Litera - rubric Myth and mythemes
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Myth and mythemes
Mielkov I. - 'The Rose of the World' as a Philosophical Issue pp. 34-71


Abstract: Daniil Leonidovich Andreyev's creative work is a unique phenomenon of the Russian and not only the Russian culture of the XX century. Now its research, as a rule, or is limited to the philological party of a question, or serves as a studying subject as one of forms of religious creativity in the spirit of "New Age". However only the philosophical analysis can provide complete and substantial consideration of "A world rose" as project which includes at the same time both literary, and profestichesky, and socio-political aspects. The philosophy practically has no methodology of research mystical (or pseudo-mystical) experience, however, in article is applied рациональныйи germenevtichesky approach to studying of "A world rose". Daniil Andreyev's creativity is quite capable to act as a subject of the versatile philosophical analysis. The idea of "A world rose" as future interreligiya is capable to appear before the modern researcher as a being self-disproved prophecy, as the detailed description of such way of a koevolyution of the world and the person to whom the way alternative was preferred more than half-century ago. The poetic hobby of the author for unfulfilled social and utopian projects has to be not the cause for discredit of its mystical experience, imperfect the verbalization of this experience undertaken by it, but motivation as for serious philosophical research of transphysical and metahistorical ideas of D. L. Andreyev, and in general for studying of essence of mysticism, conceptualization ways теодицеи and findings of the answer to requirement of implementation of optimum arrangement of society of the XXI century. 
Krinitsyn A.B. - The Myth of Sacrifice in DostoevskyТs Later Novels pp. 56-70


Abstract: In his research Krinitskin analyzes mythological motives in Dostoevsky’s novels suggesting their precise definition based on folklore studies and traditions of scientific literary criticism. The specificity of personal myths determined by Dostoevsky’s and the character’s ideas in Dostoevsky’s later novels is described. The researcher describes the myth about sacrifice, the central topic in such novels of as “Crime and Punishment”, “The Idiot”, “The Demons” and “The Brothers Karamazov”. The majority of the above mentioned novels shows this myth in several variants of the plot revealing its contradictory and ambivalent nature: it turns out that both categories of characters, those preaching the ideas of theanthropism and those preaching the ideas of God as the outward projection of a human's inward nature, think about saving the world via sacrifice. The research methods used in this work include historical and cultural, hermeneutical, comparative-historical and comparative and typological analysis of mythopoetics data. The main results of the research is the determination of specifics of myths development in late novels of Fedor Dostoyevsky based on the leading modern concepts of the myth, with the final definition of the myth in Dostoyevsky's five books. The purpose of the research was also to examine the myth about sacrifice in novels "Pentateuch" in the aforesaid figve books. The researcher underlines the ambivalent nature of the philosophical meaning of sacrifice as a mythological theme which, in its turn, determine diversity of poetics and ideological and artistical system of each novel in general.
Gurevich P.S. - The Fortunes of Mysticism pp. 72-99


Abstract: What awaits mysticism in the future? What the fortune of mysticism will be like? These are the questions being actively discussed in modern literature. Discussions touch upon a wide range of problems from transformation of science, changing face of culture and human prospects. Some researchers (there are not so many of them) assume that the fashion for mysticism is ephemeral and it is already starting to decline. Other researchers, on the contrary, seem to be quite sure that the mystical trend will be only growing and expanding. There are also researchers who believe that in the chaos of modern mystical teachings, a new way to perceive the world and a new image of the future are being created. Before answering these questions, the author of the article tries to summarize the main directions of modern mysticism. What psychological needs does it satisfy? What is so charming about it? The author uses the method of phenomenological analysis which allows to define historical grounds and psychological roots of mysticism in the modern world. The novelty of the problem is the discussion of the future of mysticism. The author touches upon the forms of mysticism in the modern world and shows that this phenomenon is still rather strong int he XXI century. Scientific achievements do not automatically eliminate mysticism. Quite on the contrary, they often lead to creation of these or those new teachings. 
Spalek O.N. - National Stereotypes in Terms of Polish Phraseology and Modern Social Research pp. 91-99


Abstract: The subject of this research article is the analysis of Polish national auto- and heterostereotypes. Stereotypes are an essential element of the cultural code used by a group at a certain time and represent a mental picture of the world. Self-identification inevitably makes one oppose himself or herself to 'aliens', i.e. representatives of other language groups, nationalities and races. This is the reason why phraseological units often verbalize stereotypes about other nations. As stable beliefs, stereotypes are based on cultural specific features, traditions, religion, social and economic life of a certain ethnic group. In this research Spalek compares stable beliefs conveyed by phraseological units and obtained in the course of surveys of auto- and heterostereotypes in a modern Polish society. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author describes similarities and differences of national stereotypes conveyed by Polish phraseological units containing horonyms and ethnonyms and discovered as a result of recent Polish researches. As a result of this research, the author discovers that stable beliefs conveyed by phraseological units often do not conform to modern stereotypes. The latter may change over the time, lose their importance and be replaced with new ones. 
Parkhomenko R.N. - Evolution of Romanticism in Germany: From Literature to Politics pp. 94-121


