Litera - 9 2020 - , . ISSN: 2409-8698 - NotaBene
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Contents of Issue 09/2020
Contents of Issue 09/2020
Porol P.V. - The image of China in K. Balmonts poem The Great Nothing pp. 1-10


Abstract: This article reviews the image of China in Konstantin Balmont’s poem “The Great Nothing”. Significant attention is given to interpretation of the poem. The author refers to the cultural and historical realias of China, as well as mythology and philosophy. Genesis of the image of Zhuang Zhou and peculiarities of his perception by the poet is revealed. The goal of this work consists in determination of semantic saturation of the image of China in reception of Konstantin Balmont. The line of reasoning and conclusions of the author of this article are founded on the critical research and contrast of two cultures. Analysis of the poem is conducted from the semantic perspective with search for textual parallels. The study reveals the poet's reference to the traditions and philosophy of China ("Sunyata”, concept of symmetry, treatise “Zhuang Zhou”, concept of Chinese painting), use of mythopoetic images (Dragon, Unicorn, Phoenix); interprets the image of dragon and its variation in cultural tradition of Russia and China; defines the words used by the poet for describing linguistic realias of Chinese culture (the expression "Go West"). The novelty of this research consists in the analysis of K. Balmont’s reception, and identification of the source that motivated the poet to create a poem. Examination of the semantic  saturation of the image of China in the poetry of K. Balmont gives a new perspective upon understanding the culture of the Silver Age.
Khavronich A.A. - Archaisms in the Early New English play by D. Lindsay "The Satire of the Three Estates": the problem of identification and stylistic evaluation pp. 11-19


Abstract: The subject of the research is the method of identification and the problem of stylistic interpretation of archaic vocabulary in literary texts of the early New England period and specifically in the play by D. Lindsay "Satire of the Three Estates". The article discusses the potential of using the data of the diachronic corpus and corpus dictionaries to detect archaic elements in the works of art of the XVI century. Based on the comments of authoritative philologists of the Early New England period and modern research, the trends of the actual perception of the introduction of archaisms into the literary text by the authors of this time are considered. The article proposes an algorithm for identifying obsolete units in artistic material created in Scottish (taking into account the archaic nature of this dialect), based on a comparison of approximate indicators of the frequency of reproduction of an element in the Early New English and Scottish sections of the Helsinki Corpus, as well as data from corpus dictionaries of Middle English and Scottish. For the stylistic evaluation of archaisms in Lindsay's play, the method of linguistic-stylistic analysis is used, in which the linguistic element is considered from the point of view of contextual conditions. The scientific novelty of the work is due to the fact that in order to solve the problem of analyzing archaisms in the text of the Early New English period, an algorithm is being developed to clarify whether the unit was obsolete at a particular moment in the development of English. It was found that the predominant proportion of words in Lindsay's play was not archaic within the Scottish dialect and only a few of the units involved were already obsolete at the time of the creation of the text in standard Early English. The archaisms found in the play function in fragments of high style, which allows us to state that Lindsay belonged to the authors for whom archaisms were part of the sublime vocabulary. The practical value of the work is determined by the ability to apply the proposed algorithm for detecting archaisms for the stylistic analysis of any Early New English literary text, as well as to carry out a stylistic assessment of archaisms from the point of view of the identified trends in their perception by the authors of the XVI century.
Literary criticism
Kharitonova A. - Andrey Mytishchev and Leon Ploshovsky as exponents of the type of hero without dogma in the prose of M.V. Krestovskaya and G. Senkevich pp. 20-32


Abstract: This article examines the characteristic type of hero in the literature of the epoch of the turn of the XIX-XX centuries and addresses a little-studied plot from the history of Russian-European literary ties of this period. The author focuses on two works: the novel by the Polish classic G. Senkevich "Without Dogma" (1890) and the story "The Confession of Mytishchev" (1901) by the half-forgotten Russian writer M.V. Krestovskaya, whom acquaintance with the book of an older contemporary made a strong impression. Both works contain a number of parallels at the level of composition, the way of speech organization of the narrative and the plot itself, but at the root of their connection lies attention to a new type of European man, generated by the epoch of the end of the century and suffering from its "diseases".The author of the article compares the main characters of the works of Senkevich and Krestovskaya — Leon Ploshovsky and Andrey Mytishchev — as representatives of the type of hero-skeptic, hero without dogma, whose appearance in literature was an organic stage of the evolution of the hero-individualist. Time has put its own questions before him, in particular, about the need to be guided by moral principles and follow any dogmas. The named works of Russian and Polish literature of the turn of the XIX-XX centuries are placed in a single historical and literary context for the first time, and their main characters are considered as vivid exponents of the type of European man of that time. The appeal of the modern reader to these artistic images makes it possible to better understand the cultural, historical, philosophical and social prerequisites for the appearance of carriers of such a worldview in the late XIX — early XX century. This determines the novelty and relevance of this study.
Question at hand
Savinova D. - To the question of transformation of literary texts into stage version (Three Years of A. P. Chekhov in theatrical interpretation of S. V. Zhenovach) pp. 33-41


