Litera - 6 2020 - , - ISSN: 2409-8698 - NotaBene
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Contents of Issue 06/2020
Contents of Issue 06/2020
Vorontsova G. - The transformation of folklore tripling method in translation of Chinese tales about animals pp. 1-10


Abstract: The goal of this research is the description of transformation in translation of tripling in a Chinese tale about animals. The subject of this research is structure of the tale “Tiger and Buffalo” in the original and in translation, as well as implementation of the principle of triples in translating this folk art. The tale “Tiger and Buffalo” was selected as an example, since it most fully reflects the functioning mechanism of tripling method of an action, although such mechanisms of transformation of text structure in translation into the Russian language are also present in others Chinese tales about animals. It is demonstrated how the classical folklore tripling method of an action functions in a Chinese tale, and which modifications experiences the structure of a tale in translation into the Russian language. A metaphrastic triple repeat in a Chinese tale in translation into Russian transforms into three different forms of expression. In translation, it does not retain its syntactic parallelism from the Chinese original, and expressions change its structure. The author establishes that the main fabric of narration in the tale “Tiger and Buffalo” is comprised by three key semantic groups of tripling of action; and two brief mirror dialogues are located in between them. The last line of each third level of tripling action contains the transformation of pattern established in the process of reiteration; this results in a significant narrative arc  and change of the formed pattern reflected lexically and syntactically. The scientific novelty consists in discussion of the question on transformation experienced by tripling in translation into a language with other typology. The translator’s need for active use of the means of synonymy instead of tripled metaphrastic reiteration presented in the original text, as well as the need for transformation of textual structure of a Chinese tale into the Russian language, emerge due to diverse way of thinking of a Russian contemporary translator and creators of a folk tale who lived in a different historical era. The conclusion is made on a prevalent influence of aesthetic ideal of a separate language and culture upon textual structure of a folk tale.
Literary criticism
Asadov I. - Symbolics of the novel The Woman of Rome by Alberto Moravia pp. 11-17


Abstract: This article analyzes the novel “The Woman of Rome” (1947) by the Italian author of the XX century Alberto Moravia. As in his other novels, Moravia features a one reflexing character, creating an authorial intention in the oeuvre. The article examines special symbolics in the novel. The events take place in the 1940’s, during the Fascism era in Italy: the heroine is a victim of indifference and cruelty of the society and her own weakness, inability to refuse material gains, defend her values and dreams. Emphasis is also made on interaction between the social classes. Unlike the heroes of other novels of Alberto Moravia, Adriana loses her place in the society, changing her behavioral patterns and undergoing reassessment of values. Each character interacting with her can be interpreted as a symbol, representative of a certain class they belong to. And each of them exploit and impact her in their own way. The text in question can be considered as neo-realistic or existential. The author also underlines common traits of the protagonists of Moravia’s novels. For example, Cesira the heroine of the novel “Two Women” (“La Ciociara”, 1957) belongs to petite bourgeoisie, she also experience the transformation of life attitudes, having become a witness of dehumanization of people and overall indifference towards the fate of the country; but unlike Adriana, who is a victim, she manifests in role of a witness. The scientific novelty consists in analysis of symbolics of the novel and correlation between fate of the heroine and fate of the country. The heroines in the works of Alberto Moravia symbolize Fascist era in Italy differently; only in case with Adriana she personifies the changes, reaching the moral decline and perverting her inner self under the influence of fascism. Analysis is conducted on peculiarities of narration in the novel: her story can be perceived as a confession, or as a conversation with an understanding friend. This softens the perception of tragic events in the novel, since in increases the level of trust of the audience to the heroine. Symbolics of the novel includes the images of Madonna and Danaë (Titian’s painting).
Zhang D. - Cognitive scenario of school attendance in linguistic consciousness of the Russians and Chinese pp. 18-27


Abstract: The goal of this work consists in determination of similarities and differences of cognitive scenario of “school attendance” in linguistic consciousness of the Russians and Chinese. The linguistic terms “concept”, “scenario”, and “frame” are clarified. Comparison is conducted on lexicographic meanings of lexical units 学生 and ‘student’. The author analyzes the associative fields of ’学生 – ‘student’, 小学 – ‘elementary school’, 中学 – ‘middle school’, and ‘school’; compares the scenarios of “school attendance” in Russia and China. The relevance of this work is substantiated by the trend of strengthening of cooperation and exchange in the sphere of education between Russia and China. Cognitive analysis of associative field allows reconstructing the concept as a unit of individual mental lexicon, and cultural phenomenon. The concept is defined as a core meaningful unit of memory, mental lexicon, conceptual scheme of the entire worldview reflected in a human psyche. The frame is a special type of cognitive model, which represents knowledge belonging to either specific or common situations; while scenarios are the structures of knowledge particularly designated for recurrent sequence of events. The article applies a free association experiment that is one of the means of externalization of linguistic consciousness. The scientific novelty lies in selection of the relevant, but insufficiently explored topic – the comparative study of cognitive structures in the sphere of education of Russia and China. As a result, the author determined the differences in cognitive scenario of “school attendance” in linguistic consciousness of Russian and Chinese students. The differences consists in the following: 1) school uniforms; 2) distance between school and home; 3)requirements for physical training of the students (Chinese students to morning exercises, some activities between the lessons, and eye exercises; 4) ceremonies and rituals (on Mondays, Chinese schools do the national flag-raising ceremony; and welcoming ritual at the beginning of each lesson); 5) and length of the education process. The acquires results may be valuable in further comparative study of Russian and Chinese educational discourse.
Question at hand
Kurakova I.A. - The image of a teenage girl in Chuck Palahniuks novel Cursed pp. 28-43


