Litera
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Contents of Issue 12/2020
Contents of Issue 12/2020
Linguistics
Sychugova L.A., Evlasev A.P. - Linguistic peculiarities of functionality of authorial commentaries in the English literary text (based on the English-language novel Sister Carrie by Theodore Dreiser) pp. 1-9

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.12.34369

Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of verbal means of expression of authorial commentaries in English fiction. The relevance of the selected topic is defined by the fact that the question of characteristics of authorial commentaries remain an insufficiently studied area within the framework of interpretation of a literary work. Such linguists as R. Posner in the “Theory of Commentaries”, I. V. Arnold in the “Stylistics of Decoding”, and N. D. Arutyunova in her work “On the Problems of Structural Linguistics” have been dealing the topic at hand. Examination of the authorial commentaries allows assessing the depth and wholeness of the literary work. The article presents the analysis of linguistic means of functionality of authorial commentaries in the English-language novel “Sister Carrie” by Theodore Dreiser. Authorial commentaries manifest as one of the means for explication of dialogical nature of the literary text. Linguistic means emphasize the expressiveness of authorial commentaries within the framework of progression of a storyline. Most of the authorial commentaries in T. Dreiser's novel “Sister Carry” represent the contrasting contexts, reflected in the development of two thematic lines. To the first theme includes the associative series: beast – nature – the forces of life. The second semantic layer is demonstrated in the line: human – man – free will. Contrasting contexts originate the oppositions not only on the level of meaningful-logical information, but also on the level of subtext.
Literary criticism
Nizhnik A. - Literary rhythm of the cycle by Isaac Babel Red Cavalry pp. 10-17

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.12.34407

Abstract: This article examines the cycle by Isaac Babel “Red Cavalry in the context of literary trends of the 1920s. I. Babel avoided various literary organizations and loud manifestos; therefore, his role within the post-revolutionary literary system remains somewhat isolated: he had a reputation of a realist writer (although with some reservations) mostly due to specifically historical backstory of his military cycle. In this regard, his literary style is rarely viewed as a phenomenon of modernist literature – metareflective, intertextual, centered on the experiments with literary form. However, the works of I. Babel can be viewed as a characteristic to modernism phenomenon of “synthesis of arts” – not only painting and cinematography, but music as well. His musicality is traced both on the semantic level and particular recurring images, an on the level of rhythmic structure of the text. The article demonstrates “pretexts” (genre and stylistic models) that underlie the cycle “Red Cavalry”: folk songs, revolutionary marches, poetry of French symbolism (namely A. Rimbaud), which targeted to substitute versification with a rhythmic prose. Thus, some elements of I. Babel's prose are interpreted as variations of a free verse, which corresponds to the draft genre definitions given by the author to his stories, as well as to his writing style testified by some of his contemporaries.
Linguistics
Evlasev A.P., Sychugova L.A. - The peculiarities of functionality of evaluative lexis in the English-language political discourse (on the text of US mass media) pp. 18-28

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.12.34377

Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of the questions of functionality of evaluative lexis in political discourse of the United States. The relevance of the topic is substantiated by the heightened interests of research towards the peculiarities of expressing evaluative meanings in various types of discourse. In modern linguistics, the analysis of functionality of evaluative lexis in the political discourse is of unequivocal interest, since axiological interpretation significantly affects the life of modern society. Research methodology is comprised of the work of such Russian linguists as I. S. Alekseeva, A. A. Ufimtseva, T. A. Znamenskaya, N. D. Arutyunova, and others. Special attention is given to the method of realization of negative evaluations. The goal of this  article consists in the methods of expression of evaluative meanings s using stylistic means, as the language is an effective weapon in the world of politics. The political texts of US mass media served as the material for this research due to the fact that mass media influence the formation of public opinion, the course of political discussions and referendums, rating of political and public figures, political parties, and public organizations. The conducted analysis demonstrates that the US political discourse includes different lexical and stylistic means applied for exertion of ideological influence, as well as formation of certain attitudes on certain realities of political life among the recipients.
Linguistics
Vavichkina T. - Main peculiarities of Arabic-language content on the Internet pp. 29-38

