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Literary criticism
Tsendrovskiy O. - Philosophy of Antoine de Saint-Exupery: Experience in Reconstruction pp. 1-33

DOI:
10.7256/2306-1596.2013.4.10651

Abstract: The article is devoted to the philosophy expressed by Antoine de Saint-Exupery in his books. This topic is often underestimated and very scarcely described in research literature. By analyzing Exupery's book 'Citadelle' (titled in English as The Wisdom of the Sands) and more famous Exupery's works, the author of the present article shows the wholeness of Exupery's teaching and the acuteness of the humanistic, existential and moral issues in Exupery's philosophy. The author also underlines that Exupery's philosophy can be classified as the West European philosophy of late Art Nouveau because Exupery discusses such typical late Art Nouveau topics as the transvaluation of values, understanding of the place of human after the death of God and fight against nihilism. In the course of a detailed analysis and from the point of view of systematic interpretation, the author of the article describes Exupery's views on a number of fundamental philosophical issues such as the existence of God and the meaning of life, measure of value and the essence of the truth. The main emphasis is made on the so called 'ethical pathos' of Exupery's creative work. The author of the article in detail analyzes the 'heroic ideal' offered by Exupery as well as the system of values and basic ethical principles that are now deduced from the essence of a mortal man but not the divine reality. The result of the author's research is the creation of an integrated concept of Exupery's philosophy which is new in both Russian and Western scientific literature. The author shows that Exupery's views were very close to Nietzsche's teaching and gravitated towards the radical politics. The author also provides quite an interesting description of Exupery's psychological and cultural views. 
Naumenko G. - The Wanderer pp. 1-49

DOI:
10.7256/2306-1596.2014.1.12170

Abstract: The object of the research is a poem “The Wanderer” by A.S.Pushkin The subject of the research is Mickiewicz’s implication as a key to the poem’s understanding. The purpose of the research is to prove the hypothesis that the poem was written in the dialogue with the Polish poet Adam Mickiewicz, to find Mickiewicz’s implication and to perform the literary analysis of Pushkin’s poem by comparing it with the sixth poem “The Passage” from the poem “The Dziady” III and with an extract from “The Pilgrim's Progress from This World to That Which Is to Come” by Bunyan to which Pushkin referred to. (The poem “Oleszkiewicz” and Mickiewicz’s implication are the sources and impulses for Pushkin’s word and the first part of Bunyan’s poem is a canvas, the language of the generally accepted religious schemes). The research is based on the method of “careful reading” of “The Wanderer” in the context of Pushkin’s work in 1833-1836 as well as an intertextual analysis of the texts by Pushkin, Mickiewicz and Bunyan. The research includes references to well-known interpretations and analysis of Pushkin’s poem.  The dialogue between Pushkin and Mickiewicz, and wider – a talk to the West, resulted in the fact the the theme of Christianity in Pushkin’s work of the last years became key in the conflict between the East (Russia) and the West. That conflict was shown by Mickiewicz in his “Passage” from the Christian punitive point of view. The poem “The Wanderer” (1835) became is a poetic reply on the theme of “reading the Book” (the Holy Scripture) that we can find in Mickiewicz’s work and also the first part of Pyshkin’s “Reading the Book” about the way from slavery to the Liberty. Pushkin showed a wrong way to the Liberty which contradicts his understanding of the New Testament. It is proved by the constructive division of the poem into five parts (the Pentateuch model). He showed “the right way” in his “evangelic” Kamennoostrovskij cycle (1836) which was created in the tight connection with “The Wanderer”. In “The Wanderer” the poet was not ready for “the Court”, but in the poem number VI “From Pindemonte” he appears at the Court with his speech.
Rostovtseva Y.A. - Reception of Ekaterina the Second's Laws in V. Levshin's Utopia 'Newest Travel or Written in the City of Belev' pp. 1-21

