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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Rubric "Aesthetics"
Skvortsova E.L. - To the Problem of Contemporary State of the Japanese Culture pp. 44-59


Abstract: The specify of Japanese culture seen from the ground of the two eminent researches of the matter: T.P. Grigorieva and T. Sugiyama-Lebra (Japanese American) is considered in the article. Prof. Grigorieva argues that the Ultimate Truth in Japan had been perceived immediately, in an “aesthetic” way. It’s a kind of an experience of “Oneness” with the Nature, and deeper – with the Outer Space, born from “Nothingness” – the formless dimension of the Universe. She also argues, that cultural specific depends on often non-articulated “Weltanschauung” and behavioral forms. She assumes, that cultural foundation is something formless, unseen on the “Surface” of life, but existing in any epoch. It may be or may be not textually fixed, but is handed down from generation to generation on “alive”. Cultural behavior of contemporary Japanese is the subject of scientific analyses of prof. Sugiyama-Lebra. She assumes that the traditional socio-cultural order in Japan is under a kind of threat, due to rapid globalization. She finds fault with the destructive position of the widespread post-modern attitude to Culture. A clear view of the process of traditional cultural forms “dissolution”, makes her to conclude that any socio-cultural novelty becomes a kind of danger, unless it takes into account historically-approved forms of social activities.Method of research: the empirico-hermeneutic methodology was applied: i. l. the method of correct description and interpretation of original sources; dialectical methodology, principle of complementarity.For the first time in the history of local Japanese Studies the scientific views of the two eminent Contemporary researchers of the Japanese traditional Culture are analyzed in the article. Both Grigorieva and Sugiyama-Lebra substantiate the importance of preserving the traditional ties that make a socio-cultural order possible. Any kind of progress is possible until these ties are broken. But if we aim at “novelties at all costs”, progress may turn into a post-modern deconstruction not only of the concept “Culture”, but of the very culture itself, which means justification of immorality in practice. Culture cannot be inherited genetically; that’s why every new generation has to learn from the previous ones. Continuity is indispensable for culture. Globalization implying abolishing of ethnos as a quasi-organic entity inclines to a destruction of Culture, the embodiment of Specific features of human activity. It implies rapid “moral obsolescence” of all generations, preceding today’s youth. Nevertheless, the both scientists argue, that traditional habits of work and practical skills make the role of elder teachers urgent.
Skvortsova E.L. - Art Tradition and The First Steps of Theoretical Aesthetics in Japan pp. 82-136


Abstract: Annotation. Introduction of Western aesthetics in Japan during 1870-1930-ieth years had been an exceedingly complicated process implying not only an acquaintance and understanding of a considerable amount of philosophical research in foreign languages, but also “construction” of scientific terminology. Within 60 years Japanese scholars managed to organize two main centers for aesthetical studies in the Universities of Tokyo and Kyoto, where able students acquired a high-level education, which made it possible to place the implicit aesthetics of traditional Japan into the colorful “mosaic” of the world aesthetics.
Kozlova M.V. - Poetry as the Experience of 'Lasting Presence' in Hans-Georg Gadamer's Hermeneutics pp. 91-99


Abstract: The article is devoted to research of a question of the special temporary status of a lyric in Hans-George Gadamer's hermeneutics. An object of research is poetic diction, in particular, language of lyrical poetry. Gadamer, after Heidegger, proves the special status of poetic diction and in detail considers the features of the poetic word connected with its corporality, i.e. the sound nature. According to Gadamer, the sound nature of the poetic word distinguishes him from words of the ordinary speech as in poetry the sound and sense exist unseparably. The research methodology, mainly, is under construction on philosophical and esthetic approach to an object of research and the historico-philosophical analysis of primary sources. Also comparative method considering for the solution of an objective of achievement of cultural science and linguistics is applied to research. The main conclusion of the present article is the approval of the special status of the poetic word based on indivisibility in it semantic and sound structure and, as a result, the special temporary status of a lyric. Reading a lyric is connected with merge of the horizons of the past and the present and experience of own time of the poem, as "the lasting present", that is simultaneity (Gleichzeitigkeit) of the present and a past, interruption of a linear stream of time. Reading the poem, we study active contemplation (verweilen) which allows us to join integrity of the world and our experience in the world.
Chernenko V.A. - Ontological Aspects of Aesthetic Experience (or About the Four Lines Written by Rainer Maria Rilke) pp. 144-154


Abstract: Object of research are ontologic aspects which prove in esthetic experience, define and fund it. Acts as object of research - esthetic experience. The special attention is paid to philosophy of the antique thinker Heraclitus Ephesius and its explications in analytics of life of M. Heidegger. As illustrative material the author of article took four final lines of the poem of R. M. Rilke "In monastic corridors of Loretto" on the example of which attempt of phenomenological identification of ontologic bases of a source of art creation is given. The methodology of research leans on a method of philosophical phenomenology, a hermeneutics and fundamental analytics of life in its Heidegger's option. During research the author comes to conclusions that the esthetics is a science about such experience of development of reality which is based on contemplation or expression in sensually perceived form of the absolute values which aren't giving in to adequate verbal expression, but shown to the subject in experience or participation to completeness of life. Or: the esthetics is a science about harmony of the person with the Universum. It is science about primary reality to us the World (contemplation discretion). The beauty gives life undertaking strength "Da Budet!" and end purpose "It is good …". Balancing between accident and need, isolation and openness, possible and impossible, final and infinite, single and general – the beauty is a call, an appeal to overcoming of a statics. In fine the person feels accepted in whole in the unostentatious importance; exempted from own need of; in opportunity to be other; without "therefore" and "why"; comprehensive clemency when nothing is excluded (even ugly).
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