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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Contents of Issue № 01/2019
Contents of Issue № 01/2019
Sychugova L.A., Evlasev A.P. - Verbal Means of Representing Personal Emotional States (the Case Study of the Movies in English) pp. 1-10


Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of verbal means used to represent personal emotional states. The research is based on the analysis of movies in English. Despite the fact that there has been a great number of researches on the linguistic reflection of emotions, linguists admit that the main issues of the theory of lexical affectability. The article includes the analysis of the main functions of linguistic means used to convey positive and negative emotions in the process of communication. The basis of the research involves the classification of emotions offered by K. Izard. The research has been made as part of the discursive paradigm. The author has applied the methods and techniques of the linguitic analysis of actual material such as the continuous sampling method, component analysis and content analysis of lexical units. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author performs a discursive analysis of emotional states of personality in the English linguistic culture. The analysis results demonstrate that positive emotions such as interest, joy and surprise are usually expressed through exclamations, interjections, explematory sentences that have the 'I' pronoun, elliptical sentences and appelative words as their parts. Negative emotions such as anger, sadness, disdain, fear, shame or guilt are most frequently expressed by emotionally coloured words, 'God' exclamation, elliptical sentences and intonation. 
Ivanova S.V. - Stylistic Use of Verbal Predicate Tenses in the Yakut Language pp. 11-19


Abstract: The subject of the research is the stylistic peculiarities of verbal predicate tenses in the Yakut language. Today it is an important task to study stylistics issues in order to develop and codify stylistic standards of modern Yakut and achieve application targets under the current conditions. Considering that the syntax of the Yakut language has a remarkably rich and varied set of stylistic tools, the analysis of verbal predicate tenses allows to reveal the main stylistic possibilities of a sentence. Based on the vast actual material, the author of the article describes stylistic features and expressive possibilities of verbal predicate. As a result of the analysis, the author provides a lexical semantic and grammatical semantic description of verbal predicate tenses specific for the conversational, creative writing and journalistic styles. Moreover, the author also defines quantitative indicators of verbal predicates in the conversational, literary and journalistic speech. Semantic stylistic and stylistic analysis involves verbal predicates in the tenses usually used by Yakuts in their conversational, literary and journalistic speech. Rich synonymy of verbal predicate tenses demonstrates a high level of the development and great possibilities of the Yakut syntax. The author underlines that it is important for the Yakuts to apply verbal tenses of different stylistic and expressive meaning in order to preserve or restore the tradition of their native language and to enrich the vocabulary of the younger generation. 
Zavialova I. - The Analysis of the Structural Features of Foreign Ergonyms (the Case Study of Public Catering Enterprises Names in Vienna and Berlin) pp. 20-25


Abstract: The existence of these or those ergonyms in the language space of the city is determined by extralinguistic factors. The object of the research is the foreign ergonyms, in particular, names of cafes and restaurants in the language space of an Austrian city Vienna and German city Berlin. The author of the article examines peculiar functions of foreign ergonyms, analyzes and classifies them depending on their source language, number of elements comprising ergonyms, and defines particular word-formation types of foreign ergonyms. To select the research material, the author has applied the random sampling method. The main research method used by the author is the method of scientific description that implies such techniques as direct observation, systematization, classification and interpretation. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the nature of functions of foreign ergonyms in the language space of Vienna and Berlin depends on the structure and means of ergonym nomination. The research results demonstrate that the most commonly used foreign ergonyms are usually of English origin. These are multi-component non-transliterated names created using morphological and syntactical word-formation. 
Question at hand
Bondarenko M. - The War Theme in Robert Graves' Creative Writing pp. 26-33


Abstract: In this article Bondarenko traces back the development of the war theme in the creative writing of an English author Robert Graves. Graves' interest in war was caused by two factors. Firstly, the writer had his own experience as a military officer. Secondly, his interest related to the mythological concept of the White Goddess when the poet died and then resurrected as the lover of the Goddess (Muse). Bondarenko focuses on Graves' description of his 'trench' years. The research involves quite a vast number of texts which is explained by the domination role of the war theme in the English writer's lyrics and prose. Taking into account specific features of the war theme and personal experience of Graves, Bondarenko has selected such research methods as biographical and hermeneutical analysis. The methodological basis of the research included researches of D. Carter, J. Jacobson, D. Hoffman, etc. The main conclusions of the research is that the development of the war theme in Graves' creative writing was based on the writer's reflection of his personal military experience. The writer depicted the war as a large-scale catastrophe and absolutely unreasonable sacrifice. The war theme is not only an individual theme in his writing. It also relates to Graves' conflict with the religion. Many aspects of his war theme are typical for the literature of the 'lost generation'. 
World literature
Selezneva E.V. - In the Search for the Lost Gracefulness: Heinrich von Kleist and Thomas Mann pp. 34-42


