Litera - номер 4 за 2019 год
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Contents of Issue № 04/2019
Contents of Issue № 04/2019
Question at hand
Balaeva S.V. - Search for Giacomo Leopardi's Poetic Language pp. 1-7


Abstract: The subject of the research is the concept of poetic language developed by an Italian poet and philologist Giacomo Leopardi. Analysis involves his Leopardi's philosophical works about the language and historical development of the mankind as well as his poetic works on ancient plots, first of all, his 'Operetti Morali' and 'Zibaldone'. Leopardi's concept of poetic language is one of the least studied topics in the Italian poet's creative writing. Based on the analysis of Leopardi's works, the author of the article views the process of creation of Leopardi's concept of poetic language as a late response to The Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns. In her article Balaeva uses the methodology of theoretical poetics that is aimed at systems analysis of Giacomo Leopardi's concept of poetic language. The concept of poetic language is one of the central topics in theoretical and philosophical works of the Italian author. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that this is an understudied aspect of creative work of the Italian's poet and philospher. The main conclusion of the research is the proof of the relationship between The Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns and late works of Giacomo Leopardi. Giacomo Leopardi's concept of the poetic language viewed in terms of The Quarrel reveals mechanisms of the union of philosophy and poetry in theoretical (Zibaldone) and literary (Operetti Morali) works of the Italian poet. 
An D. - Means of Expressing Modality in the Russian and Korean Languages pp. 8-16


Abstract: The subject of the research is the comparison of the means of expressing modality in the Russian and Korean languages. Act of human communication includes not only the fact of information exchange but also expression of evaluation or attitude towards the fact. Thus, modality is a universal concept of languages, however, different languages have very different means of modality expression and it is difficult to find equivalent modality in the other language. This research is devoted to the means of modality expression in the Korean and Russian languages and their semantic characteristics from the point of view of synchrony and diachrony. As particular examples, the researcher has used extracts from Michail Bulgakov's novel 'Master and Margarita' in Russian and Korean. As a result, the researcher discovers that Russian and Korean use different and at the same time similar means of modality and grammar expression. As for intonation, Korean sentence always have the emphasized word at the end of it. 
Zinnatullina L. - Variability of Adverbial Phraseological Units in the Russian and English Languages pp. 17-25


Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of the variability of adverbial phraseological units in the English and Russian languages. The subject of the research is the peculiarities of different kinds of phraseological unit variants in two languages compared: lexical, phonetic, morphological, combined and graphic that are defined based on the criteria of separability of phraseological units as well as the means of their contextual use. The researcher also compares the frequency of the use of these variants in Russian and English. Examples of the use of different variants of adverbial phraseological units are selected from Russian and British national corpuses. The research methods used by the researcher include: comparitive method, method of phraseological description offered by A. Kunin as well as contextual method and method of corpus linguistics. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the researcher defines the frequency of represented variants of adverbial phraseological units and compares them. The researcher also appeals to two major national corpuses for the first time in the academic litrature. The main conclusions of the research are the following: adverbial phraseological units of both languages have lexical and combined variants; morphological variants are typical for Russian and not so frequently met in English; there is a limited number of phonetic variants in Russian while graphic variants of adverbial phraseological units are typical for English. 
Literary criticism
Li A. - Analysis of Chinese Studies of Lu Xun's Novel 'Notes of the Madman' in Terms of the Influence of Nikolai Gogol's Same-Named Novel pp. 26-34


