Litera - rubric Interpretation
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Vorobei I. - The Concept of Lied (Song) in Rainer Maria Rilker's 'The Book of Hours' pp. 1-8


Abstract: Object of research of this article is language representation and interpretation of a poetic concept of "Lied" ("Song") in a cycle "The Book of hours" of the Austrian poet of the 20th century Ranier of Maria Rilke. Two types of language realization of a poetic concept in the text are considered by the author and methods of research of a poetic concept taking into account processes of dispersion and crystallization of sense are offered. The main contents of article are devoted to interpretation of the studied concept. Lexical and semantic structures of a concept are analysed, interrelations with other concepts of the cycle "Book of hours" are established. For research of a poetic concept the author offers the germenevtiko-linguistic method based on a combination of a method of text analysis of R. Bart, a method of predicate nests and a method of a hermeneutical circle. Novelty of research is that this work meets a lack in researches of poetic concepts in R. M. Rilke's creativity. Now the analysis and interpretation of poetic concepts isn't made yet and the complete kontseptosfera of the poetic world of the cycle "Book of hours" isn't simulated. Novelty of research consists also in the new technique of the analysis of the poetic text combining linguistic and hermeneutical methods.
Vorobei I. - The Concept of Lied (Song) in Rainer Maria Rilker's 'The Book of Hours' pp. 1-8


Abstract: The subject of the present article is the linguistic representation and interpretation of the poetic concept of Lied ('Song') in the cycle of poems 'The Book of Hours' written by an Austrian poet of the 20th century Rainer Maria Rilker. The author of the article describes two types of the linguistic representation of the poetic concept and offers methods for analyzing the poetic concept taking into account the processes of dissipation and crystallization of sense. The main content of the article is devoted to the interpretation of the concept under review. Vorobey analyzes lexical and sense bearing structures of the concept of Lied and establishes relations with other concepts from the cycle of poems. To study the poetic concept, the author offers to apply the hermeneutic-linguistic method that is based on the combination of Roland Barthes' method of textual analysis as well as the method of predicate nests and the method of hermeneutic circle. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author fills the gap in researches jof the poetic concepts in Rainer Maria Rilker's creative writing. So far researchers have not analyzed or interpreted his poetic concepts, neither have they created a model of the entire concept sphere of the poetic world in The Book of Hours. The novelty of the research is also caused by the fact that the author creates a new method for analyzing a poetic text. This method combines linguistic and hermeneutic methods. 
Porol P.V. - The image of China in K. Balmonts poem The Great Nothing pp. 1-10


Abstract: This article reviews the image of China in Konstantin Balmont’s poem “The Great Nothing”. Significant attention is given to interpretation of the poem. The author refers to the cultural and historical realias of China, as well as mythology and philosophy. Genesis of the image of Zhuang Zhou and peculiarities of his perception by the poet is revealed. The goal of this work consists in determination of semantic saturation of the image of China in reception of Konstantin Balmont. The line of reasoning and conclusions of the author of this article are founded on the critical research and contrast of two cultures. Analysis of the poem is conducted from the semantic perspective with search for textual parallels. The study reveals the poet's reference to the traditions and philosophy of China ("Sunyata”, concept of symmetry, treatise “Zhuang Zhou”, concept of Chinese painting), use of mythopoetic images (Dragon, Unicorn, Phoenix); interprets the image of dragon and its variation in cultural tradition of Russia and China; defines the words used by the poet for describing linguistic realias of Chinese culture (the expression "Go West"). The novelty of this research consists in the analysis of K. Balmont’s reception, and identification of the source that motivated the poet to create a poem. Examination of the semantic  saturation of the image of China in the poetry of K. Balmont gives a new perspective upon understanding the culture of the Silver Age.
XU Z. - Comparative study of the texts on animals and on people in I. A Krylovs fables pp. 9-18


Abstract: This article is dedicated to comparison of the texts on animals and people in I. A. Krylov's fables in the context of formation of a holistic image of the world of the Russian people. The use of zoomorphic metaphor in the text is one of the means of verbalization of the cultural code. Zoomorphic nominations f in Krylov’s fables are universal metaphorical units of literary speech, since they translate the stereotypical representation of animal behavior and status of people. Animals are selected in accordance with the principle of affinity to the folk epic tale: the fable feature only the animals, the representations of were deeply entrenched in people’s perception, as well as codified in their worldview. The folk that are the characters of the fable usually belong to the lower social class, and thus do not have any rights or freedom of expression. The scientific novelty of this research lies in the establishment of the dominant method of metaphorical conveyance, as well as in determination of the difference in the use of zoomorphic symbols in creating the images and direct nomination of human characters. As a result, it is proven that through a variety of animalistic images, I. A. Krylov explicates the traits of the human character in all their diversity. The fables about people depict the Russian everyday life and traditions. Due to the broad historical context, prevalence of the characters, and depth of psychologism, the plotlines of the fables are timeless.
Sangadieva E.G. - Ethnographic and mythopoetic space of the novel Big Argish by Mikhail Osharov pp. 12-21


Abstract: The problem of studying the traditional cultures of the peoples of Russia is relevant in the modern social science and humanities research. A significant role in this process is played by literature that reveals the peculiarities of ethnopoetics, worldview, and perception of the world. In fiction writing, the ethnic specificities are reflected in depiction in the natural world, everyday life, mentality, as well ethnographic features of lifestyle of a certain community. Based on the novel by Mikhail Osharov (1894-1937), the article examines the ethnographic peculiarities of depicting the world and man. Analysis is conducted on images of the characters through the specificity of their ethnopsychological consciousness and traditional worldview. The research employs semantic and axiological methods. The scientific novelty consists in the analysis of the national concept of the world through ethnographic peculiarities of depicting literary mages in the novel “Big Argish” by Mikhail Osharov. The novel was written in the Russian language, describing the unique culture, traditions and customs of the Evenki people of the early 1930s. During the political repressions, Mikhail Osharov was shot, and his artistic heritage was eliminated from the sociocultural space of the Soviet literature and literary studies. In the context of returning the names and heritage of the repressed writers, develops a new perspective of the literary works. In his novel, Mikhail Osharov preserved the peculiarities of traditional culture and everyday life of the Evenki people of the early XX century.
Ol'shanskii D.A. - Psychoanalysis of Literature pp. 14-58