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the question of text transformation from authorial intent to stage impersonation. Despite the established tradition of studying the questions of recoding of literary text into theatrical, there is yet no theoretical-literary substantiation. Recoding is considered a complex process of creating a new type of text by the theatre director for staging a play. Therefore, an attempt is made to analyze the elements of transformation of literary text into its stage version, using the example of S. V. Zhenovach’s unpublished manuscript for stage direction based on A. P. Chekhov’s novella “Three Years”. The novelty of this research consists in determination of the patterns in transformation of literary text into stage version. The tools and means of expression applied in theatre and literature are different. If in literature it is possible to set several task and solve them all within the framework of the novel, then in theatre, it must be one ultimate task that organizes the action. Identification of the key peculiarities of existence of such type of text as “stage direction” on the example of transformation of the novella “The Years” from the authorial intent to stage impersonation demonstrated its significance for not only theatre studies, but also the theory of literature.
Literary criticism
Kol'tsova N.Z., Miaowen L. - Dialogue of arts in the novel The Artist is Unknown by V. Kaverin pp. 42-50


Abstract: Prose about the artist is fairly popular in the world and Russian culture, but the novel “The Artist is Unknown” by V. Kaverin holds a special place within the Russian literature, and the title itself is precedent for the philologists – it is mentioned each time when it comes to genre of the novel about artist. Kaverin not only creates a vivid image of the artist-painter, but also restores his manner via literary style. The pictorial beginning is prevalent in the text; however, orientation towards other types of art, namely sculpture and theatre, are also noticeable sculpture and theater, which is reflected in the character sphere and in the composition itself. In the novel “The Artist is Unknown”, theater and painting are deeply intertwined – and not only scenes of the play engage painting, but also the authorial “painting” involves theatrical aesthetics. However, namely the art of painting, is in the center of Kaverin’s attention, while the ekphrasis technique becomes the fundamental principle for arranging artistic material. It should be noted that the focus of attention of the audience falls onto imaginary ekphrasis, description of the image that exists only in the author's imagination, which allows revealing the features of Kaverin's original idiostyle that correlates certain literary techniques with the painter's technique (the author thinks in the categories of color, painting, texture, and perspective). In such way, painting becomes a metalanguage, the way of understanding the laws of art as such, and thus, the laws of literature, including such categories as narrative perspective and composition. The boundary between genres of the novel about artist and the novel about the novel in Kaverin's text is quite lucid: the fate of the artist is inseparable from the fate of his creation, and the questions of skill, purpose and designation of works comprise the very essence of conflicts of the novel.
Snigireva S.D. - The idea of accepting suffering in the works of F. M. Dostoevsky and its connection with the theme of schism and the myth of the earth pp. 51-63


Abstract: The subject of this article is the idea of accepting suffering, presented in the works of F. M. Dostoevsky, and its connection with the theme of unorthodox religious movements and the myth of the earth. The object of the research is the works of F. M. Dostoevsky ("Notes from the Dead House", "Crime and Punishment", "Demons", "Brothers Karamazov") and preparatory materials for them, as well as articles of periodicals devoted to Old Believers and sectarianism ("Svyatorusskie dvoevery" V. I. Kelsiev, "Secret Sects" and "White Doves" by P. I. Melnikov, "Zemstvo and Schism. Runners", "Mental directions of the Russian schism" by A. P. Shchapov). The purpose of this work is to identify the connection between the idea of accepting suffering in Dostoevsky's work with the theme of schism and the myth of the earth. The scientific novelty of this study lies in the fact that it analyzes for the first time the mechanisms of mythologization of the category of the earth and the image of the Russian people in the works of F. M. Dostoevsky, associated with the idea of accepting suffering coming from the schism. A special contribution of the author is to identify the correlation of some of the motives and images of the novel "Demons" with sectarianism. Conclusions: The motive of voluntary acceptance of suffering associated with the religious context, namely, with the idea of accepting torment for faith, characteristic of Old Believers, appears already in "Notes from the Dead House" and "Crime and Punishment". Starting from the first novel of the Great Pentateuch, this motif, coupled with the mythologeme of the earth, which is special for Dostoevsky's work, is realized in the context of the idea of the universal guilt of people before the earth and before each other and the need to atone for this guilt through suffering. The idea of suffering, necessary for the salvation of the soul and the acquisition of lost faith, is also closely connected with the ideology of pochvennichestvo, as it is conveyed to atheists who are torn from the soil by representatives of the common people.
Kropacheva K.A. - The concept of genre in France of the XV XVI centuries: from lexical diversity to codification of the term pp. 64-70