Abstract: The article discusses the influence of aesthetical ideas and figurative language of Heinrich von Kleist's essay 'On the Marionette Theatre' on the early writings of Thomas Mann. The denial of reflection and gracefulness described in Kleist's essay is similar to the problem of the cognition and creativity relation that had been brought by Thomas Mann throughout his life. Published in 1810, the essay 'On the Marionette Theatre' was left unnoticed but in the early XXth century it experienced the burst of interest. The images, ideas and metaphysics of the essay were reflected in Rainer Rilker's, Hugo von Hofmannsthal's, Gerhart Hauptmann's and Thomas Mann's writings. By using the comparison method, the author of the article demonstrates that a series of motifs and images repeated in the early short stories by Thomas Mann (clumsiness of some heroes and careless gracefulness of others, vain and funny attempts to imitate the ideal image) are a bright example of the main metaphysical idea of Kleist's essay about the destructive influence of the mind on gracefulness. This allows to conclude that Thomas Mann's opposing concepts of spirit and cognition on the one side and true life on the other side are similar to the concepts of reflection and gracefulness described by Kleist. Kleist's inspiring conclusion about the need to 'again taste the tree of knowledge' is similar to the aspiration of Mann's heroes, artists, to again become 'naive and sentimental'. 
Kriuchkova E.S. - The Russian and Ukrainian Language Reforms of the 1917 - 1921. Causes and Consequences pp. 43-48


Abstract: In her research Kryuchkova analyzes the spelling reforms that took place in Russia and Ukraine in 1917 and 1921. The subject of the research is the differences and similarities in the language reforms of the early XXth century. An important feature of that period is that a great variety of sources including political processes influenced the development of the new language standard. Thus, the Russian spelling reform was influenced by the policy of the Russian Empire and then RSFSR while Ukrainian spelling reform was influenced by the policy of the Ukrainian People's Republic. The main research method used by the author is the comparison, the author has also applied the methods of idealisation, analysis and synthesis. Earlier researches have never compared Russian and Ukrainian language reforms of 1917 and 1921. The main conclusion of the research is that despite the fact that they both happened in the same period of time, these two reforms did not coincide. The author has also discovered that even though both reforms are usually thought to be conducted by the communist party, they were initially developed by the ideological opponents of communists.
Gramma D.V., Filistova N.Y. - Conceptual Basis of Sports Discourse (the Case Study of English Newspaper Articles) pp. 49-60


Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of sports discourse. Verbalization of various concepts on the example of English-language newspaper articles is considered as a subject of the study. The aim of the research is to study the conceptual basis of sports discourse. In the process of analyzing the conceptual basis of sports discourse, the features of the conceptual sphere of sports discourse were considered; the concepts of sports discourse were highlighted; lexical units representing the conceptual sphere of sports discourse were selected and analyzed. The research is formed by such research methods as definitional analysis, elements of conceptual analysis, as well as a statistical method. The subconcepts of the concept “Sport” were described in the article. Having considered the verbal implementation of subconcepts in sports discourse, the authors found out which subconcepts are dominant.
Literary criticism
Chernov A.V. - Francisco Sa de Miranda: Two Traditions of Perception pp. 61-68


Abstract: The subject of the research is the two traditions of perceiving the image and style of the Portugese Renaisance poet Francisco Sa de Miranda that offered two approaches to historical interpretation of the poet's legacy. The first tradition was developed by the younger contemporaries of Sa de Miranda and the second was offered by the researchers of the XIXth, XXth and XXIst centuries. The author of the article analyzes the points where the aforesaid two traditions contradict. The main goal of the article is to provide a detailed description and analysis of the above mentioned contradictions. The key method used by the author of the article is the comparitive analysis of texts. As a result of the comparison of two approaches to perceiving the image and style of Francisco Sa de Miranda, the author has discovered principal differences of these two traditions. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the comparative analysis of texts that describe characteristics of the image and style of Sa de Miranda may be also referred to the works of the younger contemporaries of the poet and thus covers texts dated the XVIth, XIXth, XXth and XXIst centries. The author focuses on different interpretations of the poet's style according to two traditions, Renaissance tradition (the XVIth century) and modern tradition (XIX, XX and XXI). This is the first research in the academic literature that states and provides a detailed analysis of the ideological differences of aforesaid traditions which comprises the novelty of the research. The conclusions made by the author may be of great use for further researches on Portuguese Renaissance literature. 
Griber Y.A., Jonauskaite D., Mohr C. - The Colors of Emotions: Experimental Research of Associative Relations in Modern Russian pp. 69-86