Abstract: It is known that psychoanalysis exists in three options – philosophical, clinical and applied. In the latter case it is about a peculiar research of art, political and mass and psychological processes. Psychoanalytic ideas can be used in the sphere of philosophy, sociology, art and religion. Freud laid the patography foundation – one of applied disciplines of psychoanalysis studying and interpreting biographies of writers, scientists, artists, politicians. Peru the founder of psychoanalysis possesses the known patografichesky researches devoted to Leonardo da Vinci, F.M. Dostoyevsky, V. Wilson. Patography – a specific method and a genre of the psychological and patopsikhologichesky analysis, description of life and creativity of charismatic persons, artists, scientists, writers, political and religious figures. Psychoanalysis of literature is presented in this case by a series of reviews of the author of performances, movies and other works of art. The author uses methodology of philosophical anthropology, psychoanalysis and a hermeneutics. He seeks to analyse works of art from the point of view of psychological mechanisms which are revealed by psychoanalysis. For the first time in domestic literature psychoanalysis is widely applied to studying of literary works. The author considers plots which formed the basis of performances, of movies and operas, investigates motives of behavior of literary characters, reveals secrets of mentality through a prism of psychoanalytic opening. It is possible to call each response to this or that statement a peculiar metaphysical sketch.
Ilin B.B. - Space transformations in the hagiographies (based on the materials of Uspensky Collection) pp. 31-43


Abstract: Fragments of the text that represent the category of space in the Old Russian hagiographies from the Uspensky Collection became the sources for this research. The object this article is the contexts that depict spatial images in dynamics. The subject is the semantics of the analyzed contexts. The relevance of the selected topic is substantiated by undiminishing interest to the interpretation of the category of space in the Old Russian texts, as by elaboration of the concept of sanctity in studying the hagiographic literature. The goal of this research lies in determination and description of the semantics of spatial transformations in the analyzed hagiographic texts. Research methodology leans on the descriptive method, which includes observation, interpretation and classification; as well as hermeneutical analysis with consideration of anthropological and axiological approaches. The scientific novelty consists in revealing the new aspect of the category of space in the hagiographic texts – spatial transformations. The author highlights several groups that characterize space transformations in the hagiographies: semantics of construction, semantics of destruction, semantics of expansion, semantics of transfiguration, and semantics of the miraculous. The keynote in the hagiographies is the idea of sanctity, which is important for the interpretation of the transforming space. All changes in the physical world take place under the influence of divine intervention for asserting sanctity of the hero or sanctity of the place. The depicted in the hagiographies spiritual reality impact the state of visible spatial images. In addition to the idea of sanctity, the perception of space transformations is affected by pragmatics of the text – the edifying focus of the genre. The acquired results can be valuable in studying the corpus of hagiographic texts from perspective of the category of space.
Bezrukov A.N. - Hierarchy of an Artistic Discourse pp. 45-53


Abstract: The subject of the research is the interdependence between the language and verbal communication, language and thinking, language and various types of discourse, assessment and analysis of a discursive writing. The object of the research is the specification of gnoseological mainlines involved in the process of objectivation of both the meaning of an available text, hereinafter - discourse, and decoding the reader's contextual artistic reality. The author of the article examines the  hierarchy of the discourse, the structure of the meaning in the practice of discursive creative writing formed by the combination of diametrical meaning points under conditions of transformational dispositions. Such aspects of the topic as the control over the reader's mind, systematisation of artistic forms, immanent variants, intratextual relations, semantic allocation, structuring and reception of the concept as a unit of the mental frame-based scheme, and registers of discursive practice methodologically complete the research and reveal the topic at the most. The author pays special attention to the analysis of discursive paradigm that is incomplete, tends to have infinite borders and, which is very important, regulated by the social historical environment and individual personal priorities. According to the author, cognitive approach is the most accurate research method providing that the composite research methodology prevails. Interpretation based on the aforesaid approach is close to the ontological correction of the meaning and statement of multiple connotations. Consequently, cognitive reception algorithms of the artistic discourse reversibly reveal possible paths for decoding all the volume of meanings. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that for the first time in the academic literature the author views artistic discourse as a form of connection of nominative corpus units from the side of the author and the sphere of constant actualisation of meanings from the side of the reader. This allows to conclude that artistic discourse is a hierarchically normalized process. Unlike text, discourse performs the function of the language functional allocation. Communication manifests the model of the special relationship between the author and the reader, the recipient and the person who produces a literary text. The hierarchy of the discourse is not a literal composition but the interplay of paradigm language forms that functionally exist in the reader's mind. Conceptual modification of elements co-organise the matrix of of the cognitive evaluation of reality. The main conclusion fo the research is that artistic discourse should be perceived as a climax of a concretized aesthetic thought, narrative style, mind's marker, and evaluation method, in a word, everything that is axiologically correct for the author and recipient and formally correct at this or that historical stage. 
Pavlova T., Kikhnei L.G., Kuptsova M.Y. - To the Historiosophical Searches of the Late Gumilev: the Conflict of the Old and New World Order in the "Zvezdnyi uzhas" ["Star Horror"] pp. 47-59



Abstract: The subject of the study is N.S. Gumilev's poem "Zvezdnyi uzhas" ["Star Horror"] - one of the poet's last works, which has ambivalent semantics and contains the potential of polyvalent interpretation. The object of the study is the conflict of the poem "Zvezdnyi uzhas", which has a historical meaning and casts light on the conflicts of the distant past. On the other hand, through the plot of the poem, the realities of the present and its perception by contemporaries at the junction of epochs are read. The authors consider in detail such aspects of the topic as the identification of the tribe to which the main characters of the poem belong as a conflict-causing factor, the implicature of the conflict is also considered in the context of the collection "Ognennyi stolp" ["Pillar of Fire"]. Particular attention is paid to the conflict with the Zend tribe mentioned in the text, which is considered in the categories of the opposition of the true and imaginary, and the ambivalence of the conflict and the plot is also highlighted. The main conclusions of the study are various ways of reading the main conflict of the poem: the conflict of the old and the new, tradition and change, fathers and children; the poem also presents the conflict of various religious movements. A special contribution of the authors to the study of the topic is the possibility of reading this poem in the categories of various types of conflict, including the conflict associated with N.S. Gumilev's fascination with Zoroastrianism. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that for the first time the connection of the text of "Star Horror" with Zoroastrianism and ancient Persian traditions and motifs is shown. N.S. Gumilev consciously turned to Zoroastrian mythology not only in his early but also in his late work, and "Star Horror" in this respect has multiple interpretations of the plot and conflict. The question of attribution of the tribe, which is the main character of the text, is raised in connection with the mention of specific realities, the name of the tribe "Zend" indicated in the text is analyzed against the background of N.S. Gumilev's interest in the Persian theme in later poems.
Iakovleva E. - Modern Views on the Interpretation Model of a Text pp. 57-66


