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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Rubric "Linguistics"
Barteneva V.V. - The Kinesic Component of an Emotional Dialogue (the Case Study of William Makepeace Thackeray's Novel 'Vanity Fair') pp. 1-10


Abstract: In her article Barteneva emphasizes the role of non-verbal communication and analyzes the process of interpreting non-verbal behavior. She focuses on analyzing the interaction between verbal and non-verbal components of an emotional dialogue. The subject of the research is the language means that are used to describe different forms of emotional non-verbal behavior. The object of the research is the functioning of lexical units that reflect non-verbal communication in a literary text. Kinesics are represented as the main element of the non-verbal communication system, in particular, gestures, hand, arm or head movements and mimics are used to convey information, thoughts, intentions or feelings of heroes. The author also analyzes functions of kinesic signs in an emotional dialogue. In her research the author has used the method of continuous sampling of non-verbal communication means used in literary texts and the method of vocabulary definitions analysis. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author analyzes emotional speech of characters where each non-verbal sign is closely related to a psychological portrait of a character and his or her emotional state at that very moment. The author also defines peculiarities of the language expression of composition components that convey a non-verbal emotional communication in fiction dialogues. The author also describes the functions of gestures in a literary writing and provides specific examples for each function.  
Tadzhibova A.N. - The World of Metaphor in Mass Media Discourse pp. 35-44


Abstract: The subject of the research is the mass media discourse and a media metaphor as a method of impact on public consciousness. The object of the research is the web-based media in Russian and German that contain information on the events taking place in the world. Special attention is paid to the language of media discourse which is characterized by fast adaptation to the changing realities of our life, subtle analysis of the social priorities influencing consciousness of people and determining their behavior and exact reflection of these aspects in the texts. Evaluativity and capability to influence mass consciousness are important functions of media discourse. Changes of social conditions and public formations lead to the change of language and by that to change of people. In her research the author has applied the complex method of research which includes methods of the comparative description of metaphors and analysis and the method of continuous sampling of discursive fragments. The author comes to the conclusion about interrelation of lexico-semantic processes and social and political changes as it is most effective as means of reflection of changes in the society life. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author describes metaphors that are staticized in the Russian and German media discourses, and promoting, in general, the formation of ideas of election campaign in the USA and creation of the political image of candidates. Such approach to research has allowed to determine general tendencies of the development of mass media discourse in Russia and Germany.
Balikoeva M.I. - pp. 70-76


Rudneva E.G. - Philosophical Approaches to the Language pp. 71-90


Abstract: The article is devoted to comparison and the analysis of various approaches to "language philosophy". Scientific the language origin problem concern delimitation, for example. Here at once serious contradictions between researchers are found. Also divergences between the speculative philosophy based on contemplation and supervision and analytical philosophy which is based on the reached language results are characterized. In article different philosophical approaches to language are differentiated. Types, theories and standards of value are considered. The special attention to a problem of an intentionality and to speech acts is paid. Methods which allow to analyze not simply communication of thinking and language, and to reveal the constituting role of language, the word and speech in various forms of a discourse, in knowledge and of structures of consciousness and knowledge are used. In article distinction between classical philosophy which explained a language origin by the nature and on interrelation of language and thinking, and modern interpretation of problems of language is carried out. It is noted that V. Humboldt understood language as a mind organon. The role of F. Nietzsche who came to the conclusion is highlighted that all deviations from truth are connected with the delusions proceeding from increase of a role of words-fiktsy. The important place is given to definitions, descriptions and references.
Danilova N.K. - Relational Nature of a Subject of Expression in a Narrative pp. 74-93