Abstract: The subject of the research is Chinese research articles and books devoted to Lu Xun's writings. The article is devoted not only to the description of the main historical and literary issues related to wrtings of a Chinese author Lu Xun but also proof of the connection between scientists of different eras. The author of the article provides a detailed analysis of Chinese philological researches and traces back the main trends in the creative writing of Lu Xun focusing on the influence of Nikolay Gogol's influence on Chinese writer's works. The researcher has achieved the research goals by using the following research methods: cultural historical, biographical, comparative historical and comparative analytical methods. The methodological basis of the research includes publications of Chinese researchers who studied Nikolay Gogol's influence on Lu Xun's works as well as a basic Chinese research 'Three questions about Notes of the Madman' written by Shao Bojou in which the researcher emphasized the importance of studying the story behind Lu Xun's novel. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that for the first time in the academic literature the author of the article analyzes the stody behind creation of aforesaid two works as well as demonstrates succession and differences in the views of scientists at different stages of Lu Xun studies in China. Summarizing views of Chinese literary researches, the researcher demonstrates that Lu Xun did not just borrow Gogol's Notes of the Madman but created a unique work which was in many ways innovatory for Chinese literature. 
Ge J. - Dragon Changes His Style: New Image of China's Regional Television pp. 35-42


Abstract: The subject of this research is peculiarities of China's regional television. The author proves that over the last decade regional television stations have been developing new media resources, creating new content, and using new forms. They have also performed major reforms as a result of rapidly developing digital multimedia technologies which brought bright special effects to television programs. Specific national environment of China influences the process of telling the news and forming social opinion, this is the phenomenon of television industry which needs to be studied further. The author of the article underlines that in order to follow the principles of individuation and specialisation in their TV programs, television must actively study interests and preferences of different sectors of society, make assertive policy of rado- and TV broadcasting and reinforce their unique advantages in touch regional competition of mass media. The article is based on general research methods such as cultural historical analysis, generalisation, synthesis, etc. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that this article is the first attempt to describe and classify unique and varied development of China's television at different stages and in different regions of the country. The article demonstrates that there is a bilateral interactive communication beween TV broadcasters and audience which have important effect for both parties. The main conclusions of the research are the following: press, television, Internet and radio, i.e. all available means of communication, are viewed by the current government of China as the channels for developing certain state ideology and political views. Therefore, China news give an insight into positive changes inside China. 
Altukhova O. - Conceptual Metaphors with the TEXT Source Domain in Modern English Lyrics pp. 43-50


Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of metaphoric structures in popular culture. The matter under research is the linguistic representation of conceptual metaphors that involve the TEXT source domain in popular English lyrics. In her research Altukhova analyzes the most commonly used metaphoric analogies with the TEXT source domain represented in English poems earlier. She also specifies the frequency, specific structure and functions of lyrics as well as describes the most typical lexical unit that verbalize a group of metaphors under study. Altukhova also discovers possible methods of metaphor modification at the conceptual and lexical levels. To analyze the research data, the author has used methods offered by George Lakoff, Mark Johnson and Terner within the framework of the theory of conceptual metaphor. The scientific novelty is caused by the fact that the author studies the TEXT concept as the source domain and source of metaphorization that has never been studied thoroughly by Russian or foreign linguistics. This is also the first research to analyze texts that refer to popular culture and orient at non-verbal means. The main conclusions of the research are the following: conceptual metaphors with the TEXT source domain are quite popular in English lyrics and have a stable conceptual scheme, however, their linguistic representation has a high degree of lexical variability as a result of introduction of new lexical units and transformation of stable combinations. 
Literary criticism
Kudryavtseva R.A. - The World Topos in Terms of European Axiology of Modern Mari Poetry pp. 51-69


Abstract: In her article, Kudryavtseva analyzes Vasily Pekteev's lyrics as part of analysis of modern Mari national poetry, in particular, poems from his poetic series 'Man from the Kingdom of Bees' (2018). Until now these poems have never been the matter of analysis. The research grounds include analysis of the artistic space of Mari poetry. The main attention is paid to the multicomponent and multi-value topos 'world' that most brightly reflect the author's artistic axiology. The methodological basis of the research involves historical typological and structured semantic analysis of works which has allowed to define and describe structural semantic levels of the 'world' topos actualizing the author axiology in Vasiliy Pekteyev's lyrics. The researcher proves that spacial elements of the 'world' topos including archetypes, fully reveal the spirit of a lyrical hero, demonstrate the writer's values and the nature of artistic axiology of modern Mari poetry. She also shows that modern Mari lyrics confirm personal freedom, life and nature beauty, creativity as well as nature-orientation and spirituality of the Mari world. Everything which is aimed at destruction and supression of the aforesaid is viewed as anti-values.  
Grigorian G. - Ivan Turgenev as Perceived by Heroes of Anton Chekhov's Early Works pp. 70-78