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.12.34372

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the trend that emerged in recent decades to transliterate Arabic text in the Internet comments and text messages, using the numbers for conveying the specificity of Arabic sounds. The object of this research is Arabizi – the macaronic jargon in electronic correspondence of Arabic native speakers, while subject is its specific characteristics. In the course of study, the author selected the microtexts posted by Arabic-speaking audience in the popular social networks Facebook and Twitter, YouTube video hosting, as well as private correspondence via such messengers as Viber and WhatsApp. The mandatory criterion was the affiliation of words to the common Arabic lexicon, as well as validation and similarity of the materials from different sources. Misprints and erratives were left out. The selected examples were classified by age (group 1 – 30 – 35 years old, group 2 – above 35 years old.) and nationality (from any Arab country) of their author. The scientific novelty is define by the fact that this article is first to examine the features that differentiate Arabizi from similar macaronic jargons, such as Denglish, Franglais, Spanglish, Ruglish. Possible ways for further development of language situation in the Arab world are proposed. The author determined that short messages in Arabizi virtually frame the written form that captures the specificity of oral dialect speech of the Arabic native speakers. The conclusion consists in formulation of distinctive characteristics of the indicated macaronic language that emerged as a result of interference due to familiarization of Arabs with the European languages, namely English.
Ertsikova G.A. - Russian loanwords from the Hill Mari language and their use by modern native speakers pp. 39-46

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.12.34504

Abstract: The subject of this research is the foreign words adopted by native speakers of the Hill Mari language from or through the Russian language. The object of this research is the oral speech of modern native speakers of the Hill Mari language. The goal consists in determination of the role played by the Russian loanwords in the modern Hill Mari speech. The research leans on dialectological materials acquired in the rural areas of Hill Mari District of Republic of Mari El, as well as recording of radiobroadcast “Hill Mari Hour” and TV shows “My Hill Mari Land”) in the Hill Mari language, with application of the methods of observation, linguistic descriptions, elements of the comparative method, and continuous sampling technique. This article is first to analyze Russian loanwords in the oral speech of modern Hill Mari people, which defines the scientific novelty. The following conclusions were formulated: the active vocabulary of Hill Mari people have certain words that were adopted by Hill Mari language long ago and  perceived by native speakers as foreign words; there is also a range of word familiar to all native speakers, which are the only nomination for designated notions; speech of the people of new generation marks an excessive inappropriate use of foreign words that clutters up the native language, deprives its uniqueness, impedes communication between people, makes it unclear to some people, and results in the formation of improper phrases.
Literary criticism
Nogovitsyn A.P. - Comparative analysis of the works published in periodicals and as part of the books, with major texts of A. E. Kulakovsky pp. 47-60

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.12.34513

Abstract: This article examines the works of A. E. Kulakovsky based on theoretical positions of D. S. Likhachev and practical data from commentaries to the volume II of A. E. Kulakovsky (author P. V. Maksimov), as well as conducts comparative analysis of the early versions with major texts of A. E. Kulakovsky. The subject of this research is the comparative analysis of A. E. Kulakovsky's early publications with major texts. The goal consists in determination and description of the authorial editing and revisions, which allows substantiating their motives for, as well as tracing the evolution of author’s thought. The discrepancies between the texts of early period and major text are viewed as improvements: addition of lines, substitution of separate words, rearrangement lines and stanzas. The novelty of this study consists in substantiation of early publications of A. E. Kulakovsky and lifetime edition as the subject of textological research. From this perspective, early publications of the works of A. E. Kulakovsky's are attributed to as research materials of cross-disciplinary nature: as the testimonies of the stage of establishment of Yakut literature as a whole, and as the variants of writer's major texts that reveal the history of his works in particular. The relevance is defined by the fact that special textological studies of poet’s separate works, including profound examination of historiographical part of his literary heritage, are currently of special significance. Over the past decade, a sizeable corpus of new documents related to A. E. Kulakovsky’s biography, including the unpublished works and scientific writings, has been revealed; this gives a new perspective on the already familiar materials in the context of analysis of his evolution as a writer and the history of publication of his works in the XX century.
Question at hand
Romanova L.N. - Poetry book and ensemble unity in Yakut womens poetry at the turn of the XX XXI centuries pp. 61-73