Abstract: In the article one of parameters of discourse process, the subject of the statement which determination of value forms the subsequent configuration of sense is investigated. The subject position is considered as a form-building component which "emptiness" of semantics creates conditions for its language registration depending on the diskursivnykh of strategy of the subject of the speech. The subject of the statement is analyzed as the matrix operator connecting statements in organized sequence in the course of production of the text. In a narrative discourse cognitive, communicative and language measurements of the subject of the statement form the narrative roles representing a combination of the designated prospects. As a method of research the linear discourse analysis which units are sequences, i.e. sequences of statements which are characterized by grammatical and thematic completeness is used. In the proposed solution of the problem of discourse sense the understanding of the subject of the statement as functions from a number of the factors connected with the conceptual basis of a plan, communicative strategy focused on the author both on the reader and with actually language norms of the organization of the statement is new. As a result of the analysis the main matrix models of a narration, the external, determined by domination positions of the observer, a neutralized role writing and reading and internal in which the grammatical subject unites a modus frame and a dictum basis of the statement are allocated.
Fazlyeva Z.K. - Interlanguage Phraseological Correspondences (The Case Study of the English and Turkish Languages) pp. 74-82


Abstract: In this article phraseological units of the subject "family" in the English and Turkish languages are chosen as an object of research. Phraseological units of this subject make considerable group in phraseological funds of both languages and are one of the brightest and figurative. It is necessary to find such equivalent units on the basis of which it is possible to create communicatively equivalent statements in two languages and which are found only during theoretical research by comparison of originals to their translations in process of conversion of phraseological units. In this article by comparison of phraseological units of the English and Turkish languages we consider the following types of the interlingual relations: full equivalents, partial equivalents. Works of the famous domestic linguists have formed methodological base of this article. In this research the comparative and typological method, a method of phraseological identification, a kontrastivny method, a method of the transformational analysis are applied. Results of comparative studying of FE promote identification of the common and peculiar features of their structural models, identification of the facts of influence of system of one language on another, and also to detection of regularities of the translation of FE from one language on another. Full interlingual equivalents are presented by a small amount of phraseological units in both languages and only substantive FE with structures of Adj + to N, N + N. The phraseological units differing with the structural organization, but having the general figurative basis act as partial equivalents.
Berdinskaya I.A., Zorina Z.G. - Interpreting the Status of the Phoneme б /b/ in Mari Dialects pp. 90-97


Abstract: The subject of the research is the status of the phoneme /b/ in Mari dialects. There is a traditional belief that, firstly, the phoneme /b/ does not have an independent status in Mari dialects because it is a borrowing from the Russian language; 2) Mari people do not distinguish between bilabial stop consonant /b/ and bilabial fricative consonant /ß/; 3) in Mari dialects  /b/ is substituted with /р/ or /ß/. The purpose of the research is to prove the status of the phoneme /b/ as the original individual unit. The research is based on the theoretical material related to functioning of labial consonants /p, b, m, ф, ß/ as well as field records of highland and meadow living speech. The authors analyze records using aural and statistical methods in order to get a clear picture of practical implementations of labial consonants in Mari dialects. The results of the research prove that: 1) the phoneme /b/ has an independent status in Mari dialects and is not borrowed from the Russian language, however, it has certain restrictions in distribution: it is always combined with the labial consonant /m/ and always stands after it. Modern Mari-Russian bilingualism which is so wide-spread today, has practially eliminated all limitations in the distribution of the phoneme /b/ in Mari dialects. 2) Aural and statistical anaylsis has demonstrated that Mari people clearly differentiate between bilabial stop consonant /b/ and bilabial fricative consonant /ß/. 3) At the initial stage of Mari-Russian relations the Russian language (in this case, the Northern Russian dialect) had an unclear differentiation between phonemes /p, b, ф, ß/. For example, such words as Poris (Boris) and pagor (bagor) and others appeared in Mari dialects exactly the same as they were in the Russian language. Thus, it was the Russian language itself but not Mari dialects that created the basis for substituting /b/ with /р/. 
Varfolomeeva Y.N., Kharanutova E.I. - Criteria for Assessing the Quality of Media Texts (on the Basis of PR-Texts) pp. 101-107