Abstract: The article is devoted to references to Turgenev that can be found in Chekhov's stories. Being the closest predecessor, Turgenev had always been in the center of Chekhov's attention. Numerous remarks about Turgenev that can be found in Chekhov's stories prove the great influence of Turgenev on Chekhov and how Chekhov's perception of Turgenev's literary legacy had been changing at different stages of Chekhov's creative path. Turgenev's image is always there in Chekhov's literary works. The heroes of Chekhov's early stories speak of him and so do the heroes of his late novels and plays. Thus, matter under research is Chekhov's early stories as the most representational within the framework of the research. The aim of the research is to define the role of references to Turgenev in Chekhov's works. In the course of his analysis, Grigoryan has used the following research methods: systems approach, description and comparison involving interpretation techniques. As a result of the research, Grigoryan states that in his early stories Chekhov described characters who either demonstrated their ignorance about the writer or assertedly defended Turgenev but were still unable to understand the important contribution of the writer. 
Karelina N.A. - Modern Trends in the Development of Canada's Indigenous Languages pp. 79-86


Abstract: The matter under research is the modern trends in the development of Canada's indigenous languages, i.e. the languages spoken by the representatives of the First Nations, Metis and Inuit as well as new legislative policy of the state aimed at restoration, preservation and practical use of the languages. The author focuses on the new law about preservation of indigenous languages issued in June of 2019, objectives, mechanisms, and prospects as well as issues that arise n modern linguistic education and practical use of languages. In her research Karelina has used general research methods such as analysis and synthesis of research literature and statistical data and comparative approach. The research results demonstrate that the situation with Canada's indigenous languages is still difficult, therefore the Indigenous Languages Act is meant to improve the situation. The law implies state financing of language development programs, research analysis, publications of study books and dictionaries, education of teenagers and training specialists. Recently, a number of indigenous communities of Canada has demonstrated positive trends in expansion of the number of native language speakers as a result of immersion programs at the levels of pre-school and school education and use of new technologies, development of mass media and ethno-tourism. The experience of Canada is of great practical importance for the development of federal and regional programs of support and development of indigenous minorities of Russia. 
Literary criticism
Poulaki P. - Analysis of Translations of Mikhail Sholokhov's Novel 'The Silent Don' to the Persian Language (the Case Study of Behazin's and A. Shamlu's Texts) pp. 87-96


Abstract: This is the first article to tell the story of translation of Mikhail Sholokov's novel 'The Silent Don' to the Persian language and give a comparative analysis of two main translations of the novel, by M. Etemadzade (Behazin) and A. Shamlu who presented two opposite approaches to translation, ideological and linguistic. The author of the article analyzes the first translation of the novel The Silent Don in Farsi made by a major Iranian translator Behazin in 1965 against the Iran socio-political situation of the 1960s and describes pluses and minuses of his translation. Special attention is paid to the translation of 'The Silent Don' in the translation of a famous translator and poet A. Shamlu and response of the Iranian readers to it. Following the 'domestication' translation strategy and trying to demonstrate the treasure of the Persian language, Shamlu devoted seven years to the translation and wrote a true master-piece of Persian literature. 
Poletaeva E.A. - The Main Grounds for the Artistic Picture of the World Shared by the Poets of the Literary Association 'Moscow Time' pp. 97-108