Abstract: The research is focused on the interpretation of texts as a rather difficult process which includes numerous components such as cultural and historical environment, actual events, symbolism, polysemy of words, dependence on the meaning and context, personal qualities of the Author and Interpreter, etc.). These components are dialectically interwined and each time they create new configurations which causes a modern concept of the interpretation model as a rhizomatic network spiral. In the course of her research Yakovleva has defined that the Interpretation Bridge connecting Point A (Author, Text, or beginning of the interpretation journey) and Point B (Interpreter, Life/Situation, ending of the interpretation journey) is just an external construct. If we go deeper into the intepretation process, it will look like a spiralling and extending rhizomatic network. The aforesaid issue is viewed by the author of the article on the basis of the dialectical, phenomenological and hermeneutical methods as well as the principle of intentional analysis allowing to construct the interpretation model.  The interpretation process externally looks like the Bridge and internally like a rhizomatic network spiral. This allows the interpretation process to be flexible and variably mobile and extending in any direction. The key figure of the interpretation process is a recipient who sets the existence of the text through his or her Self-position and changes in the course of interpretation. Interpretation as a spiritual practice of Self combining the objective/subjective, conscious/unconscious, rational/sensual, fiction/reality brings us to the Other Self. This contributes to better understanding and extension of the horizon. Provisions and conclusions of this study can be used for further research of the interpretation process and reflection as part of the interpretation process as well as for analysis of all kinds of texts.  
Kolobova K.S. - Metafiction Game in Gunter Grass' Novel 'My Century' pp. 59-65


Abstract: The subject of this research is metafiction or metafiction game in literary writing. The object of the research is the methods that actualize a metafiction game in a structure of a literary writing at all levels of a text: composition, content and theme. The author of the article views the category of metafiction in relatino to the category of fiction/fabulousness. The theory of metafiction has become the ground for a number of literary researches. Analysis of the category of metafiction allows to better understand a message and the world created by the author. The methodological basis of the research is the method of contextual interpretation as well as description including a set of observation techniques, comparison and theoretical generalisation of linguistic analysis results. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that Kolobkova analyses this literary writing in such terms for the first time in the academic literature. The researcher's special contribution to the analysis of Gunter Grass', German writer's, works from the point of view of metafiction. 
Fedorova Y. - Avicenna and Attar of Nishapur: two versions of the legend of the legend of the birds/souls on the quest for God pp. 62-90


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the research of the stories of two Persian authors: the philosophical proverb “Tale of the Bird” by the most prominent representative of philosophy Avicenna (980-1037), and the “Conference of the Birds” by the illustrious poet and one of the leading representatives of the Persian philosophical Sufism Attar of Nishapur (1145/46-1221). A special attention is given to the comparative analysis of several key episodes of the stories by Avicenna and Attar: introduction to the proverb and the poem, the story of the quest in search of their King, as well as the description of the meeting between the birds and the King. Using a complex of methods of historical-philosophical and textological analysis, as well as the method of philosophical interpretation of literary text, the author successively examines how the similar story of the quest of the soul-bird for God is realized by the philosopher in a small proverb and a poet in a big poem-Masnavi, and determines a number of topics and concepts of Sufi theory and practice, referred to by the separate elements of the story in the proverb and the poem. The author concludes that the allegoric form elected by Attar and Avicenna to relate the theoretical ideas does not pose principle difficulties for understanding of the philosophical concept of both authors. Attar attempted to demonstrate the path of the human soul to God (Sufi method of cognition of God), while Avicenna attempted to describe his own spiritual experience and irrational method of learning the truth.
Migranova I.K. - Gender Aspect of Perceiving Scientific Texts pp. 65-70


Abstract: The subject of the research is the issues related to perceiving scientific texts taking into account gender particularities of their authors and readers. The author of the article demonstrates an opportunity of various gender-related personality types to interact in the process of creating scientific texts. The author of the article analyzes particularities of male and female perception of scientific texts, describes essential verbal stereotypes, defines significant gender differences in perception and interpretation of such terms as 'masculunity', 'femininity', and androgyny, which is often associated with the factor of subjectivity in the process of scientific information evaluation. This research is based on a number of research methods including historical-genetic, linguistic, formalisation, socio- and psycholinguistics methods. The novelty of this research is caused by the fact that the matter viewed by the author creates a new understanding of the gender component in modern texts. The author's special contribution to the topic is her argumented conclusion that perception of scientific information is based on professional knowledge and skills of an individual, i.e. presupposition. Consequently, gender is not a dominating factor in the process of writing scientific texts because individuals of both sexes may demonstrate the entire range of gender particularities.   
Yuan X. - Particle just in the Vasily Shukshins stories pp. 65-72


Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of the particle just” in the Vasily Shukshin’s stories. Analysis is conducted on the syntagmatic and paradigmatic properties of the particle “just”. The object of this research is the particle “just” in the stories of V. Shukshin. The subject is the syntagmatic and paradigmatic properties of the particle “just”. The goal of this study consists in the comprehensive description of the meaning system of the particle “just”, its synonyms and concurrence in the stories of V. Shukshin. The research methodology contains descriptive method with application of the method of contextual analysis, quantitative method, and comparative method. The following conclusions were acquired: in the stories of V. Shukshin, the particle “just” most often is used to highlight the concurrence of situations in time or space; there are instances of combination of meanings of the particle “just”; the particle “just” has no limitations in compatibility. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that the author is first to analyze the utilization of the particle “just” in the works of a single author; as well as determine the instances of utilization that are not described in the dictionaries.
Iakovleva E. - The Phenomenon of Fear in Literature: Interpretation of Fernando Pessoa's The Book of Disquiet pp. 67-74