Abstract: The article deals with the concept of PR-text and genre varieties of PR-texts. At present, the theory and practice of public relations do not fully cover the genre system of PR-texts and genre characteristics and genres groups are not defined. In addition, in linguistics there is no uniform classification of properties for assessing the quality of PR-texts. Based on the analysis of different assessment criteria, the authors have defined 21 information-structural, 8 communicative and 6 aesthetics characteristics of PR-texts which can be used to assess the effectiveness of the quality of PR-texts. The authors have used the method of language analysis to study the quality of PR-texts. In addition, they have also used the methods of linguistic observation and description of linguistic facts as well as the comparative method. Information-structuarl assessment criteria include information capacity, response efficiency, presence of a topic, specificity, coherence and integrity, depth of contents, logical structure, readibility and understandability, importance of information, credibility and accuracy of information (presence of concrete facts), dividedness, openness/closedness, completeness of a text, accurate heading, correct use of quotations, textual composition, syntax parameter (sentences with an easy structure and textual rythm), lexical parameter (simple words, absence of slang words, paragraph length). Communicative features of PR-texts are realised through publicity of a text, communicative orientation, presence of a basic PR-subject, initiation from the basic PR-subject, optimal content, authorship type, references, and selectability. Aesthetics characteristics include spacial-time discreteness, references to an official site of an organisation in a PR-document, use of infographics, highliting of actual information, providing references to other resources, and giving contant information about responsible individuals. 
tayebianpour F., . - Means of Expressing the Modal Form of Possibility in the Persian Language pp. 129-143


Abstract: In Russian modal opportunities value, still draws attention of the Russian linguists and researchers. This concept, undoubtedly, contacts not one language unit, and the whole statement. As existence of the statement without embodiment of its ultimate goal – communications – doesn't make sense, definition of possible means for knowledge and understanding of the statement in each language deserves special attention. The special characteristic of modal opportunities value, its communication with logical concepts of reality and unreality, its ability in representation of various language means of expression in any language, draw attention to this subject not only the Russian linguists, but also linguists of the whole world. In this article lexical and grammatical means of expression of modal value of opportunity in the Persian language are considered. This consideration is made on the basis of the dissertation work comparing these means in the Russian and Persian languages. For writing of the thesis relating to article methods of consideration of scientific sources, the comparative and comparative analysis of the Russian and Persian offers in the sphere of functional grammar were used. Novelty of this work consists in primary consideration of means of expression of the concept "opportunities" of the Persian language. In initial work this consideration took place taking into account the approaches accepted in the Russian linguistics for definition of these lexical and grammatical means. As a result we found important and common lexical and grammatical means of expression of value of opportunity in the Persian language.
Krasikov V.I. - "Language is Disguising Our Thoughts"? Linguistic Meaning of the Word As One of the Formative Elements of Its Meaning pp. 132-142


Abstract: The object of research in the proposed article is the meaning and its linguistic expression. The subject of the research is the interaction of semantic and linguistic meanings. The author of the article deals with such aspects of the topic as meaning in its totality, the relationship between semantic and linguistic meanings, and the influence of the sign means of expression on the meaning of the expression. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the concepts of "meaning" offered by B. Russell, R. Carnap, H. Price, G. Reichenbach, A. Losev, K. Levi-Strauss, H.-G. Gadamer, R. Bart, L. Wittgenstein, C. Lewis and E. Sapir. The methodological basis involves typification, comparison, analysis, subject-object scheme, construction, and elements of philosophical reflection. As a result, an extensive conceptual material has been analyzed, matrices of interpretations of "meaning" have been revealed in the characteristic representatives of the neo-positivist, structuralist, hermeneutical and analytical traditions. The author's special contribution to the topic is that he offers defines a relationship between the features of the formation of semantic values and the specificity of their linguistic expression. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author develops a philosophical-anthropological version of understanding the relationship of meaning and its linguistic expression based on the analysis of characteristic theories of meaning.
Golubitskii Y.A. - Scientific language: reality of corporate desire? (Addressing the issue of lexical and stylistic aspect of modern humanitarian research works) pp. 228-276
Abstract: The author of this article, being a philologist, literator and sociologist in his scientific work, analyzes the lexical and stylistic aspects of scientific works in humanitarian sciences in context of norms and traditions of the national Russian language. In his opinion, binary preposition of linguistic debate - encratic and acratic languages, Russian tradition for written fixation of scientific work, is, in fact, a quasi-language itself and is defined not as an independent communication phenomenon, but as a system of anomalies in regular language. The article provides a historical outlook on the interaction of scientific and literary methods of fixation and reflection of social realities - interaction that represents a pendulum of divergence and convergence processes.
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