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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Rubric "Hermeneutics"
Perevalov V.P. - 'The Cope Worn Out' (On the Meaning of a Rarely Noticed Fragment in the Bronze Horseman and Selection of One Detail Therein) pp. 78-128


Abstract: In this article the historico-philosophical and political and state views of A.S. Pushkin actual for modern Russia are investigated. A subject of consideration is "Bronze Horseman". Petersburg story (1833). From the moment of publication the Pushkin masterpiece caused and still causes huge number of various responses and a set of contradictory conceptual interpretations. Distinctive feature of the offered reflections consists in a combination of the main tendency in the general evolution of works of the Poet with close attention to episodes often "through passage" and not noticed details, besides various in versions of clean manuscripts. Such approach causes possibility of judgment of work in its full volume and authentic structure, but not to adjust the elite a place from it under in advance accepted as dominating idea. The method of "slow reading" and the comparative analysis allow to establish more precisely in contexts of different level concrete value of this detail and/or fragment in dialectic unity of parts and whole. Article consists of two sections. In the first two interpretations of "Bronze Horseman" are critically investigated. In the first of them the fragment interesting us appears out of reconstruction of ideological sense of the poetic story. Thereof the richness of its contents is impoverished and, in my opinion, is distorted, degree of the perfection reached in it considerably goes down, demanding completion in the subsequent Pushkin creations.On the contrary, for the second interpretation the studied fragment – the integral and organic part whole. Moreover, in it the unique information explaining clairvoyance of the hero, supernature of his madness is concluded. The microanalysis of this treatment presented in article allows to challenge it in favor of natural understanding fantastic in "Bronze Horseman".The second section of article represents chronological sequence of use of the word "cap" in Pushkin's creativity. The main tendency of the evolution observed here, in my opinion, confirms and supplements the previous conclusions about increase of natural, concrete and realistic approach in understanding by Pushkin of the historical phenomena.Generally the offered treatment opens some aspects of Pushkin outlook, is aimed at in-depth constructive discussion of views of the Poet of reality.
Arapov A.V. - Literary approaches in the Biblical hermeneutics pp. 125-137


Abstract: The subject of the research is the literary approaches in the modern Biblical hermeneutics. The literary approaches to the Biblical narratives tend to concentrate on a text as a whole, including different components that are interconnected through the whole system of cross references and examples. Adherents of these approaches tend to construe the text as a whole. It has become very common for the modern literary narrative analysis to compare the Biblical texts with contemporary literature. And this reference to the modern literature is explained as follows. First, literature of this period helps to understand the problems and concepts of the narrative theory better. The modern narrative theories have been developed on the basis of the analysis of the narrative literature (especially novels) of the 19th and the first half of the 20th centuries. Thus, referring to the modern literature helps to understand that some aspects of the narrative theory can be fully applied only to the present-day narratives. And the attempts to apply them to the ancient narratives may sometimes lead to long and useless discussions. Second, comparison of the the modern narratives with the Biblical texts creates a wide perspective regarding the Biblical narrative analysis.  The following methods are used in the research: social and philosophical analysis, contrastive analysis, psychological analysis and general scientific methods. The social and philosophical analysis helped to find out the influence of social and political conditions on the next construal of the sacral texts. It helped to define the certain historical background of the development of the hermeneutical strategies.  There may be the following objection against the usage of the modern literary theories in the Biblical hermeneutics: the modern literary theories are not meant for the description of the ancient narratives, and so it is unnatural to apply the present-day concepts and categories to the ancient narratives. Two answers are possible to this objection.The difference rests between ancient and present-day literary theories rather than between modern and ancient narratives. The ancient and modern theories just use different ways to describe the phenomena that are common for the ancient and modern narratives.Of course, it does not mean that the hermeneutics must treat the ancient narratives as identical to the modern narratives or  ignore the literary conventions of the ancient narratives (genres and etc.) or must not view the Biblical narratives in the contest of the ancient Middle-East and Hellenistic literature. However it does not mean that the modern narrative theory should not be used to analyze a Biblical text.The approaches that focus on the text (autonomistic) treat a literary work as a closed unit the sense of which can be fully understood through viewing the relations between its parts and which is autonomous regarding such out-of-text factors as the author’s intentions or the reader’s understanding. Such tendencies were typical for the Englich-American approach and reached the peak of their development in the “New Criticism” movement. That movement analyzed literature in the terms of its own internal principles and not through viewing such external factors as the author’s biography.This is quite a serious matter, because not only the Biblical narratives have deep roots in the social and historical context of their time, but also the majority of other narratives open their true sense only in connection with historical events and real people. The answer is to let the different points of view complete each other. Concentrating our attention at the literary characteristics of a narrative does not exclude the necessity to understand of the cultural situation in which the text appeared, and the reviewing of literary forms that are contemporary to the text, and etc.
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