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.12.34525

Abstract: The object of this research is the women's poetry of Yakutia of the turn of the XX – XXI centuries. The subject of this research is the evolution of the lyrical poetry book in modern Yakut women's poetry. Works of the two leading lyricists of modernity Natalia Kharlampieva and Olga Koryakina-Umsuura served as the material for this research. Comparative-typological analysis of their works is aimed at determination of genre characteristics of the lyric poetry book and the ensemble unity of the poetry book of various years. The author examines the specificity of the lyric poetry book as a metagenre and its genre characteristics. Special attention is given to the ideological-thematic, architectonic and leitmotif components that unite the works into a single, holistic literary text. The author also explores the problem of formation of the ensemble unity of books of poems within the limits of works of a single author, which unifying principle is a lyrical metaplot that develops from book to book. The lyrical poetry book is presented as a form of authorial self-identification. The main conclusions of consists in determination of specificity of formation of the lyric poetry book and ensemble unity in Yakut women's poetry, its individual authorial and ethnic unique features. The comparative material allows revealing the dominant genre attributes of metagenre formations that imply “novelism” of the entirety of poetry books by Natalia Kharlampieva, and the cyclicity, intertextual coherence of the books by Umsuura. The author’s special contribution consists in elaboration of the methods for analyzing book macrocyclic forms through the prism of their motif-leitmotif systematicity and architectonic completeness. The novelty of this work is defined by the fact that for the first time in Yakut literary studies, Yakut women's lyrics is described as a developing system, aiming for “larger” macro-forms as an opportunity to systemically present the fullness of authorial worldview.
Linguistics
Mutalov R.O., Bagamaeva M.S. - Construction with adverbial participle clauses in the Kadar language pp. 74-83

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.12.34534

Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of polypredicative constructions formed by means of adverbial participle clause in one of the non-written languages of Dargin group – the Kadar language. The goal of this work is to describe the preterite adverbial participles used in formation of circumstantial subordinate clauses, study the problems of co-reference, and establish the key factors that affect the reduction of the co-referential element or its substitution with demonstrative pronoun. Main attention is turned to determination of grammatically correct constructions with adverbial participle clauses with co-referential element. The article employs the methods of synchronic description and field linguistics. The research material was accumulated during the 2019 expedition to Kadar rural localities of Karamakhi and Chankurbe of Buynaksky District of the Republic of Dagestan. The novelty consists in the fact that this work is first to examine the problems of co-reference in constructions with adverbial participle clauses, identification of factors that affect the reduction or substitution of co-referential element,  as well as determination of all grammatically correct sentences with adverbial participle clause that function in polypredicative constructions of the Kadar language. For solution of this problem, the author created the tables that considered the semantic role of predicate actants of superordinate and subordinate parts, position of subordinate part in relation to superordinate part, and the proximity of subordinate part to co-referential element in superordinate part in the compound sentence. As a result, the author establishes the positions with most and least grammatically correct constructions. The presented materials can be used in studying this type of compound sentences in other Dargin and Dagestanian languages.
Literary criticism
Lamzina A.V. - To the problem of reception of Shakespearean motifs in dramaturgy of Anna Akhmatova pp. 84-91

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.12.33685

Abstract: The subject of this research is the Shakespearean motifs in dramatic compositions of Anna Akhmatova. The research material contains the works of later period – draft of a movie script “On Pilots, or the Blind Mother”, and drama “Enūma Eliš”, which was destroyed and later restored by the author with numerous authorial commentaries and remarks. Akhmatova carefully examined the “Shakespeare question”, was familiar with his texts in the original, as well as translated a passage from “Macbeth”. She was well-versed in the historical connotations of Shakespeare's tragedies, considering Mary Stuart the prototype of Queen Gertrude and Lady Macbeth, and at the same time, rejected this image applicable to herself and her “alter ego” in literature. The main conclusions of this work consists in determination of the peculiar semantic tone of the set of motifs associated with “Hamlet” and “Macbeth” in dramaturgy of Anna Akhmatova, which includes: usurpation of power and envy of the rightful heir, mother – son conflict projected not only on Shakespeare's dramaturgy, but also on mythology, and through mythology on the author's poetry, motif of “drama within drama”, where masks and pseudonyms disguise the inward nature of the author. The direct and indirect quotations from “Hamlet” and “Macbeth” correlates the indicated set of motifs with biography of the author in “On the Pilots, or the Blind Mother” and “Enūma Eliš”, which substantiates the novelty of this research.
Question at hand
Chen L. - Linguistic analysis of translation of Chinese phraseologisms in the Analects of Confucius (论语) pp. 92-100