Abstract: The goal of this research is determination of specificity of the image of the heroine in the novel by a contemporary American writer Chuck Palahniuk “Cursed”. The article analyzes such aspects as the inner world of the character, relationship with parents, agemates and society in the two contrasting words: real world, during the lifetime of the heroine, and surreal, in hell, after her death. Detailed description of the character allows seeing two different guises of the heroine, while application of literary analysis allows analyzing the traits of the protagonist and place within the system of artistic world of Chuck Palahniuk’s prose. The paper presents a review of scientific pursuits of the Russian and foreign scholars dealing with the works of Chuck Palahniuk. The novelty of this research consists in determination of dual nature of the image of a teenager reflected in the two-world realm created by C. Palahniuk. The analysis demonstrated that in to contrasting worlds, the image of a teenager transforms and manifests differently. In the real world, it is a modest girl, with multiple feelings of inferiority, who has complicated relationships with parents and surrounding people. In the surreal world, she attains new traits, such as authoritativeness, courage, ability to maintain friendships. The conclusion is made that that Chuck Palahniuk creates two images of the heroine. Paradox lies in the fact that an unsuccessful individual in a real world becomes successful in the afterlife. Practical value of this article is defined by its contribution into the theory of literary image, particularly, future development of the methodology for studying the image of the character in transgressive prose.
Liu L., Rybakov M.A. - Color symbolism in Russian and Chinese languages and semantics of hydronyms with a color component pp. 44-55


Abstract: The goal of this article is the characteristics of color symbolism as the means for creating imagery in a discursive aspect. In the course of this research, the following questions were addressed: 1) generalization of the semantics of color designation in the linguistic context; 2) characterization of linguistic specificity of color designations in the Chinese language, and comparison with the Russian language; 3) determination of intralinguistic and extralinguistic factors impacting the functionality of color designations in media discourse; 4) systematization of means and specificity of creation of imagery in the TV series “Story of Yanxi Palace” using the color designations; 5) characterization of metaphorical potential of Chinese words for color designation in the context of TV series “Story of Yanxi Palace”. The key color designations in the Russian language are white, black, red, blue, yellow, and green. It also suits the Chinese language. The meaning of color is closely related to people’s psychology and national culture. Although the Russians and Chinese have common understanding of the true nature of color, due to the differences in cultural traditions, customs, geographical conditions, traditional national and cultural way of thinking, prevailing religious ideas and language expressions, color designations have different symbolic meanings. Having studied the words that express “color”, the author determined that each culture has its own comprehension and interpretation of various colors, particularly, based on the example of geographical names.
Literary criticism
Kharitonova A. - Falsification of content: decadence and simplification as the extreme forms of internal protest of the heroines of M. V. Krestovskayas novella The Outcry pp. 56-74


Abstract: This article examines novella by Maria Krestovskaya “The Outcry” (1900) in the context of reception of the phenomenon of decadence in Russian literature of turn of the XIX – XX centuries. This novella by the mostly forgotten writer, who in her works refers mostly to the female topics (love, family, and profession), is currently of particular interest from the perspective of reflection of cultural trends of that time. A “typical female story” about the unhappy marriage, aimed against the power of money, insincerity and lack of freedom, puts decadence to the forefront of narration as a cultural emblem of the era, revealing the inner motifs and mechanism, which led one of the heroines to an ostentatiously decadent behavior. A contrasts form of protest against the bourgeois world in the novella is the ideology of simplification. The scientific novelty of the conducted research is defined by paucity of research on the works of M. V. Krestovskaya, and absence of special works within the modern literary studies dedicated to her writing heritage. The author’s contribution consists in introduction of novella “The Outcry” into the extensive Russian-European cultural and historical-literary context, as well as its analysis from the perspective of worldview trends and aesthetic influences of the late XIX – early XX centuries. The research proves that this text, which is not the only resort of M. V. Krestovskaya to a new type of here of the “end of century”, can be justifiably attributed to the body of work devoted to the heroes-decadents.
Serebrennikov S.V. - Binary cause-and-effect model pp. 75-81