Abstract: The object of the research is the autobiographic collection of aphoristic expressions The Book of Disquiet written by a Portuguese author Fernando Pessoa. The aim of the research is to interpret the contents of The Book of Disquiet from the poin of view of fear, the phenomenon often realled by Pessoa in his diary essays. Pessoa's introversion and artistic fixation of his own moods allow to demonstrate a wide panorama and dynamics of emotional states accompanying fear. In Pessoa's works the main character Bernardo Soares, a 'semi-heteronym' of the writer, describes different forms of existential fear and anxiety, concern, uncertainty, etc. The total nature of fear makes the hero fear life and expect death. Such artistic presentation of fear allows the author and the reader to understand many sides of existentia and reduce the intensity of fear. The matter under research is analyzed by using the method of hermeneutical analysis that allows to reveal many sides of fear in human existence. For the first time in the academic literature and as part of philosophical and cultural studies, the researcher interprets The Book of Disquiet written by Fernando Possoa from the point of view of fear as an existential problem of human existence. The conclusions and results of the research can be used for further research of the representation of fear in literature and art as well as the phenomenon of fear in human existence in general. 
Akamov A.T., Sultanmuradov A.M., Bekeeva A.M., Alkhlavova I.K. - Tales on the prophets: artistic reflection in the Kumyk literature pp. 72-83


Abstract: The subject of this research is the Quranic narratives on the prophets in the books by A. Akayev, Shihammat-kadi from Erpeli, and Magomed Kazanbiev. In their works, tales on the prophets are interpreted and embellished with the corresponding Quranic ayats and hadiths. An attempts is made to determine cognitive function of the tales that would combine artistic virtues with folk elements, as well as frame a philosophical worldview. The worldview function of these tales is defined as humane by the spirit and logical by the method of interpretation of Islamic theosophy and ideology. It is worth noting that these tales and narratives contain the elements of folklore traditions (M. Kazanbiev “The Radiant Story”). Having analyzed the tales on the prophets described in the books by A. Akayev, Shihammat-kadi from Erpeli, and Magomed Kazanbiev, the author concludes that they represent the extensive authorial narratives based on Quranic themes. The conducted comparative analysis of the texts demonstrates that Shihammat-kadi from Erpel infuses more fiction elements, while A. Akayev places emphasis on the historical-biographical records on the prophets. Unlike the aforementioned authors, M. Kazanbiev describes and glorifies the actions and personal traits of a single prophet. Reference to the Quranic narratives on the prophets in the Kumyk religious literature allows tracing the peculiarities of their interpretation, determine the specificity of authorial narration, their style, as well as similarities and differences. The acquired results confirm that A. Akayev, Shihammat-kadi from Erpeli, and Magomed Kazanbiev embellish the Quranic texts in their works.
Gao J. - The Impact of Digital Technologies on the Structure of Translation Activities pp. 72-86



Abstract: Automated and machine translation tools have become integral elements of the translation process, but their place in translation models is still not defined. On the one hand, the trend towards automating translation practices is reducing the burden on human translators, freeing them from repetitive, tedious and low-tech tasks and freeing them up for more complex and creative tasks, on the other hand, it is also invading into the territory of professional translators at the conversion level. This article attempts to comprehend translation activity in the era of digital translation and modeling of translation activity taking into account digital technologies, as opposed to the model of traditional translation activity. The main result of this work can be considered as definition of the place of digital technologies in the actant model of translation activity as auxiliary means. With the development of digital technologies, the model of translation activity is developing towards automation and the emergence of new forms of translation activity. At the level of intercultural communication, since AI does not yet have the emotional and creative intelligence of a higher mind, as well as the biological and social characteristics inherent in human intelligence, automatic translation models are subject to limited cultural, contextual, historical and social norms. It is for this reason that machine translations require final editing, interpretation, adaptation, and other cultural adjustments by human translators.
Krotovskaya N.G. - V.Nabokov. Lectures on Don Quixote (translated) pp. 82-127
Abstract: In his lectures before the Harvard audience in 1951-1952, Vladimir Nabokov attempts to unveil the true work of Servantes, stripping it of sanctimonious nonsense that turned a harsh narrative into an easygoing tale about appearance versus reality, which layered on the novel due to centuries of misinterpretation. In truth, Don Quixote remains a traditional piece of old Spanish literature, depicting cruelty towards an old man that acts like a child in his senile dementia. This book was written in an age when the sick and the crippled  were laughed at, when heretics were burned alive in public, when mercy and kindness were seemingly extinguished forever. In time, however, the world saw the novel in another light. The character that started off as a target for ridicule, became a saint over the centuries.
Yuan X. - The particle just in lexicographic terms and materials for complementing its lexical entry pp. 86-96


Abstract: This article is devoted explores the lexicographic description of functional words. The object of this research is the lexicographic interpretation of functional words. The subject is the interpretations of the particle “just” in various types of dictionaries, namely explanatory and etymological dictionaries of the Russian language, as well as dictionaries developed foreign scholars. The goal is set to systematize the existing information on the particle “just” in the dictionaries, as well as present the material for complementing its lexical entry based on the analysis of factual material in order to create a comprehensive portrait of this unit. For achieving the set goal, the article employs descriptive, comparative, and analytical methods. Comparison of the dictionary data allows determining the similarities and differences in interpretation of the word “just”, establish the invariant meaning of this particle, outline the discrepancies in classification of the types of its use. Leaning on the analysis of factual material of the particle “just” in relation to its syntagmatic and paradigmatic characteristics, the author offers a new interpretation of the meanings of this particle and division of modifications of its meanings. The novelty of this work consists in the proposed material for complementing the lexical entry of the particle “just”.
Cheng S. - Mythical images in the novel The Great Wang by N. A. Baykov pp. 89-96


Abstract: This article analyzes the mythical images in the novel “The Great Wang” by N. A. Baykov. In this work, the writer depicts such mythical images as the tiger – Great Wang, the wise old man – Tong Li, and the lotus flower. The tiger is assigned a significant role in many works by N. A. Baykov – the novels “The Great Wang”, “Tigress”, “The Black Captain”, “On The Hills and Woods of Manchuria”, as well as the scientific articles “The Manchurian Tiger”, “Tigers in The Far East”, "Tiger Hunting" , etc. The unique peculiarity of the novel under review lies in combination of the expressive techniques of Western literature with the exotic themes of Eastern nature, simple natural worldview of inhabitants of the East. The specifics of the novel lies in the fact that the idea “The Great Wang” is based on the Chinese folk myths and legends, which attach a rather mystical and mythical hue. All forest animals anthropomorphized by the writer have their own thoughts and emotions. The conclusion is made that using mythical images, the well versed in the Chinese culture and folklore writer, combined mythical images with his narrative, and expressed his opinion on the man – nature relations. N. A. Baykov was against anthropocentrism, and advocated for the harmonious coexistence of man and nature. In the current context of deterioration of environmental situation, the reflected in “The Great Wang” ecological problems deserve attention of each one of us. The name of N. A. Baykov should be inscribed in the history of the world ecological literature.
Ilunina A.A. - Transformation of the images of woman and child in the Neo-Victorian novel (based on the novels Florence and Giles John Harding and The Trial of Elizabeth Cree by Peter Ackroyd pp. 93-101