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2014.2.13631

Abstract: Article is devoted to V. A. Levshin's utopia "The latest travel composed in the city of Belev" (1784). Work was published in the XIII-XVI parts of the "Interlocutor of Fans of the Russian Word" magazine. Researchers, as a rule, focused interest on its first part representing the ideal city on the Moon. The city-state has a primitive political system, in it there are no written laws. Life of lunatist is compared with legendary "a golden eyelid". Levshin's composition was considered in scientific literature, first of all, in the context of a subject of a freemasonry, motives of air travel. In the first key researches N. K. Piksanova, V. I. Sakharova, L. V. Omelko, in J. Breyllar's researches are written, T.V. Artemyeva consecrated an aeronautics subject. Laws of the utopian state were described in S. L. Baer's works and some other scientists, however a subject of separate research didn't become. Meanwhile, the end of "The latest travel" represents a panegyric of Ekaterina's Russia in which the paramount place is allocated for the wise laws "Monarchess's velikiya". It should be noted that not only reception of laws of Catherine II, but also an image of Ekaterina's Russia in Levshin's utopia I didn't become a subject of studying earlier. The author of article considers a literary utopia in an unusual context of legislative reforms of Ekaterina the Second. The basis of a scientific method is made by textual comparisons and motivny communications between Levshin's composition and group of texts of the Ekaterina's legislation.On the basis of "A big order of the empress" (1767), "The charter of deanery, or the police officer" (1782) and a number of manifestos, charters and maxims of different years attempt to reveal becomes, the laws of the ideal state which are how described on "The latest travel" correspond modern to it reality.
Simush P.I. - Geniuses and Russia: mutual cognition pp. 1-44

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2014.4.14832

Abstract: The author of the article examines Gogol’s works through the prism of the phenomenon of genius. He shows that Orthodoxy had a great influence on the writer’s personality. In many respects it changed his internal world, influenced literary works. The writer believed that Orthodoxy could reform Russian reality. In particular, he was aware of an enormous resource of freedom. But Gogol realized that freedom could not only enrich an individual but also «enchant» him with a possibility of enrichment, clinging to a particular religion and loosing faith in free creativity. The author also points to the comprehensive influence of Orthodoxy on reforms in Russian life. At the same time he turns to present-day reality, showing the prophetic gift of the writer.The author employs traditional methods of literary criticism. He uses the comparativist method to show the influence of tradition on Gogol’s works. He also leans on philosophical methods of analysis of literary texts. The article presents the works of Gogol as a founder of ironic narration in Russian literature. The writer constantly employs laughter and irony as ways to uncover the absurdism of social projects. The writer views Russia as a country of unseen paradoxes. Gogol has raised a question that turns us to philosophical reflection about human nature. He tries to oppose the fascination with riches. His special attention is paid to philistinism. Later, this theme in Russian literature will be taken up by many authors. A. Herzen will give an interpretation of «philistinism»; K. Leontiev will establish a relation between «pettiness» and «philistinism»; D. Merezhkovsky will identify pettiness with ignorance, banality, mediocrity; M. Gorky will furiously attack complacent petty bourgeosie. Meaning the opposition between good and evil, between love and hatred, A.P. Chekhov, as the author shows, has chosen ethical wisdom capable of counteracting evil by force of love.
Faritov V.T. - Philosophical aspects of time and space in the work of A.S. Pushkin pp. 1-30

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2015.1.15098

Abstract: This article discusses the philosophical aspects of space and time in the poetry of A.S. Pushkin. On a material analysis of poems of the poet author explicates the direction of the dynamics of lyrical chronotop Pushkin. Reveals connection between artistic representation of space and time in Pushkin's poetry with the fundamental problems of metaphysics. Carried out a comparative analysis of the lyrical chronotop Pushkin with chronotope F.I. Tyutchev and M. Voloshin. Reveals the closeness of the poetic world of Pushkin and philosophical ideas of Friedrich Nietzsche. We use the methods of comparative literature and methodological orientations of metaphysics Russian literature. Partially used the principles of hermeneutics and deconstruction. The main result of the study is to identify two types of rhythmic organization of space and time in the poetry of Pushkin and explication of their philosophical aspects. It is shown that the lyrical chronotop Pushkin tends to surpass the limits of the classical metaphysical oppositions towards anticipating the conceptual development of non-classical philosophy.
Perevalov V.P. - History illustrated in the images of the A. S. Pushkins The Stationmaster pp. 1-61