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.12.34642

Abstract: The object of this research is 56 phraseologisms of the treatise “Analects of Confucius”, and versions of their translation into the Russian language by L. S. Perelomov, selected for the analysis using the method of continuous sampling, as well as such method of linguistic studies as structural-semantic. The translation of phraseologisms of Confucius is described and analyzed within the framework of the concept of V. N. Komissarov; phraseological units are classified in accordance with the five types of equivalence of translation. The goal of this work is consists in determination of conditions that allow  preserving the semantic accuracy in translation of  phraseologisms of Confucius from Chinese to Russian. The research is carried out at the intersection of linguistics and philosophy. The novelty consists in the fact that this article is first to examine V.  N. Komissarov’s translation of phraseologisms of Confucius. Insufficient study of the translation of this philosophical text into the Russian language defines the relevance of this research. Based on the quantitative analysis it is concluded that phraseologism of Confucius are usually translated into Russian in accordance with the fifth type of the concept of V. N. Komissarov; i.e. literal translation of hieroglyphs into Russian, equivalence is founded on preservation of the meaning contained in the original. First and foremost, the translator tries to convey and preserve the pragmatic focus of the text.
Folklore
Danilova A.N. - V. D. Atlasov as the anchor of the Yakut heroic epic tales Olonkho pp. 101-109

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.12.34684

Abstract: The study of folklore heritage, along with the analysis of the collecting activity of individual local history experts and enthusiasts, is of genuine interest in the folklore studies. One of such people was Vladimir Dmitrievich Atlasov, born in Ust-Aldansky District. The goal of this article consists in examination of some questions of collecting activity Of V. D. Atlasov based on the text structure of Olonkho, as well as in establishment of the record of Olonkho text “Kentestey Bege”. For achieving the set goal, the author applies descriptive, structural and comparative methods. Based on the published texts and archival materials, the article examines certain aspects of V. D. Atlasov's collecting activity for documentation of the Yakut heroic epic tales Olonkho. The novelty consists in the fact that this article is first to analyze the folkloristic work of V. D. Atlasov – enthusiast, collector of Olonkho, and textology of interpretation of the Yakut heroic epic tale “Kentestey Bege” by S. M. Neustroev. As a result of textological research of the manuscript, the author determines some peculiarities of the record of Olonkho. The presence of multiple revisions testifies that Neustroev was working hand to hand with the Olonkhosut (the storyteller, performer of Olonkho). The text was carefully vetted, and in some instances edited by the collector. The texts is written mostly in modern graphics, although the letters of the old Latin alphabet are used occasionally.
Linguistics
Itskovich T.V. - The value of family among youth (based on conversational language of youth) pp. 110-117

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.12.34703

Abstract: The subject of this research is the conversational language of modern youth, which is thematically diverse, as followed from fulfilling grant of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research “Language that is commonly used in a family: axiological reality and methods of research (based on the conversational language of a Ural city)”, 2018-2020. Emphasis was placed on the topic of family values and parenting, which is explained by high relevance of this topic for young people. The goal consists in description of axiological reality of modern students in the area of family relations. In the course of analysis, the author uses the methodology developed by the grant collective, which implies determination of the value aspects of thematic and communicative content in text of the dialogue. The dialogue implements a number of value orientations inherent to the Russian national culture, such as: marriage, childbirth, parenting, relation to older generation. Participants of the dialogue describe parental attitudes that pertain to family and reality overall. The recordings of conversational speech of youth demonstrate that respondents directly explicate family values, as well as anti-values. Implicitly, the analyzed text contains the value of love and kindness. Analysis of the text indicates that respondent prefer harmonious and nonconfrontational communication. Unanimity in the value attitudes is reflected in communicative behavior: the respondents approve the raised topics, agree with the declared value orientations, and avoid conflict behavior.
Vepreva I., Pikuleva Y. - Family axiosphere: to the problem of inventory of basic values (on the material of recording of conversational speech) pp. 118-130

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.12.34705

Abstract: The goal of this work consists on determination of specificity of axiological content of the speech commonly used in a modern family. The dialogical material of Ural citizens united by the commonality of family relations was accumulated; the audio recordings were translated into written form (700,000 characters). The author developed a heuristic procedure for linguo-axiological analysis of conversational speech based on the content of family communication. The two types of speech communication depending on the vector speech behavior towards the content of conversation (content plan) or the addressee (communication plan). The value-thematic and value-communicative fragments of the dialogue are determined respectively. Fragmentation of dialogues on the value basis provides the researcher with the set of compact structural units of analysis appropriate for identification of value meanings of dialogue of the respondents. The author highlights direct and implicit linguistic cues of verbalization of value representations of linguistic identity; acquires the typology of verbal explication of basic values, systematization of axiological representations within the family. The first block of values is determined based on the analysis of value-thematic fragments. It includes universal values, as well as the groups of values related to family relationships, household, and values that receive public recognition. The second block of values is determines based on the analysis of communication-value fragments. It includes groups of values associated with general communication values and values of family interactions.
Linguistics
Abliametova S.M., Kadyrova U.R. - Occasional synonymic rows in the poetry of Âşık Ömer pp. 131-138

