the analysis of functionality of the forms of expression of past tense in a professional text and translation techniques. The sentences selected via method of continuous sampling from online publications dedicated to the topic of transport, served as the material for this research. Analysis is conducted on 5,680 sentences. Examination of the language material employs the method of continuous sampling and quantitative analysis is used. Despite the fact that the grammatical category of tense in both English and Russian languages is well studied, translation of the category of tense has not been scrutinized within the framework of linguistic translation studies, which substantiates the relevance of this work. The novelty lies in systematization and quantitative description of the techniques of translation past tense forms from English to Russian. It is established that there are three main techniques of translating past tense forms into Russian: 1) using nonverbal means or infinitive verbs; 2) using nonpast tense forms; 3) using past tense forms. The choice of perfective or imperfective verb in translation is determined by the presence of additional grammatical meanings in the tense, as well as the context
Minets D.V., Gorushkina A.V. - Morphological Analysizer of a Text: Functional Opportunities pp. 12-22


Abstract: The object of the present research is the morphological analyzer of an autodocumental text with the subsequent profiling of the author's gender identity. It is an applied computer program written on the basis of Yandex MyStem v3.0, CentOS Linux, Apache v2.2, PHP v5.3, MySQL v5.5. This program allows to make morphological and syntactic markup, and also on the basis of linear discriminant analysis of Fisher diagnose the sex of the author of the text by the ratio of a number of morphological and syntactic parameters that are informative for this personal characteristic. The program is based on the results of the experiment conducted by the team of authors on the identification of the relationship between the formal and grammatical quantifiable parameters of the text and the author's sex on the material of the special body of autodocumentary texts created using statistical methods of data processing. The methods of text analysis used are statistical and descriptive. The methods of automatic text processing using the specially developed on the basis of the morphological analyzer "Mystem" from Yandex were extracted numerical values of the formal grammatical parameters of the text, the list of which was compiled from the materials of the Russian-language and English-language scientific literature and summarized by a number of works of this profile. The main conclusions of the study are as follows: 1) the possibilities of using morphological-syntactic markup in the stylistic analysis of the text are described; 2) on the basis of the analysis of data in L. Brik and V. Mayakovsky's autodocuments and comparison of the results obtained from the gender perspective, it is revealed that female speech is less subject and less qualitative.
Dolgopolova L.A., Mustafaeva A.H. - Changing the functioning of the article in the history of the German language pp. 64-79



Abstract: The subject of the study is the historical changes in the syntactic structure of the German language; the object of the study is articles. The authors consider in detail the use of definite, indefinite and null articles based on the material of a fragment of the Gospel of Luke, which were published in various periods of the German language: the text of Tatiana, translated by Martin Luther, made in 1545; an adapted version of Luther's translation, published in 2017 and a lightweight electronic version created as a result of deviation from the canonical translation. Particular attention is paid to the frequency of use of articles, the reasons for the increase or decrease in their use, as well as other means of determination. It is established that modern electronic text shows a tendency to decrease nominal groups, which, accordingly, leads to a decrease in articles. The tendency to decrease the zero article is manifested by the early Upper German period; in modern German, there is a displacement of the definite article. The methodological basis is based on a systematic approach to the interpretation of the phenomena of linguistic ontology in diachrony. The research methods are comparative historical analysis, the method of distributive analysis, quantitative analysis, methods of N. Chomsky's theory of control and binding. The main conclusions of the proposed study are the revealed historical processes in the system of articles of the German language. It was found that at an early stage of language development, the zero article dominated in texts, which significantly narrowed the manifestation of determination. The main burden during this period fell on possessive nominal groups, which primarily included proper names. The definite article was used much less frequently. In nominal groups that are part of the prepositional group, the zero article was mainly used, which eventually led to the creation of stable prepositional constructions with a zero article. The largest number of all types of articles falls on Luther's translation adapted to the modern grammatical structure of the German language, which is associated with the maximum use of nominal groups. What is new is the establishment in modern German of a tendency to reduce the zero and definite articles.
ZHANG Q., Sheremeteva E.S. - The derivative preposition "in the account": the specifics of functioning pp. 112-123



Abstract: The object of the study is the word form "in the account", which performs a prepositional function. The subject of the study is the lexical compatibility of this word form. The purpose of this article is to present the results of the analysis of the compatibility of this word form and, on this basis, to show the features of its functioning. One of the aspects of the review is the analysis of the lexicographic representation of the word form"in the account" in the dictionaries. The main attention is paid to the specifics of the lexical compatibility of the word form "in the account", which occupies the position of the right and left components of the structure formed by this word form, including the thematic groups into which vocabulary is combined in the context of the word form "in the account". Considerable attention is paid to the issues of grammaticalization in the aspect of the transition of nouns into prepositions. The signs allowing to determine the degree of grammaticalization of the described word form are considered. The research material was collected using the National Corpus of the Russian Language. The method of collecting the material included a lexical and grammatical search according to the specified parameters. The search was conducted mainly in the newspaper and pan-chronicle buildings. The study of the selected material was carried out using a descriptive method, with the inclusion of a contextual analysis technique. As a result of the study, a typical vocabulary was identified in the position of the right and left components of the construction with the word form "in the account", combined into the thematic group "finance". This allowed us to conclude about the limited, highly specialized compatibility of this word form. The novelty of the study lies in the fact that the analysis of contexts allowed us to establish both the typed compatibility of the word form "in the account" and the obvious signs of grammaticalization of the word form. These include decategorization and context expansion of the word form. These signs indicate the final stage of the grammaticalization process of the word form "in the account", functioning in constructions of a certain type. The revealed signs allow us to assert that the word form "in the account", if used in a prepositional function, is no longer a form of the noun "account" and should be included in the class of derived prepositions.
Fazlyeva Z.K. - The Similarities and Differences in the Structure of the Phraseological Units of the English and Turkish Languages pp. 129-147