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2015.3.17259

Abstract: This article researches the issues of history manifested in creative images. The subject of the analysis is the novel by Alexander Pushkin “The Stationmaster”, which represents a great example in this case. With thin the ever-increasing number of various interpretations of Pushkin’s work on the story of the life of Samson Vyrin, the phenomenon of time is strangely under-studied. The strange fact is that within the existing interpretations there is a predominant factor of abstract time (past-present-future) that calls for transition towards perception of specific time. This is the starting task of the observations and reasoning presented in the article. The article reconstructs precise time of events and the timespan of the story.  The “calendar-overlay” timeline correlates with the biographical data of Pushkin and his (close) acquaintances, and plays the role of a reliable compass in establishing the complicated relation between the image fabric of Pushkin’s novel and the reality that served as the source of the story. In fact, the biographical image of “The Stationmaster” is the relations between Pushkin, Karamzin, and the “young Jacobins” (Decembrists) during 1816-1826/27. The main result of the analysis of this creative work in the mirror of precise time is the discovery of paradoxical impression in the image of the main character of the hero of the story and the persona of N. M. Karamzin, who loved paradoxes. The discovery of an unknown Karamzin in the renowned novel of Pushkin enriches the possibility of a deeper understanding of the historical continuity between them within the development of Russian spiritual culture.
Nilogov A.S., Varava V.V. - Russian Literature Versus Russian Philosophy (Conversation of A. Nilogov with V. Varava) pp. 1-10

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2016.2.18943

Abstract: The phenomenon of the Russian classical literature is considered to be internationally recognized. However recently even in Russia it was repeatedly called into question including taking into account constantly falling interest in reading as such. Alternative views on the Russian classical literature gradually get into Russian literary criticism, thus restricting the developed representations. Modern Russian literature can hardly already apply for "the ruler of thoughts" as in the good old days. Numerous spiritual and intellectual traditions restrict it on all fronts, offering in exchange at least substantial practices. The actual Russian philosophy acts as one of them and two representatives of Russian philosophy have decided to discuss the literary topic. The following methods have been used in their conversation: analytical, hermeneutic, interview, critical, literary, synthetic, comparative, philosophical, and heuristic. According to V. Varava, modern Russian literature needs a new existential breakthrough to show efficient alternative ways out of the spiritual crisis which has covered the country. However, according to A. Nilogov, today literature as a written form of literature is technologically replaced with an electronic form that exist only on the Internet. 
Tetik K. - Valery Bryusov and Urban "Texts" in Russian Literature ("Moscow" and "Petersburg" Texts) pp. 1-11

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2017.4.24326

Abstract: The article deals with urban ("Moscow" and "St. Petersburg") texts in the poetry of Valery Bryusov. A lot of researches of literary critics are dedicated to this issue. In this article the image of the city is associated with two capitals Moscow and St Petersburg. The object of the research is the corpus of texts that fully represent the image of the two capitals. The poet describes these cities from the point of view of their historical and metaphysical reality. When appealing to the image of St. Petersburg, the symbolist Bryusov pays much attention to the architecture of the city. This fact raises a question about the method of ecphrasis in poetics. The methodology of this research involves the comparative analysis of Moscow and Petersburg poems by Bryusov as well as historical-functional and historical-genetic analysis methods. According to the author of the article, urban poems by Bryusov present Moscow and Petersburg texts quite fully. However, there are several very important differences between representations of these cities. For example, the image of Moscow is included in the metahistorical context but the poet keeps addressing to his contemporary epoch. Tehre are also old Moscow, the city of riot and Napoleon's war, and Soviet Moscow that is still to be understood poetically by the symbolist. The image of Petersburg (sometimes called Petrograd) is given in a very exclusive perspective and closely related to Peter the Great, an important figure for the poet. Poems that present the image of Petersburg are full of references to the city's architecture and monuments which allows to talk about the use of the ecphrasis method. However, both cities are highly spoken of by the poet both from the historical and metaphysical point of view which proves the ontological nature of Bryusov's works. 
Shchepalina V. - Sources of Alejandro Casona's Individual Author's Style pp. 1-10