Abstract: The subject of the research is the general grounds for the artistic picture of the world shared by the poets of the literary association 'Moscow time'. In particular, Poletaeva focuses on creative writing of the leading members, S. Gandlevsky, B. Kenjeev, A. Soprovsky, A. Tsvetkov, T. Poletaeva, and A. Kazintsev from the point of view of the main lines of their artistic picture of the world. These include their views on the place and mission of human and his system of values (which involves such aspects as human and society, relationship of an individual and government, etc.), relationship between human and nature; relation between artistic and scientific pictures of the world. The research methodology is based on views of B. Meylakh about the main lines of the artistic picture of the world. Such picture of the world was offered by the Moscow Time poets as an opposition to the Soviet (atheistic and materialistic) point of view; it was idealistic as it was and related to the picture of the world in the Russian classical literature. However, some authors changed their worldviews with time. Nevertheless, there were certain topics that continued to play an important role throughout their creative life. Those included self-denying difficult creative work; search for full and bright life; perception of nature as alive and spirited; Biblian allusions and images (in particular, relation of an poet to Adam as those who give names to God's creatures); the motif of miracle; estrangement of a lyrical hero rooted in romantic traditions; ethical component of their creative writing; and view of literature as an important part of human life, abilities of literature to predict the future and preserve the past. 
Zhgun D. - Cases of Asymmetry between Semantic and Pragmatic Meanings in Emotional and Evaluative Utterances (Based on the Analysis of English Fiction) pp. 109-117


Abstract: The subject of the article is emotional and evaluative utterances in literary texts. The article briefly appraises the current research of emotions in linguistics, emphasizing their role in communication. The linguistic data are also enforced by theories from psychology. The author thoroughly studies emotional and evaluative utterances that reveal asymmetry between the semantic and pragmatic meanings. Emotional and evaluative utterances are defined as utterances that express, imply or describe emotions, emotional states and reactions. Asymmetry is defined as the deviation from the norm as a result of a language natural functioning. Research methods include definition, semantic and pragmatic analyses of emotional and evaluative utterances, selected from English fiction by the continuous sampling method. The author comes to conclusion that asymmetry occurs due to the subjective experience of emotions and linguistically manifests itself in reverse reactions and ambivalence. It has been revealed that true knowledge about emotion is context dependent and it is the context that shows whether emotion is appraised positively or negatively.
Literary criticism
Yan' K. - Imagination and Reality: Mirror Symmetry in Gazdanov's Novel 'The Ghost of Alexandria Wolf' pp. 118-127


Abstract: In his novel 'The Ghost of Alexandria Wolf' Gaito Gazdanov criticizes the double world perception of Russian immigrants whose imagination and memories about the past prevailed over the reality. In order to express the relationship between two worlds, imaginatory and real, the writer uses the mirror symmetry as the main principle of plot creation, characters' and main hero's features making. As the final, the writer 'broke' the mirror of three aforesaid aspects at the story line 'the main hero kills his counterpart'. Thus, the meaning of the mirror structure and destruction thereof make the matter under research. In his research Yan uses the semiotic method and the method of intertextuality to view the relationship between the author's mind and artistic space the author has created. Detailed analysis carried out by the author allows to note that at the moment when the mirror symmetry was destroyed, the mirror relationship between the past based on the memory and imagination and the actual world disappeared, too. The author demonstrates the danger of close relation between the subjective and objectived world and invasion of the reality with the past or imagined present. The writer suggests to come back to the reality through self-realisation of an individual in the real world. 
Dulova S.A., Nikolaev N.I. - Gaito Gazdanov's Prose in Terms of Changing Worldview in Literature pp. 128-134