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.12.34437

Abstract: Contributing to accuracy of the phrase of one or another meaning, synonyms enrich the literary language and enhance its expressiveness. The goal of this work consists in examination of the occasional synonymy in the poetic texts of Âşık Ömer. The article offers the original synonymy of the poet. The author describes the occasional use of lexemes and their synonyms in the usual meaning. Literary language most accurately reflects the authorial individuality. Fictional texts feature imagery and emotional coloring. Synonyms serve as the means for conveying the richness of artistic language. It is worth noting that namely synonyms describe the author’s signature style; emphasis is placed on the occasional lexis. The problem of synonymy, or selection of most suitable words and expressions for a given situation, which most vividly characterize a particular phenomenon of the surrounding reality, has always been one of the crucial problems of lexicology. One of the least developed sections of synonymy is occasional synonymy. Even though some word and phrases in their dictionary meaning do not have synonymic ties, the can become such based on the context. Usage of occasional synonyms in a literary text allows the author to incarnate the concept more vividly, reflect the emotional coloring of his idea, and reveal the character of the heroes. The phenomenon of occasional synonymy is based on the fact that the word acquires a new, contextual meaning; in other words, the problem of occasional synonymy is inseparable from the question on the meaning of the word.
Literary criticism
Shi Y. - Theatrical tradition in the stories by Nikolai Nosov pp. 139-146

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.12.34351

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the analysis of theatrical tradition, which is a manifestation of the game principle in the stories by N. N. Nosov, and is closely associated with life experience and pursuits of the writer. The author carries out a systemic analysis, reviews the embodiment of theatrical traditions on the specific examples, and reveals that in the works of N. N. Nosov, the theatrical principle is reflected in acquisition of the peculiarities of dramatic genres (dialogization, explicit conflict, primacy of action over description, use of declamation, role game as a plot element). Such tools allow creating a comic effect, depict the true character traits of the heroes, convey a bright and creative childhood atmoshpere. The scientific novelty of this research consists in comprehensive analysis of the  theatrical tradition in the works of N. N. Nosov. The relevance is substantiated by insufficient study of the topic of theatrical tradition in the stories by N. N. Nosov, as well as by heightened interest towards his works. The acquired conclusions cab be used in studying literary heritage of the writer. The interpretations of texts offered in this article may valuable in staging the works of N. N. Nosov in the theater or cinematography.
Popova M.P., Okorokova V.B. - Poetic world of Andrey Krivoshapkin pp. 147-158

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.12.34735

Abstract: The subject of this research is the poetics of poems of the national Yakut poet Andrey Vasilyevich Krivoshapkin. A. Krivoshapkin is a prominent writer not only in the Even literature, but also in the national literatures of the peoples of the North. His talent is versatile: poet, prose writer, and publicist. The pinnacle of his literary heritage are the poems “World of the Even” and “The Sacred Deer”. The article examines such aspects of the topic, as the reflection of sacred images of the Even people, national worldview in the poetic world of A. Krivoshapkin. Special attention is given to Krivoshapkin’s poetic description of the bravery of native people in development of the Far North and struggling for survival in its severe conditions for many centuries. The conclusion is made that in his poems “The Sacred Deer” and “World of the Even”, Andrey Vasilyevich Krivoshapkin reveals the strength of the soul, stiffness of the northern people before severe natural conditions, and their wisdom. Depicting a peculiar world of the Even people and their national character, he writer creates a complete image of the entire lifestyle of his native people. The novelty of this work lies consists in the description of the specific poetic world of Andrey Krivoshapkin, where the spiritual-ethical values of all peoples of the North are presented through the realistic descriptions of everyday life of the Evens. The poet conveys their aspirations and hopes for the future.
Linguistics
Cheng J. - The category of space in the genre of essay (based on the essays Of V. M. Peskov) pp. 159-167