Abstract: Neo-Victorian novel is one of the main trends in the development of modern British literature. This article traces the transformation of the images of woman and child in the Neo-Victorian novel of the 1990 – 2010s in comparison with the Victorian pretext (the novels “The Turn of the Screw” by Henry James, “Jane Eyre” by Charlotte Brontë, “Oliver Twist”, “David Copperfield” by Charles Dickens). The research material includes the novels “Florence and Giles” John Harding and “The Trial of Elizabeth Cree” by Peter Ackroyd. It was determines that the Neo-Victorian novel fools with the audience’s perception of stereotypical gender concepts, as well as poetics of the Victorian novel, according to which the title character, namely a woman or a child, is the object of the author’s and reader’s affinity. The article examines the role of references in the aforementioned neo-Victorian novels to the “thrilling” stories of Edgar. Poe, “The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde” by Robert Louis Stevenson. It is revealed that the traditional “angel in the house” in the Neo-Victorian novel is transformed into the evil “Mrs. Hyde”, exacting vengeance on the world for the humiliations because of her gender and social status. The author reviews the role of intermedian references in the novel “Florence and Giles”. The conclusion is made that the dialogue with pretexts allows modern writers to touch on the topics of women's education and gender inequality in the past and present.
Zhu Y. - Interpretation of the image of Tatiana Larina in Chinese Pushkin studies 1978 - 2010 . pp. 93-102


Abstract: The main attention in the article is paid to the peculiarities of the interpretation of the image of Tatiana Larina in Chinese Pushkin studies from 1978 to 2010. The article discusses various works of Chinese interpreters dedicated to the image of Tatiana. Based on the analysis of extensive material, an attempt is made to summarize the main features of the interpretation of Pushkin's heroine in China. The comparative-historical approach, methods of generalization, interpretation of the results were used in the study. In modern Pushkin studies, a lot of attention has been paid to the perception of A. S. Pushkin's work outside the homeland, especially in China, to a greater extent it concerns translation interpretation. And the analysis of Chinese literary works about a particular character — in this work about Tatiana Larina — is carried out for the first time. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the small knowledge of the problem of interpreting the image of Tatiana in China. In the course of the work, the peculiarities of the interpretation of the image of Tatiana in China were revealed — the fascination with the assessment of Tatiana's moral qualities, and at the same time — the neglect of the artistic nature of the Pushkin heroine. The results of the study contribute to the study of the image of Tatiana in Chinese Pushkin studies, and also contribute to a deep understanding of the image of the Russian woman in China. In addition, its results and conclusions can also be used in the study of intercultural relations between China and Russia, the study of the reception of Russian literature in China.
Kulagina-Yartseva V.S. - Nabokov, V.V. Lecture on Charles Dickens (translation) pp. 96-221


Abstract: This lecture is a part of the course on "Masters of European Prose", which was prepared by V.Nabokov for the students at the Wesley College and the Cornell University, where he taught from 1940s to 1950s. In this lecture V.Nabokov, being a thinking reader, and a perseptive and interested researcher, gives his students a lesson on attentive reading, with due attention paid to the artful details and paradoxical visions of the world of Charles Dickens
Deminova M.A. - Interpretation of the event within the structure of news narrative pp. 102-117


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the analysis of the structure of news narrative, which is relevant the context of interpretation of the event. The author believes that the news texts that do not contain a clear expressive or analytical component, interpretation consists in transformation of the narrative. News hold a special place among other media texts. News genres, to a greater extent that the analytical genres, satisfy people's information needs. If the analytical and publicistic texts the readers choose in accordance with their worldview and value system, then news texts are perceived as neutral, characterized by a stable structure, repeatability, reproducibility; they are virtually not affected by the specificity of a particular editorial policy, and, thus, have broader audience. At first glance, the patterns used for news writing, do not have impact on the audience; however, they are evaluative and interpretative, which is reflected in narrative structure of the text. The attitude of the author towards the event in the central episode is traced. Since the central episode is related to the actual event more than any other component of the narrative structure, it nonetheless, has considerable interpretive potential. Transformation of the key component testifies to the fact that narrative structure of the news material is quite adaptable, and may change under the influence of certain information. The additional secondary components of the narrative structure also have high interpretive potential, since their very presence in the text reflects the author's desire to deliver additional information, the choice of which directly affects interpretation of the event.
Bezrukov A.N. - Semantic identification of the novel Evgenia Ivanovna by Leonid Leonov pp. 104-113


Abstract: The prose by Leonid Leonov exemplifies the dialogue of the writer with literary and cultural formations of the past. Artistic thinking of the writer is oriented towards the potentiality of discursive combinations, as well as the expression of his authorial position. The object of this research is the novel “Evgenia Ivanovna”, which is structured on the principle of condensation of intertextual references. The subject of this research is the versatile type of narration of the prose writer of the XX century. He implements the plot of the text by means of constructive dialogue with classic literature. Research methodology synthesizes the verges of intertextual, structural, conceptual, hermeneutical, and comparative approaches. Reception of the novel “Evgenia Ivanovna” becomes more complicated with the course of historical time. The philosophy of Leonov’s text consists in relative simplicity. Specificity of the novel lies in finding a compromise solution. The author suggestively intertwines fates of the characters into a single large event, which affects the entire country. The formulated conclusions specify the scale of the persona of Leonid Leonov in literary process of the XX century. This material may be valuable for further research on the specificity of Russian classic literature.
Zipunov A., Valganov S.V. - Macro-semantic rhythmic structures in popular author songs pp. 106-115