Abstract: The subject of research is the evolution of romanticism in the German literature and philosophy, the main features and characteristics of romanticism were shown in process of romanticism are shown. The special attention is paid to specifics of typically German romanticism as spokesman of the main lines of the German mentality and national spirit. The author in detail considers such aspects of a subject as influence of romanticism in literature and art on political thought of Germany, and also the romanticism in practical policy which influenced development of a course of conservatism. Methodology of research is the appeal to heritage of the German romanticism - the author had opportunity long time to work at various universities and libraries in Germany. The main conclusions of the conducted research is the thought that use of concepts of nationalism and political mythology together with such "metaphysical" concepts as spirit, the soil, race, destiny, history, revival open theoretical essence and practical capacity of the current of the romanticism in Germany which passed evolution from literature to policy.
Klimkov O. - Philosophical Concept of Religion in Vladimir Soloviev's Works pp. 94-102


Abstract: The object of this research is Vladimir Solovyev's philosophy of religion described in general terms of his philosophy. In his research Klimkov pays special attention to the concept of religious mind developed by Solovyov in his writing 'Readings about God-Like Humanity' as well as a number of other works. Klimkov analyzes the basic prerequisite for Solovyov's philosophy of religion, in particular, the idea that religious belief and religious experience need to be completed with religious mind (or religious way of thinking). Noteworthy that this kind of thinking may become part of cultural experience of both believers and atheists. Using phenomenological and historical analysis methods, the author of the article analyzes the main question whether it is possible at all to understand religious phenomena from the point of view of philosophy. The main conclusions of the reserach are the author's statement that relevations of religious experience are a continuous process in our life, the author's theory of 'religious branches' and ideas about coincidence of historical and logical orders in the process of religious insights and that it is necessary to try to avoid rationalism extremes in philosophical interpretation of religion. The author also defines three main elements, nature, God's beginning and human personality, and describes three stages of religious development. 
Savvinova G.E. - Mythopoetics of Images in Olonkho "Nyurgun Bootur the Swift" by K. Orosin and P. Oyunsky pp. 95-107



Abstract: The article is devoted to the mythopoetics of images in the Yakut heroic epic olonkho "Nyurgun Bootur the Impetuous" Ц an archaic version of the storyteller K. G. Orosin and the author's version of olonkho "Nyurgun Bootur the Impetuous" by the Yakut writer, poet P. A. Oyunsky. Comparative analysis of archaic and author's olonkho texts does not involve consideration of the volumes of olonkho, which differ greatly in the style of presentation and detail in them; there is no goal to determine the algorithm of comparative characteristics, since the texts have different chronological, historical conditions of creation.The purpose of the study is to determine the role and significance of the mythopoetics of images in the olonkho "Nyurgun Bootur the Swift" by K. G. Orosin and P. A. Oyunsky. Special attention is paid to the interpretation of traditional images in Olonkho. The scientific novelty of the presented research consists in an attempt to analyze and compare the images in the olonkho "Nyurgun Bootur the Impetuous" by K. G. Orosin and P. A. Oyunsky with the definition of their significance in the conceptual picture of the world reflecting the ethical and aesthetic representations of the people, their ethno-cultural consciousness. It is known that in the epic science of the same name olonkho K. Orosin and P. Oyunsky are assigned to the group of the central local tradition of Yakutia. At the same time, the conducted research has shown that olonkho has a complex historical origin, as evidenced by the revealed differences in the creation of mythological images-characters.
Spirova E.M. - Universal Myth pp. 148-176


Abstract: Great changes happening in the world seem to rationilize all aspects of social life. Modern politicians and technocrats have been trying to develop the society based on the concept of universal reasoning. Ruling elites tend to use the common system of thought. However, the phenomenon of social myth is becoming a significant element of public consciousness. In this day and age not only philosophers and historians but also sociologists and philologists are interested in myth as the phenomenon of spirits and consiousness. In modern literature the term 'myth' has different meanings and interpretations. Moreover, myth is gaining a very important role in modern fiction. A good example is the literature of Latin America. Many writers associate myth with fate and destiny. The main character of a novel often leads his life as some kind of archetype of eternal fate. We deal with the whirl of time and events. At the same time, there is also a tendency towards seeking for a universal myth which would express desires of many people but not just individual hopes. 
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