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2018.3.26371

Abstract: The object of the resaerch is an individual author's style of a Spanish playwright Alejandro Casona. The subject of the research is the process of Alejandro Casona developing his author's style. The author of the article analyzes the factors that influenced the process such as facts of Casona's biography (his childhood in Asturias, work as a country teacher, participation in Teachers' missions, career as a screenwriter) as well as global literary process that were ongoing back in those times (reformation of the style of the representatives of the 98s, movement of Spanish modernism and new drama, influence of impressionism on literature). In her research Schepalina applied biographical, psychological, comparative methods, stylistic analysis as well as observation, generalisation and description. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that there are no major researches devoted to Casona in Russin academic literature. The present research gives an insight into sources of the playwright's artistic style and thus makes a contribution to understanding the literary process in Spain of the 20th century. The illustrations provided by the author allow to prove theoretical concepts offered by the researcher. 
Paramonova M.K. - The Genre of the Funeral Sermon in Russian Oratorical Prose of the Second Half of the XVIIIth Century pp. 17-23

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2016.4.20020

Abstract: The object of the research is the genre of the funeral sermon as one of the most ancient rhetoric genres that was popular in Russian oratorica prose of the 18th century. The funeral sermon was actively developed during Peter's time and back in those times the aforesaid genre performed not only religious but also political functions. In the second half of the century the funeral sermon acquired the moral and didactic nature. The style of the word was changed, too. Long periods and numerous quotations from the Holy Bible were replaced by a shorter text and simple understandable vocabulary. The main research method used by the author of the present article is the comparative historical method: the genre is viewed in terms of the literary, cultural and historical environment of those times. As an example of the funeral sermon the author carries out a philological analysis of the text from Ekaterina's times 'The Speech for the Funeral of the Grand Duchess Natalia Alekseevna' written by the metropolitan Platon (Levshin). Never before in the academic literature funeral sermons of the second half of the 18th century was chosen as an object of an independent research since researchers usually pay attention to funeral sermons of Peter's time. However, the second half of the 18th century was the most beneficial for the development of the genre because it was the time when funeral sermons were actively written and published, the circle of people those funeral sermons were devoted to expanded and the genre was firmly established as the genre of religious oratorical prose. 
Kotova A.V. - Concerning the Sources of Comparison: V. Fl. 6. 609612 pp. 17-22

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2018.1.25317

Abstract: Comparisons play an important role in the system of expressive means used in a poetic text. The author of the article focuses on the analysis of lexical-stylistic features of ancient epic poems written by Roman writers who based their plots on mythology. The purpose of this article is to analyze comparison as a stylistic device of the Roman epic poetry in I century of Christian era. The subject of the research is individual artistic features of comparing the main hero Yason to the Caucasus Mountain in Valerius Flaccus' poem 'Argonautica' (6. 609–612). In her research Kotova applies both general research methods and special philological methods of interpretation of ancient texts. As a result of the research, the author makes the following conclusions: comparison of man to mountain in ancient epos ascends to Hom. I1.13.754–755. In Latin epos the brightest comparison of man to mountain can be found in the passage from Aeneis (12. 697–703) that is based on verses from the Iliad and serves as a source for comparison in 'Argonautica' (6. 609–612). Using the description of Apennines, Valerius Flaccus adopted the lexical content and tertium comparationis. At the same time, the poet added the epithet 'hibernus' and reference to the previous comparison (6. 604–608) of the peak of Yason's helmet to maleficent Sirius. By doing so, the poet emphasized the fatality of Yason for Medea. Thus, Kotova analyzes how Valerius Flaccus reviewed the work of his predecessors and used comparison in his own writings. The results of the research extend our knowledge about Valerius Flaccus' writings and can be used in following researches of stylistic features of 'Argonautica'.   
Anisimova O.V. - Allusions in the Chronicles of Amber by Roger Zelazny (Corwin Cycle) pp. 18-30