Abstract: The subject of this research is the abstract model of functionality of cause-and-effect relations, which can be depicted as a construct x leads to y, where x is producing cause, and y – the effect. Leaning on semantics of the text, this model can be presented as P, cause that leads to P effect, where P is any semantic predicate, being on the place of either causing element or the effect element. The object of this research is the texts with cause-and-effect semantics. The goal consists in examination of the structure of cause-and-effect relations from the perspective of the logic of language and the semantic of text. The main conclusion is the depiction of cause-and-effect relations through the simplest binary model, in which the chain is created between to situations of propositions. Elements of the model are interconnected – one situation exists because of the other. Such relationship can be determined on the in-depth level – a semantic element equal for both situations, as well as on the meaningful level – connection between the elements of the situation. The study applies the methods of component analysis, propositional analysis, and contextual analysis. Relevance of the article is substantiated by referring to such modern linguistic trends as the logic of language, semantic syntax, and syntax of the text.
Question at hand
Guo C., Chistyakov A.V. - On the status of research of M. A. Bulgakovs works in China pp. 82-91


Abstract: Since the very beginning of research of M. A. Bulgakov’s works in China, has not received due recognition; however, the interest of literary historians to studying and interpretation of his immortal classic has seen recent increase. The subject of this article is the studying of Bulgakov’s satiric literature in China. The object is Bulgakov’s satiric literature and characters of his works. At first, study of Bulgakov’s works in China was limited just by “obtaining information”. The author meticulously examines such aspects demonstrated Bulgakov’s texts, as aesthetics, ethnocultural tradition, figures, practical importance. The author divides the works of M. A. Bulgakov into chronological periods, as well as underlines recent transformation in the views pertinent to his oeuvres within the Chinese literary studies. It is concluded that the analysis of Bulgakov’s novels at the three aforementioned stages of Chinese literary studies demonstrates the transition from the “stage of acceptance” to the “stage of comprehensive analysis” in multifaceted and multidimensional articulation, which testifies to the fact that literary research of M. A. Bulgakov’s novels continues to surge.
Literary criticism
Bayguzhin I.G. - Genres maktub and hitap in Bashkir literature of the early XX century pp. 92-100


Abstract: This article examines the works of the enlighteners, innovator, and agitators in Bashkir literature of the early XX century. The author analyzes the motifs, images and ideological-thematic aspects of poets in the genres maktub and hitap. It is determined that in form of appeals, they raise the problems of freedom, enlightenment, suppression of people, protest of war, etc. Literary examples of poetic works that reflect the motifs of that time are subjected to analysis. Agitational, manifestational, publicistic, and revolutionary ideas are revealed in the images of war, since the agitators called people to seek freedom and development. Namely the genres maktub and hitap contributed to explication of thoughts, desires and aspirations of the innovators of the early XX century. The struggle for freedom, equality, and education intertwined with the ideas of revolution and enlightenment. Some poets claimed that namely illiteracy and unprofessionalism of the people impede social development. Therefore, the appeals played a crucial role in works of the poets, which were filled with humanistic spirit, strive for perfection and ideals. The scientific novelty consists in detailed examination of the genres maktup and hitap in the works of Bashkir writers of the early XX century, as well as consideration of modern approaches towards assessment of aesthetic aspect of these genres. It is concluded that the genres maktub and hitap possess a quality to manifest an opinion or stance on various problems and situations of that time. They are fused with deep and tense thoughts and feelings that can form the worldview and experiences of the poet-citizen, poet-fighter, who have active approach to life and their time.
Sangadieva E.G. - The concept of world in Bair Dugarovs poetry compilation The Saga of Samsara pp. 101-112


Abstract: The problem of the concept of world in a literary work has always been fundamental within the framework of literary studies. This article examines the definition of the concept of world in the anthology of Bair Dugarov “The Saga of Samsara. The author reviews the key concepts, such as space and time, their analysis within the structure of compilation, which attracted poet’s attention to the concepts of ethnic world of Mongolian-language peoples, taking into account the specificity of traditional ethnic culture, confessional views, peculiarities of mentality and philosophical aspects of the problem of the world and human being. Research methodology is based on the semiotic approach, structural-semantic, axiological and narrative methods. The scientific novelty consists in analysis of the concept of world in the works of Bair Dugarov as a unique phenomenon of Buryat poetry with vivid ethno-national and religious-sacral traits. The main conclusion lies in the fact that the supertemporal essence of a human being – as an intrinsic part of an ethnic group, carries of moral, and ethical values, capable of assessing himself and the entire world – is being reached through the examined concepts.
Zhang T. - Pun in the Chinese advertisement texts pp. 113-123