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.12.34678

Abstract: The subject of this research is the category of space – one of the intrinsic text categories that implies the meaning of location and spatial relations, and fulfills a plot-composing and semantic function. Essay is a peculiar genre, at the intersection documentary and fiction styles, which is an important factor affecting the analysis of the category of space. Examination of the category of space in essays is one of the relevant trends in linguistics. Essays of the prominent Soviet writer, photographer and journalist V. M. Peskov, which were recognized as the exemplary, serve as the material for this research. The categorical-textual approach towards studying V. M. Peskov's essays allowed determining the nuances of explication of the category of space in the genre of essay. Analysis of the specificity of the category of space in the genre of essay indicates the existence of objective and subjective space; namely the objective space holds the key place and plays a crucial role in text of the essay. In explication of the category of space are applied the direct spatial signifiers (spatial prepositions and toponyms), and indirect spatial signifiers. Texts of the essay simultaneously contain static and dynamic spaces: the author creates a static picture using existential verbs and statistical verbs of spatial location; the author describes local dynamics using the verbs of movement. The category of space is closely connected with the category of time and the category of theme; together they create a precise semantic division in accordance with the author's idea, as well help to give detailed description to the event and portray the character of the hero.
Literary criticism
Zipunov A., Valganov S.V. - Rhythmic semantic structures of the particular-universal in the lyrics of the author song and their search algorithms pp. 168-176

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.12.34391

Abstract: Cultural phenomena and their correlation with social processes spark specific scientific interest. One of such cultural trends is the author song of the 1950s – 1980s, which became the subject to this research. Adequate interpretation of the content of compositions and their connection with public life requires a particular toolset, especially due to the fact that some texts contain interesting semantic structures. In reading the lyrics, the alternation of fragments with opposite meanings was revealed. Generalization of these meanings to abstract concepts demonstrates that they comprise a semantic rhythm. One of such rhythmic structures consists in rotation of the particular and the universal. This article describes and formalizes the algorithm that resembles the principle of LR (k)-analyzer of context-free grammars, which was used for the analysis of two author songs:  “Ten Stars” by A. Krupp and “Romance of the Old Age” by A. Sukhanov based on the poetry of Omar Khayyám. In the indicated compositions, the author revealed common structures in form of the particular-universal rhythm and the motive of coping, as well as certain structural peculiarities. The songs under review differ in the degree of expression of dialectical contradiction of the “particular” and the “universal”. They also vary in the forms of translation of this semantic rhythm: through non-overlapping sets, additional orthographic dimensions, or storyline expansion on space-time scale.
Linguistics
Kurchinskaya-Grasso N. - Peculiarities and main characteristics of the legal English language pp. 177-182

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.12.32071

Abstract: This article examines the peculiarities of the legal English language as the object of translation studies. Currently, English language is dominant in international relations and business, and plays a significant role as legal language within the European Union. Legal English is a global phenomenon. This style of English language is used by the lawyers and other legal experts in their work. In the conditions of globalization of English language, it is necessary to be scrupulous about translation of the legal English in order to avoid inaccuracies in the entire system of international law. Therefore, the goal of this article consists in consideration of the unique characteristics of legal English associated with its origin, terminology, linguistic structure, linguistic peculiarities, and punctuation. The work employs descriptive method, comparative method, and method of applied comparative jurisprudence. The conclusion is made that legal English developed under the influence of languages previously used in the legal system, which is reflected in modern legal terminology and linguistic structure of the legal English language and requires attention in translation. Taking into account the aforementioned peculiarities would be of much help the legal translator in working with legal texts in English language.
Shatilova L.M., Potashova A.A. - The peculiarities of functionality of the concept of justice in the meaning of law in the speech of modern politicians in the English and Russian publicistic texts pp. 183-191

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.12.34228

Abstract: The goal of this work consists in the semantic analysis of synonymic rows of the concept of “justice” in the meaning of “law” in the speech of modern politicians in English and Russian publicistic texts. The subject of this research is the semantics of lexemes representing the concept of justice in the meaning of “law” in the speech of English and Russian politicians. Relevance of this work is defined by fact that the problems of comparative analysis of the concept of “justice” and its notional component based on the material of English and Russian publicistic texts remain poorly studied in the comparative linguistics. The scientific novelty lies in the attempt of comparative analysis of notional component of the synonyms of core lexemes “law” and its Russian equivalent in publicistic texts in the speech of modern politicians. In the English and Russian languages, the concept of “justice” implies honesty, law, objectivity, and truth. This article presents a comparative analysis of synonyms of the concept of justice in the meaning of “law”. As a result, the author determined the equivalent lexemes that represents the concept of “law” in English and Russian languages, and carried out semantic analysis of these lexemes in publicistic texts in the speech of modern politicians in Russian and English languages. It was revealed that law mostly reflects legal nature and means the rule that is used to determine the pattern of social behavior; an adopted principle, decree or instruction that establishes certain order; a legal act, principles, regulations set by law; a draft law submitted for the approval of legislative branches; a formal order. It can also define moral behavior in the society and signify the rule of moral conduct
Varlamova A.V. - The role of interlinear in literary translation: syntactic aspect (on the example of the novel by E. P. Neimokhov) pp. 192-202