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2017.1.22216

Abstract: The object of the study is the intertextuality of Corwin cycle. The subject of the research is made up by allusions of first five parts of the Chronicles of Amber by Roger Zelazny. In particular, the article touches upon numerous allusions to different fiction texts and myths, among which are the works by English classics as well as Celtic and Bible legends. The study material is constituted by such parts of the cycle as Nine Princes in Amber, The Guns of Avalon, Sign of the Unicorn, The Hand of Oberon, and The Courts of Chaos. The methods used in the study are: the method of intertextual analysis, textual method, and the method of comparative analysis. Scientific novelty of the given research is in the first ever attepmt to track the regularities of Zelazny's use of allusions and reminiscences in his works, and in his most famous novel the Chronicles of Amber in particular; to understand the way the intertext functions in the text corpus by the American fantasy writer. The main findings of the research undertaken are as follows: each part of Corwin cycle can be referred to a particular piece of world literature, or regarded in the context of this or that mythology system; allusions to mythology used by Zelazny play the plotforming function thus helping the writer to create the fantasy basis of the cycle's secondary world; distinctive literature allusions aim at revealing the main character's inner world, showing his psychological evolution, and also at making fictional characters comprehensible to modern readers; allusions to the Book of Revelation, in their turn, are used by the writer to create the key image of the whole cycle - the image of Apocalypse.
Kuzmin G. - 'Morki Text' in Mari Prose (on the Problem Statement) pp. 22-27

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2018.3.26717

Abstract: In his research Kuzmin brings forth the problem of the local (regional) text, in particular, 'Morki text' in Mari folk literature. In his research Kuzmin gives a definition of 'Morki text' in terms of existing definitions of 'St. Petersburg text', 'Moscow text', 'Northern text', etc. and defines the key factors that contributed to the origin and development of Morki text. In his research Kuzmin pays special attention to the geographical factor in the development of Morki text and describes the main features of the message, problem, topic, narration and style unity of all Morki texts. This article is of theoretical and methodological nature. Therein the author applies analytical, systems and comparative methods of literary analysis. Kuzmin analyzes Russian academic approaches to analyzing the origin, development and current state of local supertexts from the point of view of their importance and possibility to be used to describe the term 'Morki text' in Mari folk prose. 
Semenova A. - The Historical Basis of the Epic Poem "Vladimir" by Mikhail Kheraskov pp. 23-37

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2017.3.23947

Abstract: The article is devoted to the historical component of the epic poem "Vladimir" by Mikhail Kheraskov. The poem on the theme of Russian history presupposes references to historical sources and processing of historical material. At the same time, the poem did not have to be authentic, the author was free to interpret historical events in accordance with the idea of the work. It is also necessary to consider the genre features of the epic poem which requires the author to emphasize the scope and significance of the events described. A few works are devoted to "Vladimir", the historical basis of the work is not studied, which determines the relevance of this research. The author of the article attempts to reveal the correlation of history and fiction in the poem by Kheraskov. Comparison of the poem by Kheraskov with historical sources allows to determine in which cases the poet more or less freely interprets the historical material or contributes fictional details to the work. Kheraskov in "Vladimir" stands heroic pathos, and creates the image of a strong enemy, accentuates the exploits of the protagonist, thickens the paint creating a full battle canvas, and fills in the gaps in the testimonies of historians with bright details. Historicity in the poem recedes into the background, but it remains the foundation on which the plot of the poem is built.
Krotovskaya N.G. - Vladimir Nabokov. Lectures on Foreign Literature: Robert Louis Stevenson pp. 24-66

DOI:
10.7256/2306-1596.2013.2.132

Abstract: The article is based on the lecture course called 'Masters of European Prose' that was prepared for students of Cornell University. These lectures describe Vladimir Nabokov as a thoughtful, penetrating and, at the same time, biased researcher who taught his audience a wonderful lesson of 'thorough reading' when a reader pays special attention at details and style of writing of the great authors. Based on the example of a well-known novel 'Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde', Vladimir Nabokov analyzes a wonderful style and writing methods used by Stevenson to make his fantastic story sound rather true and real. Special attention is paid at the problem of difficult relations between the Good and the Evil, their struggle and interaction.
Skalnaya Y. - Genre Innovation of Bernard Shaw's Play 'Saint Joan': at the Origins of a Documentary Theatre pp. 28-38