Abstract: Certain author song of the 1950s – 1980s are characterized with such structural peculiarity as semantic rhythms. This pattern manifests itself in two forms: dialectical juxtaposition of the particular and the general (PG-rhythm); as well as the conflict of non-entropic and entropic processes, order and chaos (OC-rhythm). For broader understanding of this phenomenon, it is necessary to determine its place within the framework of the author song as a large-scale cultural phenomenon. The author mass processing of popular compositions using the method of almost full enumeration. The research material includes all 5 thematic national collections that feature 487 songs. The analysis of the lyrics reveals the total number of works with the initial semantic rhythmics: 43% with the PG-structure and 23% with the OC-structure. The application of various strategies of analysis indicates that the sampling of no less than 70-80 compositions should be used for achieving accurate results in partial studies (for example, by authors) . In the course of research, the author determines new versions of manifestation of the semantic structures: PG-structure of fable-type, as well as variability of Brodsky's saw in songs with entropic rhythmics. There are also songs with intersection of both types of semantic rhythms. Correlation is established between the social processes of cultural environment associated with the author song and the dynamics of semantic rhythms in popular compositions. In the early 1970s, a bifurcation point is noticed in the moods of the corresponding social community.
Chzhan T., Zhdanova L.A. - The Syntaxeme 'pri tsare' (in tsarist time) in the Meaning of in Russia until 1917 (according to the Russian National Corpus) pp. 109-115



Abstract: The article is devoted to the linguistic means, trought which native speakers of the Russian language structure their history, divide it into periods. Such means include, in particular, indications of significant events (before / after the Revolution) and the nature of state power: pri tsare (in tsarist time), under the Soviet regime. The aim of the article is to describe the semantics, the pragmatics, the synonymic and antonymic relations of the syntaxeme pri tsare (in tsarist time) in the temporal absolutive use (without the extension of the definition). This use of the syntaxeme emerges after 1917, before which the syntaxeme is used in the temporal sense only with specifying definitions such as pri tsare Petre (in the time of Peter 1). The research material was found in the contexts borrowed from the main subcorpus of the Russian National corpus, the entire collection of samples consists of 964 contexts, 368 contexts are related to the temporal absolute use of the syntaxeme in questions. The analysis of contexts with the absolute temporal use of the syntaxeme allows us to identify the meaning 'in Russia before 1917' and several subtypes (shades of meaning): under the tsarist regime (denotes a wide time range with a blurred lower border), in the pre-revolutionary period (several decades, the reign of Nicholas II), a very long time ago'. The article uses quantitative, functional-semantic, descriptive methods, uses the method of component analysis, and considers the dynamic aspect (analyzes the change in the meaning of syntaxeme during the last century). The relevance of the study is due to the fact that lexicographic sources cannot explain the peculiarities of the use of the nominations under consideration, therefore, a description of their semantics and pragmatics with linguocultural commentary is required.
Korshunova E.A. - Sergey Durylin about Alexander Pushkin's 'The Captain's Daughter': Value Interpretation Issues pp. 115-121


Abstract: The subject of the research is the concept of value interpretations of the novel “The Captain's Daughter” by A. S. Pushkin, in particular, the unexplored critical diary notes of the writer, the critic S. Durylin (1886-1954) from the book In his Corner (1924-1939).Durylin's interpretation was noted in literary criticism in the article by V.E. Khalizev “Typology of characters and“ The Captain's Daughter ”. Durylin as a critic and literary scholar articulates a very important idea that the value meaning of Pushkin's story is not in clarifying the “correct” political position, but in a completely different place, which has not been found in literary criticism for a long time - the harmony and integrity of personal being. To solve the set tasks, the method of integral analysis, descriptive-analytical and comparative-typological approaches to the study of literary texts were used. Speaking about the uniqueness of the heroes of the Pushkin story, Grinev and Maria Ivanovna, Durylin anticipates Khaliyev's interpretation. Durylin pointed out not only the eternal significance of the Pushkin story in the history of Russian literature, but also explained the core of this meaning: Christian in content. Here the author uses his favorite method of a backward-looking worldview, calling him a “magic lantern”, which he writes about in another passage “Corners”. He uses the technique of "reverse perspective" in the literary-critical analysis. Offering the reader “The Captain's Daughter” as an eternal reading, Durylin tries to “reveal” the previously unaccented deep layer of the work: reading the story in the light of Orthodox axiology. This interpretation of the story by S.N. Durylin does not cancel the existing literary readings of the story, but complements them, expanding the range of possible interpretations of the work.
Elizarova N.M., Nikolskaya T. - K. G. Paustovsky's Story "The Rook in the trolleybus" as an early Text of the Thaw pp. 124-141



Abstract: K. G. Paustovsky's story "The Rook in the trolleybus" traditionally refers to works of children's literature. The interpretation presented in the article allows us to take out this story from the school niche and consider it in the light of the socio-political changes that began in Soviet society after Stalin's death. The subject of the research is the linguistic composition of the story and the nontextual information - background knowledge relevant for understanding the author's idea. The work of art is considered in line with the integral approach: methods and techniques of linguo-stylistic, literary and discursive analysis are applied. This approach is based on the understanding of the work of literature as a dialectical unity of form and content and at the same time as one of the components of artistic communication. The scientific novelty of the work is determined by the fact that the story "The Rook in the trolleybus" has never been subjected to an integral analysis before and, therefore, the conclusions drawn as a result of the application of this approach are original. Generalization of all observations and analysis of the text as a formal and meaningful whole lead to the general conclusion that "The Rook in the trolleybus" is an early text of the post-Stalin thaw. Russian language, literature and, possibly, history lessons, as well as university courses of stylistic analysis and interpretation of the text, the history of Russian and Soviet literature, in special courses devoted to the study of the creative biography of K. G. Paustovsky, can be widely used in the study of the results of the study and its techniques.
Markasova O.A. - Remark Transformation in Drama and Screenplay (the Case Study of Evgeny Schwartz' Works) pp. 139-148


Abstract: The object of this research is Evgeny Schwartz' plays 'The Novel About Young Mates' and 'The Ordinary Miracle' and his screenplay 'Don Quixote'. The subject of the research is the main structural and semantic means used to create remarks in drama and screenplay. The author of the article examines such aspects of the topic as the quantitative correlation of remarks, functions of inter-replica remarks and pacelled constructs, peculiarities of the composition structure and semantic organisation of remarks in Schwartz' works. The author of the article focuses on the analysis of the remark tranformation mechanisms in different types of texts. The research has involved such methods as the analysis of the material considering the communicative, semantic and functional orientations of syntax. The research covers the areas of philological and art historical intrepretation of texts. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author defines the frequency of the use of remark lexical contents in drama and screenplay. The main conclusions of the research are the following: in drama and screenplay remark and replica have relations based on conplementarity, interdependence and counteraction and semantic contents of remarks are concentrated within the limits of the transfer of what is seen or heard. 
Ou M. - Non-Euclidean Geometries as a Source of Faith in God for F.M. Dostoevsky and His Characters (on the Example of Ivan Karamazov) pp. 139-150