Abstract: Modern literary studies view the first wave of the Russian Immigration of the XXth century as a heterogeneous phenomenon. Traditionally, researchers describe two generations of the Russian Immigration, the 'seniors' (Bunin, Shmelev, Zaitsev, Gippius and others) and 'juniors' (Nabokov, Varshavsky, Yanovsky and Gazdanov). Peculiarities of each writer's creative style still need to be clarified. Description of experimental and innovatory searches of each junior and analysis of the influence of modern European literature on them have not allowed to make conclusions about general trends in their writing. The question about the changing worldview in literature has been partly covered in researches of Gaito Gazdanov's creative legacy and era. The most famous modern approach to this problem is an attempt to describe changes in the worldview by focusing on particular aspects (the feeling of upcoming catastrophe, crisis, loneliness, etc.). These observations prove extension, clarification, and explicitation of a traditional worldview, however, they do not always mean a qualitative change. The novelty of this research is caused by the fact that the author views the initial cause of changes in the worldview in litrature as the search for a principally new position towards the world that would allow to model the world as one whole. 
Shestakova I. - Peculiarities of a Motive Organization of Mikhail Shishkin's Novel 'The Hair of Venus' pp. 135-142


Abstract: In her article Shestakova analyzes the motive structure of Mikhail Shishkin's novel The Hair of Venus. Based on the analysis of particular images and motifs, the researcher proves her statement that these motifs and images are not just conjunctive narration elements but integrators of a whole range of symbolic meanings acquired by an image in the process of transferring between narration lines. Such dynamics in the development of invariants, transparent motifs and 'wandering' plots demonstrate their ontological perspective and potential for constant development and transformation. This feature marks overcoming of death as one of the key themes in the novel. The researcher has used description as a research method as well as comparison which allows to define intertextual basis of the novel under study. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author discovers implicit isomorphism of poetic and prosaic structures in the novel The Hair of Venus as well as analyzes the main features of Mikhail Shishkin's individual style. For this purpose, the researcher analyzes sound motifs and rhythmic-accoustic effects of the novel that bring close the prosaic structure of the text and poetry. 
Popkova A. - 'Chinese Text' in Soviet Literature of the 1920s (the Case Study of Sergei Tretyakov's Creative Writing) pp. 143-152


Abstract: The subject of this research is the views and positions of Soviet writers of the 1920s. Based on the example of novels written by a futurist writer Sergei Tretyakov (his play and poem 'Roar China!', collection of essays 'Jungo', The Autobiography of Tan Shih-hua, and Lee Yan Stubborn novels) who knew China very well, the author of the article describes features of Chinese text of the 1920s. The object o fthe research is Chinese text in Russian literature and the image of China there. The researcher carries out a brief analysis of a number of Soviet literature works of the 1920s that described China in general. Chinese text in Soviet literature of the the 1920s performed certain objectives of those times. Works written by Sergei Tretyakov demonstrate deep understanding of Chinese culture as well as awareness of Cinese realities of the early 1920s and provide an accurate description of historical facts and documentaries. The fact that Tretyakov combined general principles of creative writing and analytical principles of historical research allowed the author to solve ideological tasks of his time in a literary form. Writers of the 1920s all tried to perform 'social order' and at the same time tell the reader truth about the neighboring country. 
Yi L. - Subjective Frequency of Buzzwords pp. 153-159


Abstract: The article is devoted to the frequency of the use of buzzwords. The phenomenon of 'buzzword' is of great interest for many modern linguists while it still does not have a clear definition. This research presents an attempt to describe and, if possible, explain an important indicator of buzzwords which is the subjective frequency of the use of a linguistic unit as calculated on the basis of a linguistic corpus. The researcher of the article demonstrates that there is not sufficient estimation of the frequency of use of buzzwords on the basis of corpus texts and offers an experimental linguistic method to determine the subjective frequency. The main research methods used by the author of the article is description, comparison and experiment which have allowed to define different advantages and disadvantages of objective and subjective frequency of the use of buzzwords. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that for the first time in the academic literature the researcher have analyzed the main gaps and problems related to estimations of buzzwords carried out on the basis of corpus texts (difficulty of presenting results, challenges of analyzing conversational and network materials, late update of data and materials, unprecise distinction of word semantics); the researcher has also demonstrated opportunties of the method of successive intervals and has proved the importance of the aforesaid method by describing the Word of the Year project. 
Bakanova A.V. - Views on Death in Catalan Phraseology pp. 160-172


Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of semasiological, phraseological and paroemiological aspects of the 'mort' concept in the Catalan language from the point of view of linguocultural approach. The lexeme 'mort' is used in the Catalon language in different meanings to express the fear of death, philosophical and religious expectations, and ironic attitude to human foibles. Catalans view death as an inescapable event; temporary verge; rest; sleep, tax that free humans from earthly judgement (Pagar tribut a la mort); suffering; grief (dol); sacral action. The research is based on over two hundred of paramias and phraseologial units, analysis of dictionary definitions of Catalan 'death' lexemes, derivational and synonymic rows. Numerous paramia euphemisms describe death as a travel and indirectly relate to grave yard or memorial service (Anar a son Tril·lo). There are also cases when the 'death' lexeme designates extremely unpleasant, insignificant or unattractive humans or items (Això és una mort) to reinforce a negative remark or indicate insufficient qualities (colors ben morts). Catalans do not avoid using death lexemes in their conversation which presents their ironic and philosophical attitude to death. 
Character in literature
Islamova A.K. - Hero as an Actor of Image Representation in a British Philosophical Novel of the Second Half of the XXth Century pp. 173-184


Abstract: The matter under reseach is the development of the concept character as an autonomous hero of action and narration subject in philosophical novels written by Colin Wilson, William Golding and Iris Murdoch. The author of the article has developed the topic based on historico-literary prerequisites and targets of creative writing of the period under study. The researcher extends the contextual scope of the research in order to clarify classical traditions and new trends in a writer's conveyance of a message and at the same time preservation of an independent status of a literary hero. The researcher studies solutions used by aforesaid writers using the method of system modelling a typological paradigm of their philosophical novels which allows to trace back evolution of characters at different levels of a consolidated polymodel. The main conclusion of the research is that the concept of developing a positive image of a hero in a British philosophical novel is based on the immanent principle of evolutionary process. Discursive analysis of the use of this principle explains how gifts of heroes for creative activity shows itself as heroes achieve their life goals. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the researcher discovers a direct correlation between a hero's mind horizons and epic prospect of a hero's artistic world, the latter presenting a full and true picture of the reality. 
Vered V.T. - Comparative Analysis of Phraseological Units in a Literary Text (the Case Study of F. Scott Fitzgerald's Novel The Great Gatsby) pp. 185-194


Abstract: The matter under research is linguistic and and author phraseologists used by F. Scott Fitzgerald in his novel The Great Gatsby and variants of their translation to the Russian language. Vered analyzes the problems that may arise in the process of translation and use of phraseological units in a literary text. The researcher also solves the problem of what would be the best way to preserve the form and contents of an an original established expression when the expression is transferred to another socio-cultural environment. Vered focuses on translation strategies and the method of semantic 'adaptation' of phraseological units taking into account their pragmatic and aesthetic orientation. The main research methods used by the author of the article include contrast analysis of phraseological units in the  English and Russian languages. To specify the degree of semantic difference between conditionally equivalent units, the researcher has used the method of dictionary definition as well as contextual analysis that allows to discover functional features of phraseological units in a literary work. The novelty of the research is caused, on the one hand, by insufficient degree of development of expressive means translation and, on the other hand, by the need to study peculiarities of this category comparing Russian and English versions of a literary text. The choice of translation strategies depend on the degree of semantic contiguousness of components that constitute a phraseological unit as well as the nature of figurality of a particular language unit determined by culture and national peculiarities. 
Poetry and the poet
Bugorskaia V. - Literary Concept of Love in Mikhail Lermontov's Early Poems (Demon, Azrail and Angel of Death) pp. 195-204