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2018.3.26739

Abstract: The subject of this research is the place of an Irish playwright Bernard Shaw in the history of the documentary theatre development. Contrary to common belief that the founder of the docudrama performance was a theatre director Erwin Piscator and the founder of the docudrama methodology was Bertolt Brecht, the author of this article points out that Shaw's plays preceded them. As the proof of her thesis, Skalnaya has chosen to analyze the play 'Saint Joan' (1920) written by Shaw right after the First World War. This research is structured as having three parts. The first part of the research is devoted to the analysis of the principles used by the playwright as the written evidence of that epoch demonstrate. The first part of the research proves that Shaw used a lot of verbatim (paraphrase and direct quotes from historical sources). The second part of the article is intended to extend the interpretation of 'document' in docudrama and provide examples of how the images of Joan of Arc and her contemporaries in fine arts and sculpture impacted the appearance of Shaw's play characters. In the final part of the research the author appeals to the comparison of the present and previous experience of the documentary theatre and traces back the performance of 'Saint Joan'. In the process of the research the author has used the historical literary method that involves analysis of the biographical, historical and cultural contexts of creation of a play, as well as the comparative method that allows to compare different points of view on the matter of the research. The author has also used some elements of the close reading technique. The results of the research demonstrate that Shaw's play 'Saint Joan' has all the typical features of the docudrama which proves the innovative nature of the play and explains why the play was not accepted by Shaw's contemporaries. Generally speaking, the conclusions made by Skalnaya in her research, create grounds for reviewing the current chronology of docudrama and tribunal theatre development.  
Vorobyova O. - The History of Cooperation of Fyodor Dostoevsky with the Journal 'Russkoye Slovo' (the Case Study of his Correspondence with Contemporaries) pp. 36-44

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2017.2.22744

Abstract: The object of the present research is the journal The Russian Word published by Grigory Kushelyov-Bezborodko. The subject of the research of Fyodor Dostoevsky's participation in that journal project. Based on the analysis of the epistolary material of the writer with his contemporaries, Vorobieva step-by-step develops the history of Fyodor Dostoevky's cooperation with the Russkoye Slovo Journal. In this article Vorobieva focuses on the writer's attempts to return to literature: on the one hand, Dostoevsky published his novel 'Uncle's Dream' which he had written after the forced-labor camp in a journal of little promise 'Russkoye Slovo'. On the other hand, despite his difficult situation, Dostoevsky dictates his own terms to editors. In her research Vorobieva uses the psychobiographical method to define for which reasons and in what manner Fyodor Dostoevsky tried to affect people his creative fate depended on. The historical comparative method used by the author also helps to compare other writers' attitudes to the journal 'Russkoye Slovo' and outline differences in the principles followed by the journal editors. The main conclusions of the research are as follows: the editors of Russkoye Slovo helped Dostoevsky in his difficult times by publishing his novel but not vice versa as literary experts used to believe. Despite the fact that Dostoevsky's participation in that jornal was forced and his novel 'Uncle's Dream' was not approved by critics, Fyodor Dostoevsky's cooperation with Russkoye Slovo gave impulse to Fyodor Dostoevskyt to return to the literary community of St. Petersburg. The author's special contribution to the topic is that he uses historical reconstructions that allows to cover gaps in a number of successive facts. When such approach is applied, reconstructions inevitably attains a hypothetic nature, however, they allow to describe the history of the writer's cooperation with the journal 'Russkoye Slovo' in a wider sense without just limiting to the comments made in the 30-volume 'Complete Set of Fyodor Dostoevsky's Works'. In her research Vorobieva has used materials from the Russian State Historical Archive and the Manuscript Department of the Russian State Library. 
Volkhovskaia A. - Life and Creative Writing of Alexandr Pushkin in the Eyes of Spanish Writers of the Generation 98 pp. 39-45

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2018.3.25457

Abstract: The article is devoted to rare episodes of Spanish writers of the Generation 98 referring to the creative legacy of Alexandr Pushkin. In her research Volkhovskaya gives several extracts from Pio Baroja's, Miguel de Unamuno's and Antonio Machado's texts in which they either quoted or analyzed Alexandr Pushkin's stories. All quotations are published and translated by the author of the article for the first time. The article is ended with the conclusions about new ways of perception of Alexandr Pushkin's creative writing by the aforesaid Spanish writers. In her research Volkhovskaya applies the method of comparative historical analysis and analyzes extracts from texts written by Spanish writers of the Generation 98 that contained mentioning biographical facts or references to Alexandr Pushkin's writings. The author's special contribution to the topic is the discovery and translation of all available Spanish extracts by the writers of the Generation 98 about Pushkin. The main result of the research is the discovery of new ways of perception of Alexandr Pushkin's biography and creative writing by Spanish readers.
Popova V. - Concerning the Role of a Revolutionary Writer in a New Society: Waldo Frank at Writers' Congresses of 1935 pp. 45-50