Abstract: Ivan Karamazov's nightmare reflects his deep ideological crisis. In the story of Ivan Karamazov's "rebellion" against God, his arguments about recently discovered non-Euclidean geometries play a major role. Confessing that he cannot understand and accept the idea of non-Euclidean geometry and the idea of worlds arranged according to different laws than our world, Ivan therefore denies the possibility for himself to sincerely believe in God. The strange connection between non-Euclidean geometry and belief in God is confirmed by an episode in The Brothers Karamazov, in which Ivan has a vision of the devil. In describing paradise, the devil uses the latest scientific concepts and non-Euclidean geometry, clearly demonstrating that new scientific theories can help a person find faith. This connection, important for the story of Ivan Karamazov, can be explained by the fact that in Dostoevsky's philosophical worldview the existence of "other worlds" plays a very important role as an expression of an unusual interpretation of the idea of immortality. If we accept the idea of people's existence after death in "other worlds", then scientific theories about "other worlds" can be seen as revealing those dimensions of being, where man will visibly understand the existence of God and the possibility of immortality.
Iakovleva E. - Interpretation of symbols of female destiny in the novel Zuleikha Opens Her Eyes by G. Yakhina pp. 147-157


Abstract: Many aspects of the life of Tatar women of the past remain obscure for others, which is substantiated by the tradition. This prompts the study of the topic in the genre of literary realism. Analysis is conducted on the fate of Tatar woman in the novel “Zuleikha Opens Her Eyes” by G. Yakhina. The hermeneutical method reveals the key symbols of life of the woman, which reveal what is hidden. Such symbols as coffer, kiln, baby cradle, bird, son, honey embody the feminine principle and have national roots. The symbol of train resembles the progress and new foundations of existence, which partially disclose the hidden aspects of the life of Tatar women. Social changes affected the fate of Tatar women, giving an opportunity for self-realization and attainment of happiness. The novelty of this research lies in the analysis of the hidden in the life of Tatar women, dynamics of its evolution in the context of shift in sociocultural dominants caused by historical development. The acquired conclusions can be valuable in reconstruction of the fate of Tatar women of the XIX – XX centuries, determination of the finest nuances and details unknown to others, as well as restoration of the cultural-historical picture of their everyday practices. The interpretation of fate of the heroine of the novel through symbols allows applying a similar method to the analysis of other literary works dedicates to the female theme in culture.
Poulaki P. - Visual Poetry in Ancient Persian Poetry pp. 183-192


Abstract: This article is devoted to the analysis of visual peotry in the literature of ancient Iran as well as the relation between ancient Persian literature of the Xth century and European (French) poetry of the XIXth - XXth century, in particular, the influence of the latter on the former. Based on the example of calligrams of a French avant-garde poet Guillaume Apollinaire the author of the article studies the hypothesis about European authors borrowing graphical forms and visual techniques from ancient Persian sources. Pulaki focuses on such genre of Persian visual poetry as توشیح (toshih) and its kinds. In addition,the author also views the phenomenon of visuality in the Azerbaijani style of Iran poetry of the XIIth century. The researcher analyzes forms of visual poetry in the literature of ancient Iran as well as analyzes the relation between ancient Persian literature of the Xth century and European (French) poetry of the XIXth - XXth century expressed as the influence of the former on the latter based on the examples of calligrams of a French avant-garde poet Guillaume Apollinaire. 
Vered V.T. - Comparative Analysis of Phraseological Units in a Literary Text (the Case Study of F. Scott Fitzgerald's Novel The Great Gatsby) pp. 185-194


Abstract: The matter under research is linguistic and and author phraseologists used by F. Scott Fitzgerald in his novel The Great Gatsby and variants of their translation to the Russian language. Vered analyzes the problems that may arise in the process of translation and use of phraseological units in a literary text. The researcher also solves the problem of what would be the best way to preserve the form and contents of an an original established expression when the expression is transferred to another socio-cultural environment. Vered focuses on translation strategies and the method of semantic 'adaptation' of phraseological units taking into account their pragmatic and aesthetic orientation. The main research methods used by the author of the article include contrast analysis of phraseological units in the  English and Russian languages. To specify the degree of semantic difference between conditionally equivalent units, the researcher has used the method of dictionary definition as well as contextual analysis that allows to discover functional features of phraseological units in a literary work. The novelty of the research is caused, on the one hand, by insufficient degree of development of expressive means translation and, on the other hand, by the need to study peculiarities of this category comparing Russian and English versions of a literary text. The choice of translation strategies depend on the degree of semantic contiguousness of components that constitute a phraseological unit as well as the nature of figurality of a particular language unit determined by culture and national peculiarities. 
Pokhalenkov O.E., Klevtsova A.M. - Image of the enemy in political communication (based on the newspaper Znamya for 1944) pp. 188-195


Abstract: This article is dedicated to realization of image of the “enemy” in political communication (on the example of the newspaper “Znamya” for 1944). Special attention is given to the analysis of image of the “enemy” on different levels of publicistic text: linguistic, figurative, and associative. It is established that the image consists of macro-paradigms and mini-paradigms in spatial zones that are founded on the opposition “own – alien”. Macro-paradigms and mini-paradigms within the author’s view mostly consist of the following oppositions: German – fascist, German – murderer, German – beast, enemy – fascist’ accomplice. The author’s special contribution lies in introduction of the new archival material into the scientific discourse (unstudied the selection of the articles from the newspaper “Znamya” for 1944), which allows analyzing the image of “enemy” that has not previously become the object of research in the publicistic text of the regional media. The scientific novelty lies in the complex use of comparative and structural methods: comparative for tracing the similarities and differences in implementation of the main paradigms of image of the “enemy”; and the structural for determining the composition and content of the image paradigms.
Severina E.M., Larionova M.C. - The Chekhov Digital project: tasks and problems of implementing semantic markup of texts (on the example of A. P. Chekhov's story "The Death of an Official") pp. 211-222