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.12.34275

Abstract: The language of fiction literature, language of the classics of national literature, prominent prose writers is the primary source for studying literary language. This article examines the role of interlinear in literary translation and the translation equivalents of complex sentences in the Yakut and Russian languages on the example of the novel “Alampa” by Egor Petrovich Neimokhov in two volumes. The subject of this research is complex sentences in the Yakut and Russian languages. Special attention is given to finding equivalents in translation of complex sentences in the Yakut and Russian languages on  the syntactic level language, as well as to determination of the role of interlinear in fiction literature. Yakut linguistics has started to study the stylistics of Yakut language, while the lexical, morphological, and syntactic stylistics is in its inception stage. The works of researchers dedicated to the syntax of Yakut language cover the questions of syntactic transformations using the example of attributive constructions (Vasilieva, 2002) and syntactic transformations of one-member sentences (Atakova, 2007). There are no special works dedicated to the analysis of complex sentences in fiction texts in the Yakut-Russian translation. This raises the need for studying the equivalents of complex sentences in interlinear translation, and its role in literary translation. The following conclusions were made: 1) the content of complex sentences in the Russian language usually correspond to the such in the Yakut language, although they differ significantly in structure; 2) in both languages, the semantic meanings of complex sentences are expressed through various means that reflect the peculiarities of non-cognate languages, however, separate equivalents are determined among such constructions; 3) in interlinear and literary translation, complex sentences of the Yakut text are preserved in the Russian language for the most part. Thus, interlinear translation plays the role of intermediary translation and directly affects the translation result.
Asanova Z. - The origins of theoretical comprehension of adjective as a part of speech pp. 203-209

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.12.34393

Abstract: The subject of this article is the examination theoretical approaches towards studying adjective as a part of speech, since the description of this lexical and grammatical group in the Crimean Tatar linguistics is incomplete. The aim goal consists in tracing the origins of theoretical comprehension of adjective as an independent part of speech. This linguistic research is based on the descriptive method. Methodological framework is comprised of the fundamental writing of prominent scholars: O. Jespersen, A. Potebnja, V. V. Vinogradov, A. M. Shcherbak, D. N. Shmelyov, and others. As a result, it was determined that the the word is attributed to a particular part of speech is in accordance with the scripted rules introduced by the linguists in the past. Languages and methods of their research have undergone significant changes. Accentuation of adjective among the parts of speech was related to the logical separation of the characteristic of thing from itself, on the level of understanding self-sufficiency of the characteristic as an empirical phenomenon, and the existence of special adjective words as names of quality. The acquired results and materials can be applied in basic and specialized educational courses on theoretical and practical grammar of the modern Crimean Tatar language in the section of “Morphology”.
The gathering
Otsomieva Z.M. - Lexical manifestation of the image of man in the Avar toponymy pp. 210-216

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.12.34748

Abstract: The subject of this research is the semantics of toponymic lexemes, methods of their formation, semantic relations of nominations in the lexical-thematic group “characteristics of man”, and their propensity to reflect the worldview of the Avar dialect speakers. The goal of this work consists in the analysis of various characteristics of man captured in toponyms, which is expressed in determination of lexical composition of nominations that describe man by certain personality traits, behavior patteerns, appearance, types of activities, property status, etc. The article also reveals the role of units that characterize a person from different perspectives, and reflect certain qualities of a man, which allow depicting his behavior pattern and lifestyle in the toponymy of Gergebilsky, Gumbetovsky, Kazbekovsky, and Khunzakhsky districts of Dagestan. The scientific novelty consists in determination of unites in the toponyms that characterize a person from different perspectives. Analysis is conducted on the Avar toponymic lexicon that reflects various characteristics of man. This work is a valuable and public source for information retrieval and further research within the framework of studying various aspects of the image of man. The author’s special contribution to the research of Avar toponymy lies in determination and systematization of the corresponding lexical-thematic subgroups in the context of broad theme “the characteristics of man" in the indicated dialects.
Author's view
Grunina E.O. - Linguistic implementation of author's modality in the series of novels Manyunya by Narine Abgaryan pp. 217-226