Abstract: This article discusses formation of the concept of “genre” in France of the Late Middle Ages and Renaissance, as well as codification of the corresponding term in literary language. The subject of this research is denominations of the category of genre used by the authors of theoretical treatises of the XV – XVI centuries, and the concept of “genre”, which was gradually introduced into the French theory of poetry. The goal is to determine the stages of development of the category of genre within the framework of French theoretical texts of the XV – XVI centuries, as well as denominations for the genre forms employed by the theoreticians, their similarities and differences. An attempt is made to identify at which point in French theory appears the interpretation of the term “genre” similar to the modern one. The novelty of consists in analysis of the concept of genre in diachrony based on the material of French treatises of the XV – XVI centuries. Majority of the texts considered in the article did not receive due attention within the Russian literary studies, which substantiates the relevance of studying French literary theory of the Renaissance Era. It is demonstrated that the authors of French treatises of the XV century denoted the concept of genre as “rithme”, “taille”, “manière”, “façade”, “espèce”, using them as synonyms within the framework of a single text. However, by the early XVI century, the genre form is viewed as a separate category; therefore, the number of denominations s is gradually reduced. For the first time, the term “genre” was used in the literary context in Pierre Fabre’s treatise of 1521; although at that time it partially keeps the meaning borrowed from Latin. The terms was codified later, in 1555, in Jacques Peletier’s “Art Poétique”; and from this point on it was applied by literary theoreticians for denoting different types of genre forms.
Arzhanteva K. - Pinteresque as an artistic method. The Theatre Of Harold Pinter pp. 71-82


Abstract: Harold Pinter is a prominent theater reformer and creator of the unique style, which in criticism received a name of “Pinteresque” that plays on the playwright’s last name and artistic distinctness of his works. The subject of this article is the examination of “Pinteresque” as a special form of drama created by H. Pinter. Attention is given to the impact of Franz Kafka on the artistic method of Harold Pinter, which manifests in creation of the characters, as well as in general philosophical concept. The novelty of this work is defined by the reference to the phenomenon of “Pinteresque” as a method of realization of peculiarities of artistic method of the playwright. As a result, the author reveals the principles that comprise and define the simultaneously real and absurd world of H. Pinter’s plays, when the human is daily overcast with a treat, origins of which remain outside of their understanding, and violence takes place to which they have to nothing oppose.
Kudryashov I.V. - To the question of prophetic nature of Nikolai Klyuevs poetry pp. 83-91


Abstract: The subject of this research is the prophetic nature Nikolai Klyuev’s poetry. Publicistic and partially scientific literature holds a view, according to which the origins of poetic gift of prophecy of Nikolai Klyuev take roots in his extraordinary personality with certain occult knowledge that enables him to foresee the future national catastrophes. The myth on N. Klyuev, formed within public consciousness, is based on the lack of study of the peculiarities of ethical-philosophical views of the poet, who creatively embraced the rich traditions of national mythology, folklore and Ancient Rus’ culture. Leaning on the systemic analysis of artistic heritage of N. Klyuev, the author provides a new interpretation of the prophetic verses of the poet as the worldview specificities of the poet of 1920s – 1930s. The conclusion is made that numerous apocalyptic motifs and images in the poetry of N. A. Klyuev, which at the present time are perceived as prophetic, were generated by his ideology of incompatibility of civilization and culture, in their confrontation that started back in XVII century, at the time of schism of the Russian Orthodox Church, and aggravated in 1920’s – 1930’s. The poet understood civilization as repressive phenomenon that came to Rus’ from the West. Infiltration of an alien to Russia Western civilization that disrupts the identity of national culture, inevitably leads the country to a catastrophe. According to Klyuev, the tragedy of the XX century is  a destruction of the traditional national principles, followed by the imminent demise of the entire Russian world, and later of all mankind. Vast knowledge on the foundations and patterns of national life allowed the poet to look through decades into the future of Russia.
Demiral H. - Structural and substantive dynamics of artistic concept of culture in the works of V. S. Makanin pp. 92-102