Abstract: Abstract: the phrase-semantic field of “family” subject, which we have distinguished in two genetically unrelated, distant languages – English and Turkish – unites in its composition a large group of phraseological units. All the units under analysis are structurally subdivided into collocations and sentences. Within their composition there can be evolved the following types: substantival, verbal, communicative, adverbial, adjectival. To the study of the sentence structure phraseological units we have engaged proverbs and sayings, as far as the latter possess imagery, metaphoric, originality and high stability of the components. In the article we apply the comparative and typological method, the method of phraseological identity by professor Kunin A.V., the contrastive method, the method of transformational analysis. The source of the research is the material collected through the continuous sampling from phraseological dictionaries. On the basis of single criterion a comparative analysis of the phraseological structure has been carried out in the phraseological systems of systematically different, unrelated languages. Consequently, among the English and Turkish phraseological units there can be defined either similar or different structural models. For example, the English language units are characterized by the schemes: noun+and+noun, noun+prep+noun, and the Turkish language units by: noun+verb, noun+noun+verb types.
Suvorova N.N. - The Phraseology of the Russian Language Throughout History and at Present pp. 129-134


Abstract: The present article devoted to the phraseology of the Russian language deals with the use of phraseology in broad and narrow terms of history and modern times. The subject of the research is the phraseological units of the Russian language. The object of the research is the idioms used in modern verbal advertising. The author of the article has carried out the analysis of the composition of the enrichingidiomatic Russian language from antiquity to modern processes taking place in the language. Particular attention is paid to the typology of phraseological units and their use in the modern Russian language, particularly in the language of advertising. When writing this article the author has used researhces on phraseology by such well-known linguists as I. Sreznevsky, F. Fortunatov, N. Shan, and V. Vinogradov. As examples, the author describes modern advertising slogans created on the basis of phraseology. The author also offers her own classification of advertising slogans on the semantic and structural features of the use of one or another part of speech and syntactic function performed by them. Suvorova also defines several groups of phraseology used as the basis of an advertising slogan and describes positive and negative cases of the use of phraseology in advertisements. The theoretical material is illustrated by vivid examples.
Zarubina E. - Combinability of the verbal relative : left and right components pp. 277-291



Abstract: This article is devoted to the process of grammaticalization in Russian on the example of the transition of the verbal unit into the prepositional one. Object of study is grammaticalization, due to which there is a transition from content words to function, the subject the units that are grammaticalized and have a frontier status between content and functional units. The study focuses on combinability because only in the context the meaning and function of a unit is determined, the level of its grammaticalization is reflected and new features of lexical units are denoted. At present considerable attention is paid to derivative nominative prepositional neologisms. In the last two decades, a large number of studies have appeared which consider both single prepositional units and groups of units. A number of works are devoted to the description of nominative prepositions. At the same time, verbal prepositional neologisms have been neglected. The present paper is devoted to the description of the verbal relative , the semantic and syntactic features of which have not been described in detail - this is the originality of the research. The study uses quantitative and descriptive methods of linguistic analysis. In the article lexico-semantic classification of verbs, which take position of the left component (main) in the combinations with the studied preposition, classification of nouns, which take position of the right component (dependent), as well as lexico-semantic correlation of components are given.
Ulanskii E.A. - A Review of the Collection of commented Metarules of Pāṇini's Sanskrit Grammar "Paribhāṣāvṛtti" by Nīlakaṇṭha Dīkṣita pp. 333-350



Abstract: A while after the compilation of the Sanskrit grammar called "Aṣṭādhyāyī" (≈ V century BC) by the ancient Indian linguist Pāṇini, commentators of this treatise began to formulate numerous metarules guiding to the correct interpretation of grammatical rules. The object of our study are these post-Pāṇinian metarules, also known as paribhāṣās. They describe the metalanguage developed by Panini, varieties of technical use of languages expressive means in the "Aṣṭādhyāyī", they also help resolve contradictions that arise when reading grammatical rules and settle priorities in the execution sequence of grammatical operations. The material of the study are metarules collected and commented on by the Sanskrit grammarian of the XVII century AD Nīlakaṇṭhadīkṣita in his work "Commentary on paribhāṣās" (Paribhāṣāvṛtti). The purpose of our work is to expose the content of the "Commentary on the paribhāṣās", to classify the metarules collected in this work, to indicate their purpose. The method of the work is a structural and hermeneutical study of the text. For the first time, a detailed analysis of the Nīlakaṇṭhadīkṣita's "Commentary on the paribhāṣās" and the classification of the metarules collected in this work were carried out. For the first time in Russian-language literature, the content of a large number of post-Pāṇinian metarules of Sanskrit grammar "Aṣṭādhyāyī" is exhibited, as well as biographical data about the grammarian Nīlakaṇṭhadīkṣita is revealed.
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