Abstract: This article reviews and analyzes pun in the Chinese advertisement texts. Pun is a literary technique that in the same contexts uses different meanings of similarly sounding single word, different words or phrases. In the Chinese advertisements pun is used as an instrument of linguistic manipulation for imparting a humorous effect or instigating targeted audience to utilize their imagination for decoding a message. Usage of pun in advertising attaches a meaning to an expression, which seems hard to understand, but in reality, it simply attracts consumer’s attention and incites them to buy advertised goods based on the background knowledge. In accordance with the selectmen material, communicative-pragmatic method is recognized as most relevant allowing to consider linguistic peculiarities of the text, as well as extralinguistic circumstances and factors. Pun plays an important role in creating advertisement texts. Bright and positive texts that contain pun are capable of expressing a deeper meaning and convey larger volume of information in comparison with the traditional advertising. Such advertising helps to represent a company and characteristics of a product in a simple and understandable format and ensure product marketing.
Parfenenko E.N., Popova L.G., Nifanova T.S. - Lexical-semantic representation of periphery of the notional component of the concept clemency in the English and Russian languages pp. 124-131


Abstract: The goal of this work became the identification of similarities and differences of peripheral conceptual attributes of clemency in the English and Russian languages. The subject of this research is the semantics of English and Russian lexemes representing the notional component of the concept of clemency in the compared languages, placed in the core and on the periphery of the concept. The concept of clemency was selected due to insufficient study of its verbalization in comparative linguistics. On the materials of lexicographic sources, the author determines the composition of nuclear lexemes and their synonyms that are capable of reflecting peripheral conceptual attributes of clemency in the English and Russian languages. The scientific novelty of this research consists in the fact that it is first to establish similarities and differences of peripheral conceptual attributes of clemency in the English and Russian languages. It is determined that core of the concept in English language is binominal and represented by the lexemes clemency and pardon; while in Russian language it is monomial. In conclusion, the author reveals that on the periphery of the concept in question in the English language are the lexemes grace, oblivion, allowance, indulgence, leniency, which are the synonyms of nuclear lexemes; and in the Russian language, there are  fewer synonyms of nuclear lexeme – apology, mercy, grace, remission. Comparison of the composition of peripheral conceptual attributes of clemency in the English and Russian languages demonstrated that they differ for the most part. Thus, the peripheral conceptual attributes of clemency in the English language is the comprehension of forgiveness as leniency with regards to a human being who committed the transgression, as a punishment, but in mitigated form. In the Russian language, the understanding of forgiveness as condescension to the transgression and aiding the one who transgressed.
Bakanova A.V. - Danse Macabre in Catalonia: historical-philological aspect pp. 132-142


Abstract: The object of this research is the theatricalizes “Danse Macabre” in the Catalonian city Verges is the only extant in La Bisbal province testimony of the popular in Medieval Western Europe traditions of Macabre. “Danse Macabre” in Verges takes place on a Maundy Thursday: five actors-skeletons with the symbolic inventory in their hands – scythe, colors, urns with ash and hourglass – move to the sounds of drums and remind spectators on the brevity of life and implacable approach of death. The presence of Macabre images in the Medieval art and literature is substantiated by crisis mentality caused by the Black Death and military conflicts. The conclusions on the archetypical features and authentic elements in Catalonian “Danse Macabre” are based on the research of historical-literary context, examination of the main scientific hypothesis regarding the Iberian trace in the emergence of this synthetic genre form, analysis of the circle beginning of Catalonian “Dance Macabre” under the influence of oriental presence on the peninsula. The author assesses modern approaches towards “Danse Macabre” with their sad procession of the representatives of all social classes to mass manifestations of democratic spirit of irreconcilability and resistance, democratic satire that is fighting for social equality facing death and acting against impunity of the powers that be.
Shikhalkina T.G. - Peculiarities of the communicative level of negotiation language in the English-language movies pp. 143-150


Abstract: The object of this research the communicative peculiarities of negotiation language on the example of English-language movies. Due the growing attention to the means of successful negotiations, the authors raise the relevant question on the need to consider speech aspects of negotiation process. The goal of this work is to analyze the communicative strategies and tactics (“pressure”, “high opening offer”, “disqualification”, “guilt”, “salami”) in the process of negotiations from the perspective of their effectiveness in achieving desired communicative goals.  Combination of theoretical overview of the strategies and tactics of negotiation, as well as analysis of the effectiveness of applying tactics to achieve goals of negotiating parties were chosen as the methods for this research.   The novelty of this article consist in reference to communicative peculiarities of negotiations in movies that have not previously been the object of analysis in the area of communication studies. The results of this research allowed determining the key strategies and tactics of negotiation in the analyzed films, as well as defining their effectiveness in the negotiation process.
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