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2018.2.26171

Abstract: In her research Popova focuses on two speeches made by an American writer Waldo Frank (1889–1967) at the First Convention of the League of American Writers (held in New York, 1935) and International Congress for the Defense of Culture (held in Paris, 1935) during the period of intensive cooperation with the USSR. The author also analyzes views of Waldo Frank on the role of a writer in a new society. Popova studies sources from the funds of The Russian State Archive of Literature and Arts which allows to cover unpublished materials of the writers' congresses that hadn't been published in the USSR. The author applies the historical literary method that implies analysis of biographical and historical sources, and text analysis method to analyze different versions of Waldo Frank's speeches at the Congress for the Defense of Culture in Paris as well as different publications thereof in the Russian language and extracts from the texts of his speeches. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that Waldo Frank's creative writing and his relatons with the USSR are left practically understudied by the Russian literary studies. Analysis of Frank's relations with the Soviet Union allows to define the relationship between his literary interests and public position: strong cooperation with the USSR in 1930s coincided with Frank's active participation in the activity of American and European left and anti-fascist organizations. When he broke up his relations with the Soviet Union after 1937, his public activity declined, he withdrew from the USA Communist Party and left the League of American Writers. 
Eremina E. - Miguel de Unamuno and His Tragic Sense of Life pp. 50-67

DOI:
10.7256/2306-1596.2014.1.11281

Abstract: The present article is devoted to studying the 'agonic' philosophy of a Spanish writer Miguel de Unamuno. His philosophy was formed under the influence of the historical and social environment and particular facts from the writer's personal biography. All works written by Miguel de Unamuno after the crisis of the 1987th are full of thoughts about faith and lack of faith, death and immortality and a certain tragic tone. For Unamuno life is an 'agony', constant doubts and struggle against death. According to Miguel de Unamuno, feelings, reason, faith and science are struggling in human's soul and this 'agony' is the true life. Unamuno's philosophical searches go beyound the scope of an essay and take the form of narrative experiments. His philosophy evolves around the problem of individual immortality. The desire to live forever and the reason telling that this desire will never come true literally tore Unamuno apart. Trying to to understand the nature of relations between Human and his Creator, Unamuno appeals to imagination as the last method of knowledge and uses a novel as a model of reality. 
Gavrilova N. - The Date When Chekhov Wrote His Play 'Uncle Vanya': Analysis of the Main Points of View pp. 59-65

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2018.2.26373

Abstract: This article is devoted to the main points of view on possible dates for Anton Chekhov writing his play 'Uncle Vanya'. The aim of the research is to analyze existing theories about the date when Chekhov wrote his play and carry out a detailed analysis of their proof. In the course of her research Gavrilova has referred to a lot of researches devoted to the transformation of the play 'The Wood Demon' to the play 'Uncle Vanya'. Checkhov left very contradictory information about the exact date when the play was written, therefore there are several groups of researchers with different views on the date when the play 'Uncle Vanya' was written. The research is based on such literary methods as comparative, analytical, critical, biographical, and cultural historical. As a result of the research, Gavrilova describes the main views of researchers who studied Ckekhov's creative writing on the date when the play 'Uncle Vanya' was written and analyzes relevant arguments. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that in her research Gavrilova extends a general scope of views on the date when Chekhov wrote his play analyzing not only classical but also contemporary approaches to the problem. As a result of her analysis of the aforesaid theories, the author of the article concludes that despite the fact that the matter is widely studied, the question when Anton Chekhov wrote his play 'Uncle Vanya' still remains. However, due to the great interest of modern researchers to the play 'Uncle Vanya', it is quite likely that future studies of Chekhov's creative writing will cast a light on the exact date of creation of 'Uncle Vanya'. 
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