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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Rubric "Folklore"
Reznikova K.V. - The Problem of the the Epic Cultural Heritage of Krasnoyarsk Krai Indigenous Peoples pp. 20-34


Abstract: The subject of the research is the epos of indigenous ethnic groups of Krasnoyarsk Krai (eposes of the Evenks, Nenets, Dolgans, Enskies, Selkups, Chulyms, Yakuts, Kets, Nganasans) including the Evenki epic works. Based on the results of field researches conducted by students, graduate students, and researchers of the Siberian Federal University, the author of the article describes the actual condition of folklore of indigenous ethnic groups of the North and Siberia. The content analysis of the Evenki epos "Brave Sodani Bogatyr" is carried out, the most significant images and symbols typical for Evenki epic works are described. Linguoculturological methods of research were applied, the overview of epic works of Krasnoyarsk Krai indigenous ethnic groups and the content analysis of the chosen fragments of the Evenki heroic epos were carried out. The author concludes that eposes of various ethnic groups possess a similar plot structure: exposition or introduction (description of time, place, main characters); complications (misfortune, desire to travel, matchmaking); climax (fight against opponents, notably that relatives of a future wife can be such opponents); denouemenе (marriage, homecoming of the bogatyr). In addition to the plot structure, eposes also have general motifs, such as the anger of the hero changing his appearance and the hero putting charms on his arrows to gain a victory over the rival. 
Tinyakova E.A. - Where to Look for the Image of Hero (the Focus on National Features in the Russian Traditional Culture) pp. 21-49


Abstract: Object of research is the concept "heroism" as philosophical and historical, in the basic, against welfare transformations of the 20th and 21st centuries in Russia. Reasonings proceed from a dichotomy: death and celebration of life. An object of research is the historical road of heroism in the Russian national history. The author asks a question how to use the concept "heroism" of education. An object of research are the secular and religious forms of imprinting of courage and courage, the word and phrase of Russian conveying and settling meaning of heroism. In research the historical and chronicle method, literary and art, ethnic, social and political, and also religious and secular approaches was used. In research has been applied auxiliary historical дисциплина−фалеристика. The main conclusions of the conducted research is allocation of a timeless component in concept of heroism, generally in religious approach which is less inclined to historical variability of views and opinions. In article the attention to transformation of interpretation of historical maintenance of feats through history is also paid. The author's conclusion is actual that in a modern social situation of Russia the concept "heroism" seeks to take the place of worthy social value. Modern line of this concept − tendency to life, but not aspiration to death is noted. 
Kolesnik M.A. - Review of the Studies of Folklore of Indigenous Peoples of the North pp. 39-59


Abstract: The research subject of the present article is the scientific works devoted to collecting, describing and publishing folklore of the indigenous peoples of the North. In his research Kolesnikov tries to classify folklore of the indigenous peoples of the North according to their chronological order as well as their attribution to a particular ethnocultural group (Yakuts, Dolgans, Khanty, Mansi, Selkups, Evenks, Kets, Nganasans, Nenets, etc.). This review allows to outline the challenges of today's studies of folklore of the indigenous peoples of the North and provide recommendations for futher researhes of the cultural heritage of the Northern and Siberian poeples. The research methodology is mostly connected with the analysis of scientific works and researches on the topic. Kolesnikov has applied the comparative historical method and the chronological method to studying scientific works on the folklore of the indigenous peoples of the North. Based on the conclusions of the research, the researcher offers the following measures aimed at preservation of the folklore of indigenous peoples of the North: - It is necessary to apply new preservation measures instead of the previous ones using digital techologies and othe opportunities. This would allow to create the common database of all the collected data and provide better opportunities for studying them. - Taking into account the fact that some ethnic groups have already forgotten their national language, it is neessary to publish their folklore in Russian and other languages. - It is important to conduct different activities (festivals, holidays, contests, etc.) for the youth. This would allow to ensure the continuity of folklore traditions. - There should be target programs created and grants provided for the preservation, research and promotion of folklore. - Folklore lessons should be given at schools, colleges, institutes and universities not only in the regions where a particular ethnic group lives but throughout the North in general. - New collections of folklore songs, fairy-tales, legends, puzzles, etc. should be published and recorded. Audio books, audio records, videos and digital materials should be made to cover the largest audience possible. - It is also necessary to create specialized folklore centers where folklore archives would be stored and special activities would be conducted. 
Zolotova T.A., Ivanova E.S., Plotnikova E.A. - Vyatka Folklore: Regional Features and Forms of Presentation pp. 47-55


Abstract: The authors of the present article offer a possible model to describe passage (initiation) rites in traditional (folklore) culture. The article is focused on the Vyatka maternity rite. The research is based on the materials that have been collected in the territory of the Kirov Region and north-eastern part of the Mari El Republic by folklore expeditions of Lomonosov Moscow State University and Mari State University during the past decades of the 20th century and present a chronological cut of the maternity rite of the 20 - 30s of the 20th century. According to the authors, the summary model of the Vyatka maternity rite should include three description types: ethnographic, structural-semiotic and hypertextual (hypermedia). The description algorithm offered by the authors of the article allows to get an insight into the maternity rite as a rite of 'double passage' (during the labour both a child and a mother attain a new essence; both of them become new members of the society and raise their social status), to clarify the regional features of such rites (main cycles, order and frequency of actions, chronotope organisation kinds, character selection patterns, 'thematic' kinds of 'hoodoo' texts, productive types of their structures, particularities of lexical-morphological, syntax-oriented, rhythmic and artistic levels). In its turn, the multimedia model allows to describe a multidimensional nature of a rite: the main text is illustrated with graphical and/or digital materials, images, music notes and voice records oif speech and music, photo and video fragments.
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