Abstract: This article is dedicated to description of the artistic concept of “culture”, one of the fundamental in the conceptual framework of V. S. Makanin. The content of the concept is viewed in the context of evolution of Makanin’s works. The author examines the nature of transformation of each layer of the artistic concept of “culture” in light of establishment of Makanin’s concept of a human; determines interrelation of the motifs in their role in formation of the concept. Separate attention is given to determination of the meaning of precedent facts, including literary images, plots, themes, and motifs in development of the structure and content of the concept of “culture” in V. S. Makanin's works of different periods. Composition of circumnuclear zone and close periphery of this concept contributes to the formation of a cultural background, and their reinterpretation by the author reflects the objective processes taking place in cultural discourse for the past 50 years. In proportion to evolution of Makanin’s works, these images are saturated with new meanings, leading to refocus in interpretation of their classical content, substantiated by the need to place axiological accents. The conclusion is made on the extreme complexity of structure and content of the artistic concept of “culture” in the works of V. S. Makanin, which change dynamically throughout his creative path. This article is first to describe the structure of this concept and trace the dynamics of its transformation in diachrony, using the materials of most significant works of V. S. Makanin.
Shikhalkina T.G. - Communication peculiarities of negotiation language on the example of texts of English-language fiction films pp. 103-110


Abstract:  The object of this research the communicative peculiarities of negotiation language on the example of English-language movies. Due the growing attention to the means of successful negotiations, the authors raise the relevant question on the need to consider speech aspects of negotiation process. The goal of this work is to analyze the communicative strategies and tactics (“pressure”, “high opening offer”, “disqualification”, “guilt”, “salami”) in the process of negotiations from the perspective of their effectiveness in achieving desired communicative goals. Combination of theoretical overview of the strategies and tactics of negotiation, as well as analysis of the effectiveness of applying tactics to achieve goals of negotiating parties were chosen as the methods for this research. The novelty of this article consist in reference to communicative peculiarities of negotiations in movies that have not previously been the object of analysis in the area of communication studies. The results of this research allowed determining the key strategies and tactics of negotiation in the analyzed films, as well as defining their effectiveness in the negotiation process.
Bobodzhanova L. - Peculiarities of national cultural adaptation of Grimm's Fairy Tales when translated into Russian pp. 111-120


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the analysis of fairy tales as a special genre of children's fiction literature with unique features and a long history. In the course of this work, the author gives definitions to the key concepts; examines correlation between the literary fairly tale and folk fairy tale, evolution of fairy tale genre, namely the works of Brothers Grimm. The article the stages of establishment of fairy tales as an independent genre in the history of literature. An attempt is made to determine the genre similarities that make fairy tales comprehensible within the framework of other linguocultures. Special attention is turned to the specificities of national cultural adaptation in translation of fairy tales from German into Russia, taking into account the peculiarities of translation transformations. The conducted analysis allows concluding that children’s fairy tale literature is a reflection of the national linguistic worldview, and largely depends on the existing in the society national cultural traits, mentality and perception of the world. These facts indicate that translation and adaptation of fairy tale literature requires the translator to understand the uniqueness of worldview of the people affiliating to different cultures, as well as convey the national cultural identity and specificities of foreign perception and mentality of the representatives of various linguocultures.
Shakhnazaryan V.M. - To the question on studying national versions of multinational languages (on the example of Mexican national version of Spanish) pp. 121-128


Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of the currently relevant question of linguistic variation. The goal consists in the analysis of key approaches towards studying the peculiarities of Mexican national version of Spanish. The subject of this research is the specificities of systemic, logical, linguistic, and cognitive-pragmatic approaches towards studying national versions of multinational languages. The starting point is the statement that problem of determination and structurization of approaches towards studying separate aspects of the genesis, statics and dynamics (state and functionality) of this national version of the modern Spanish lingual system requires a more detailed and thorough analysis. Within the framework of this article, the author considers the systematic, logical, linguistic, cognitive-pragmatic approaches and their specificity, substantiated by the peculiarities of studying linguistic and speech means of the Mexican national version of Spanish as an independent national-cultural model of the linguistic worldview. Russian and foreign Romance philology has a number of works dedicated to the topic at hand. However, the question of systematization of approaches towards studying separate aspects of development, current state, and national-cultural specificities of functionality of phonetic, lexical, and grammatical linguistic units, which determine the differences between Mexican national version of Spanish and other versions, remains unresolved.
Shukurov D.L. - Nomination of God in Biblical-theological tradition of Eastern (Oriental) Christians pp. 129-141