Abstract:  The matter under research is the phenomenon of love between immortal spirit and human in Lermontov's poetry. The situation when these two meet and interact is a sense-making motive for Lermontov's concept of love. Speaking of it, the researcher focuses on three poems and gives these poems different conceptual reflextions: Demon (I-IV versions), Azrail and Angel of Death. The central image is the figure of Demon and literary variants of Demon (Azrail and Angel of Death). In this research the author of the article uses historico-literary and hermeneutical methods that give a system view of Lermontov's early poems. The researcher concludes that Lermontov speaks of the phenomenon of love between an immortal creature and human by involvement of human in an infernal world, attempt of a mortal human to accept immortality and attempt of an immortal creature to understand human existence. This is the first research to analyze Lermontov's poems from this point of view.  
Eternal symbols
Anisimova O.V., Makarova I. - Interplanetary Transfer, or The Odyssey of the Future (Analysis of the Image Field 'Ship' in World Science Fiction) pp. 205-215


Abstract: The matter under research is the image field 'ship' viewed in terms of world science fiction based on the analysis of novels written by such authors as Lukian Samosatsky, Jonathan Swift, Jules Verne and Author Clarke. The researchers focus on the analysis of symbolic meaning of the image field 'ship' in literature in general and science fiction in particular. In their article they attempt to analyze peculiarities of literary interpretation of core elements of the image field 'ship' offered by different authors. Their aim to develop a full picture about the matter of study. The methodology of the research is based on complex analysis of the matter under research including such kinds of analysis as culturological, literary, intertextual, historico-literary and literary-biographical. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the authors analyze the symbolic content of a mythopoetical image of ship viewed as the image field in terms of world science fiction. Conclusions made by the author as a result of the research are the following: 1) mythopoetical image of ship is widely presented in science fiction novels and is still important today; 2) science fiction writers represent all three components of the core of the ship image field in their novels. 
Oshurmakhmadova S.S. - Ideographical Organisation of Diplomatic Clerical Vocabulary pp. 216-220


Abstract: The article is devoted to the peculiarities of the vocabulary of diplomatic clerical work. The researcher demonstrates that analysis of a lexical language system within vocabulary thematic groups makes lexical material available for study in all kinds of aspects. She also demonstrates that diplomatic standartization is reflected not only in the writing style and choice of components but also their location and graphic presentation. Specific features of diplomatic clerical vocabulary are a result of the fact that it is used by narrow groups of professional diplomats and lawyers specialising in international law. Thus, diplomatic clerical vocabulary is a term system that has been intensively developing. In the process of development, varied thematic groups have been created and constantly enriched with new expressive means of business style. The researcher offers a classification of lexical thematic groups based on the following criteria: semantic similarity of words; partial or full coincidence of meanings; possibility or impossibility of mutual substitution of words in a particular context; synonymy, antonymy, differentiation, generalisation and stylistic use of words. 
Comparative-historical studies of literature
Song Y. - Confucius and Gogol: Dialogue about Art Through Ages pp. 221-227


Abstract: The article is devoted to discovering accordances between ideas of Confucius and Nikolay Gogol about art. Sun makes a hypothesis about universal values of Chinese and Russians that may contribute to cross-cultural dialogue between these two nations. At the same time, the researcher demonstrates different aesthetics of these two writers caused by peculiarities of Chinese and Russian cultures. It is important to understand their principal difference and keep it in mind during cross-cultural dialogue and exchange of ideas. Based on the comparative analysis of texts written by these two writers, Sun discovers opinions the writers had in common regarding the role of art in personal and society's development. Studying their expressions about art, the researcher concludes that firstly, Confucius and Gogol emphasized the great role of art in moral education. According to them, art must also contribute to personal development and growth. Secondly, aesthetics of Confucius and Gogl have some political nature, too. They both believed that conveying an ethical dominant, art may play an important role in the reinforcement of political power and further development of society. Thirdly, Gogol gave a religious meaning to the word 'writer'. His idea of art was closely related to Orthodox belief and personality of God while such meaning is not typical for Confucius or Chinese culture. 
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