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.12.34449

Abstract: The article examines the peculiarities of representation of personality of the author via linguistic means of literary text. Definition is given to the concept of “author's modality”, which implies the author’s vision, attitude, and value orientations expressed through selection of particular language means. The subject of this research is the linguistic peculiarities of literary text, which allowed the audience to portray the image of the author, and analyze the specifics of representation her linguistic personality. The goal of this research consists in determination of language means that reflects the peculiarities of the author’s linguistic personality, as well as reveal individuality and distinctness of literary style of N. Abgaryan. The research material is comprised of the partially biographical novels of the contemporary Russian writer Narine Abgaryan “Manyunya”, “Manyunya Writes a Fantastic Novel”, and "Manyunya, Ba Jubilee, and other Tribulation”. The analysis is based on the methodological toolset of the theory of linguistic personality proposed by Y. N. Karaulov, literary studies of V. V. Vinogradov, M. M. Bakhtin, L. N. Churilina, etc., dedicated to the author, analysis of linguistic personality of the character of literary work. The scientific novelty of consists in identification of specific manifestations of  author's modality on the example of works of the contemporary Russian writer, which allows fully revealing the image of a modern author. The conducted research highlights and characterize specific features of linguistic implementation of author's modality: priority concepts in the author's worldview (“family”, “time”, “memory”); individuality of creative perception and manners of the author (irony, self-irony, nostalgia, description of tastes and smells); authorial transitions (remarks, references); visual arrangement of the text. The acquired results can be used in the lectures on studying literary texts, classes on linguoculturology, linguopersonology, as well as teaching Russian to foreign audience.
Language
Maikova T. - Certain aspects of translation of special texts as a semantic whole (on the example of translation of the Russian-language political text) pp. 227-233

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.12.34499

Abstract: This article on the example of specific language material analyzes the difficulties causes by the need to translate the text as a semantic whole, as well as outline the methods to avoid them. The texts is viewed from two perspectives – as a coherent fragment of speech, and as a speech of particular style. The author carries out comparative analysis of the forms of expression inherent to the texts of scientific and formal business styles in the Russian and English languages; highlights the elements relevant for translation; and classifies them based on nature of their correlation. The article also considers the problems of achieving coherence in translation of the text. The conclusion is made on the need for additional translation transformations substantiated not so much by discrepancies in the structure of two languages, but as by belonging of the original text to a particular speech style. The author lays emphasis on coherence and stylistic uniqueness as the elements relevant for translation of the text as a semantic whole. Such transformations as translation conversion, inter-level transformations, and omission are proposed for translating deverbal nouns in scientific and formal business texts. In the aspect of achieving coherence in translation, the author determines such problems as sentence-level topic model and preservation of co-reference. The article can be valuable for translators and in teaching translation techniques.
Linguistics
Abdul'manova A., Parfenov A.S. - Dynamic norm and variability of personal pronouns in the works of Geoffrey Chaucer pp. 234-241

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8698.2020.12.31919

Abstract: The subject of this research is the dynamic variability in the sphere of personal of the Middle English Period. The object of this research is the personal pronouns of the Middle English (in form of the nominative case) used in the “Canterbury Tales” by Geoffrey Chaucer. Insufficient study of this layer of lexicon necessitates detailed examination of the rich tapestry of variability of pronouns for determination of the area of Medieval language norm that influenced the establishment of modern literary English language, which defines the relevance of this research. The goal consists in description of the dynamic norm of the Middle English. Research methodology consists in systematization, description and classification of language material, extracted through the method of continuous sampling from the first part of the “Knight’s Tale” of the “Canterbury Tales” of Geoffrey Chaucer, and setting quantitative parameters that reveal and confirm linguistic patterns that regularly manifest within the system of personal pronouns of the Middle English. The scientific novelty lies in comprehensive research of variability of personal pronouns and establishment of the dynamic norm and “quasi-norm” of the national literary standard of English language formed in the XIV century. The main conclusion consists in substantiation of the leading role of central dialects in comprising dynamic norm of the Middle English (namely with regards to pronouns), while the forms developed in the north and south should be attributed to quasi-norm.
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