Abstract: The article considers a model of preparation of machine-readable (semantic) markup of texts for the Chekhov Digital project on the example of philological interpretation of individual significant elements of A. P. Chekhov's story "Death of an Official" and presentation of this information explicitly based on the standards of digital publication Text Encoding Initiative (TEI/XML). Based on the work of literary researchers, significant entities have been identified for marking up the corpus of the writer's texts, but the question of their representation in the text remains quite complex. A philological examination of such aspects as "properties, states and events; character features" in an excerpt from the story of A.P. Chekhov was carried out from the point of view of the TEI markup capabilities for preserving philological knowledge in a machine-readable format. One of the objectives of the Chekhov Digital project is to go beyond a simple digitized text and provide useful digital tools for the researcher. The elements of machine-readable markup are presented, which make it possible to mark up significant entities in Chekhov's texts for organizing semantic search through the corpus of the writer's texts, the problems and research tasks arising in the process of implementing such interdisciplinary projects due to the need to combine the efforts of specialists from different fields of knowledge are considered. The project implements the principle of Open research data, the most important task of which is to create scientific communities around data. The work on the project led to the development of scientific cooperation between researchers of the Higher School of Economics, the UNC RAS and the SFU.
Xiuqing C. - The Role of Cognitive Metaphor in Chinese and Russian Languages pp. 226-234



Abstract: Communication refers to cognitive activity, therefore it is necessary to comprehensively investigate its individual aspects. The purpose of this article is to study the role of cognitive metaphor in Russian and Chinese. The subject of the study is cognitive metaphor in Russian and Chinese languages. The object of the study is the meaning of cognitive metaphor in Russian and Chinese. The author used methods of deduction and induction, comparative, contextual analysis. The author examines in detail the stages in the study of metaphor. Translation is a special act of retransmission in the form of international communication, in which the transfer of thoughts, feelings, and cultural experience is especially important. Through language it is possible to reflect the system of spiritual culture. The main content of the moral foundation of the Russian cultural tradition is the principles of Orthodoxy. Chinese traditions are based on a powerful moral experience, the basis of which are the ideas of Confucianism. The scientific novelty of the study consists in the analysis of specific examples of cognitive metaphors in the text materials of Chinese-Russian intercultural communication. The concept of metaphor is investigated, its characteristics in the cognitive approach are revealed. A metaphor is a universal sign that performs an epistemological function in the process of transmitting information. Cognitive metaphor allows you to know and describe the unknown through acquired experience, is a key element of the thought process. Cognitive metaphor is of great importance in economic and political international translations. Most concepts in the commercial sphere are multi-component and difficult to perceive. The specific examples of cognitive metaphors in the materials of Chinese-Russian intercultural communication are analyzed. Practical recommendations on the correct understanding and use of cognitive metaphors in the translation process are offered.
Li M. - Euphemisms of the death thematic group in Chinese and their translation into Russian pp. 250-258



Abstract: The article is devoted to the consideration of the euphemisms of the thematic group death in the Chinese language, expressing the unique cultural ideas and cultural psychology of the Han people. The aim of the work was to identify the conditions under which semantic accuracy is preserved during the translation of euphemisms of the death thematic group from Chinese into Russian. The object of the study is the euphemisms of the thematic group death in Chinese and their translation into Russian. The subject of the study is the specifics of the functioning of the euphemisms of the thematic group death in the Chinese language, which (euphemisms) convey value orientations, religious interpretations and folk customs of the Chinese (Han) people. In the course of the study, methods of analysis of research literature, linguistic and cultural analysis of linguistic units, structural analysis, comparison and classification of Chinese euphemisms of the death thematic group were used. The main conclusions of the study are: euphemisms are an integral part of the language of the Chinese (Han) people, expressed as a means of harmonizing interpersonal relations; the abundance of metaphorical language in the Chinese euphemisms of the thematic group of death indicates a cognitive mechanism by which people use concrete thinking to describe the abstract concept of death. The author's special contribution to the research of the topic is to identify the specifics of the functioning of the euphemisms of the thematic group death in the Chinese language, demonstrating not only the depth of the language of the Chinese (Han) people, but also the culture of the nation as a whole, its formation, attitude to the world. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the fact that the conditions were identified under which semantic accuracy is preserved during the translation of euphemisms of the death thematic group from Chinese into Russian, in the context of value orientations, religious interpretations, etc.
Pliva E.P. - Conceptualization of memorizing/forgetting in the Russian language pp. 291-297


Abstract: The object of this research is the words and phrases in the Russian language, included into the semantic field of mentality and denoting reception, processing and storage of information, as well as loss of stored information. From the cognitive perspective, the goal of this work consists in conceptualization of memorizing/forgetting processing within the Russian linguistic consciousness; how the thought process is see by a subject; as well as determination of the models underlying conceptualization of such operations with information. Identification of metaphoric scenarios – complex models describing all operations with information – is of particular interest. The scientific novelty is defined by the description of motivational grounds in comprehension by the Russian native speakers of rational activity as an object of thought; as well as determination of the conceptual models of rational activity and mental states. The main conclusion consists in examination of the words and phrases denoting reception, processing and storage of information, as well as loss of stored information, as well as diversity of perspectives on mental processes by the native speakers. Phrases, formed on the basis of a range of metaphorical models, comprise the majority of nominations designating operations with information.
Zipunov A., Valganov S.V. - From the structure of the scientific text to the 1950s-80s bard song genesis pp. 439-460



Abstract: The main purpose of this article is to clarify some controversial questions about the genesis of the bardic songs. This cultural phenomenon is seen as a system of "author-listeners". It has already been noted that the macro-structure of the dialectical opposition "private-universal" manifests itself much more often in bardic song than in other cultural directions. The hypothesis that the bardic song originated in the scientific intelligentsia is put forward in this article. In order to confirm the hypothesis, a brief analysis of scientific texts in the context of the identification of "private-universal" structures is carried out. As a result, it is shown that the structural rhythm "private-universal" is originally characteristic of the scientific tradition. Its presence is an invariable factor across all cultures. Moreover, it is also an integral part of the style of scientific thinking. This way of thinking affects the whole social community and defines the bardic song of listeners and authors. The mechanics of the emergence of this cultural phenomenon have been the subject of research. The verification of the results was carried out by applying the scientists number dynamics in the country to the creation dynamics of the bard songs. Once linked to the structural analysis results, the identified correlation was converted into a dependency rank. Thus, the hypothesis of how the Bard's Song got started was confirmed.
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