Abstract: The goal of this research is the philological examination of principles of nomination of God in the Oriental theological tradition of Christianity. The concurrent conceptual objective lies in comparison of Eastern Christian (Oriental) doctrine of nominations of God and the Cappadocian divine onomatology. The subject of this article is the so-called revealed nomination Other nominations of God are interpreted as replacements for the proper name of the Biblical God Yahweh, the profane usage of which was a taboo back in the Old Testament era. The research employs the methodological principles of Biblical exegetics and linguistic hermeneutics. The author differentiates the exegetic and hermeneutic approaches accepted in the theological science. It implies that that the firs is associated with the particular philological methods of interpretation of Biblical texts, while the second – with the theological generalizations and interpretations that are based on the results of exegetic explication. The conclusion is made that the key features of Syriac (and Eastern overall) divine onomatology consist in a distinct categorization of divine nominations, among which special status belongs to the proper name (nomen proprium) of God, which is inherited by Eastern Christians from the Old Testament Jewish traditions; as well as in preservation of the common to Old Testament religiosity sacralization of the name of God as a source of sanctifying power and symbol of God’s presence. Therefore, within the Syriac Christian tradition, which prompted the development of traditions of all Eastern (Oriental) non-Chalcedonian churches, was formed a special type of divine onomatology based on the Old Testament cult of the nomination of God, which is an attribute of semitic sense of the world, manifested in linguistic peculiarities of Biblical translations into Semitic languages (Targum and Peshitta).
Gabysheva L.L., Basharina Z.K. - Anthroponymic space of the novella Wolves Do Not Sleep By L. Gabyshev, I. Zozulya: semantics and functions of the name pp. 142-150


Abstract: This article analyzes the anthroponymy of the detective novella “Wolves Do Not Sleep” (1974) by Lev Gabyshev and Ivan Zozulya, which reflects the author's message, promotes understanding and perception of the text by readers. The subject of this research is the semantics and functions of literary names in artistic space of the text, process of adding meaning, and saturation of content of onym. The goal of this work is to determine functions and multidimensional semantics of anthroponyms based on the internal form of the word, connotations and paronymic associations, as well as reveal the impact of all implicit and explicit components of onym upon discovery of intentions and worldview orientations of the authors. The article is first to analyze the system of literary names of the novella “Wolves Do Not Sleep” by L. Gabyshev and I. Zozolya, and reveal the meanings and functions of the last names of the protagonists. The work contributes to further development of methodology of analysis of proper nouns in artistic space of the text, specification of such fundamental concepts as connotative semantics, function of onym, text, language game, etc The conclusion is made that the literary names of the novella differ in semantic diversity, have a vast and complex lexical background, and characterized as multifunctional symbols. Onyms perform the role of linking structural elements of semantic space of the text, ensuring its coherence. In addition to the text-forming function, anthroponyms fulfill a characteristic and meaning-making function; indicating the spatial-time coordinates of the text as a whole, they localize the character in a certain time and geographical space, giving information on his national affiliation. Being involved in creation of semantic multidimensionality of the text, literary names are verbal means for realization of the author's intentions and worldview.
Comparative-historical studies of literature
Semenov V.B. - Notes on the vectors of analysis of the metrical repertoire of Troubadour poetry pp. 151-163


Abstract: The subject of this research is the principles of presentation to the reader of the full corpus of poetic texts of troubadours in a specialized publication in form of metrical-strophic reference book. Analysis is conducted on the approaches towards compiling such type of compendium demonstrated By I. Frank and V. B. Tomashevsky in 1950s. The author determines the strong and weak aspects of their prosodic publications. Taking into account the specificity of Old Provencal poetry, the author defines the additional ways of its presentation in the reference book comparable to I. Frank’s “Metrical Repertoire of Troubadour Poetry” that retains scientific fundamentality of the latter and addresses its flaws. The novelty of this research manifests in creation of a range of methods for compiling compendiums of strophic forms of Provencal poetry and conducted classification according to the principle of the volume of strophes, which in this article is presented in appendix page. The author concludes on the need of utilization of various methods of composing reference material, which would maintain apparent connection of strophic forms of different sizes substantiated by plausible genre proximity; possible correlation between the late medieval forms of literature in Romanic languages and forms of troubadour poetry, for establishing genetic affinity with the latter and the subsequent creation of historical poetics of the European strophe.
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