Abstract: The subject of the research is the analysis of associative relations between twenty emotional concepts (interest, amusement, pride, joy, pleasure, satisfaction, admiration, love, relief, compassion, sadness, guilt, sorrow, shame, disappointment, fear, disdain, disgust, hatred and anger) and twelve basic names of colurs in the Russian language (red, orange, yellow, green, light blue, blue, violet, brown, pink, grey, black and white). The research is aimed at 1) discovering chromatic and achromatic meanings of emotions; 2)discovering syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations between color associations; 3) conduction of a linguocultural expertise of national specifics of discovered associative relations. The research is based on the on-line experiment that involved 103 Russian speakers (63 females and 40 males, the average age of resondents is 36.5, min age is 19 and max age is 78, sd=16.7). To analyze emotions, the researcher has applied the Geneva Emotion Wheel Inventory (GEW version 3.0) as a tool for self-evaluation of emotions and attitudes to a particular event. The results of the experiment have proved that Russian culture correlates the lightness of color to the valency of emotions. Positive emotions are associated with light colors and negative emotions are associated with darker colors. The closest emotional relations were demonstrated by yellow and orange, light blue and green, red and pink, black and grey. These pairs are often found as components of color images, too. 
Question at hand
Dzyuba A.A. - Cyberspace of B. Winters' Intertextual Novel 'Android Karenina' pp. 87-95


Abstract: The subject of the research is the mashup artistic space in terms of intertextuality as its feature. The author of the article focuses on the dialogical nature of a pretext and secondary text that are reflected in modern transformation of genres. The process of mutual influence gradually reinforces the signs of a new genre form which causes the transformation of the genre structure. Literary assimilation, in its turn, creates intertextual genres, mashup being one of them. This genre can be viewed as a new hybrid literary trend. The present research is devoted to the genre peculiarities of the mashup and specific features of intertextual relations therein. The linguistic research is based on the intertextual analysis, method of contextual interpretative analysis as well as descriptive mthod that involves a combination of tools such as observation, comparison and theoretical summary of the results. As a result of the research, the author discovers that the basic category for the development of the mahsup space in B. Winters' work is intertextuality. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the basic material for the implementation of intertextual relations is the lexical calque of a pretext with the elements of new narrative twists in the horror genre. The research is based on the analysis of B. Winters' novel 'Android Karenina'. 
Khandarkhaeva I., Zyryanova E. - The 'Sign of the Emergence of a New Situation' and its Implementation in Description and Narrative Type Texts pp. 96-101


Abstract: The object of the research is the description type texts and narrative type texts of modern Russian authors. The object of the research is the signs of a 'new situation', 'change', 'sequential relationship', 'emergence of a new situaton' in perfect verbs used in texts of description and narrative types. The authors of the article analyze the principles that define such sign as the emergence of a new situation in description and narrative type texts. To discover its peculiarities, the sign of the emergence of a new situation in description type texts is analyzed depending on the following genre types: description of one's appearance or portrait, landscape, interior design or personality description. One of the main methods used by the authors is the semantic contextual analysis that is based on the analysis of semantic peculiarities of verb predicates in terms of description and narration as well as the method of linguistic observation and description of language factors. Functional semantic types of speech are still of great interest to researchers, thus the novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the authors describe peculiarities of semantic signs of verbal predicates at the textual level. In particular, the use of perfect verbs in description type texts and narrative type texts are still an understudied topic and the textual approach provides a better insight into their text-formation role. Depending on the logical conceptual attribution of a text, the authors define the role of semantic signs of perfect verbs. Based on the overall logical description method (synchronologeme), semantics of predicates, the change-in-state concept and change-in-situation concept and the emergence of a new situation, description type texts use a statal type perfect verbs and narration type texts use actional perfect verbs. 
Literary criticism
Lisitsin M. - The Phenomenon of Data Journalism in Foreign Mass Media (the Case Study of Works by Data Journalism Awards Winners) pp. 102-115


Abstract: The subject of the research is the foreign data journalism projects and the analysis of works by Data Journalism Awards winners of 2014 - 2017. Despite the fact that the term 'data journalism' was first mentioned only in 2010, similar researches had been made long before it. The aim of this article is do define the main aspects of the phenomenon from the point of view of foreign mass media. The author focuses on stylistic features of the phenomenon and technical peculiarities of the content generation process. By using the content analysis and induction as the research methods, the author has come to the conclusion that data journalism requires two conditions, the data base as the source of contents and data visualisation as the means of 'telling the story'. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author defines general features and peculiarities of projects which enables an comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon of data journalism that still has a rather uncertain status in Russia. The author also describes the key differences between the terms 'infographics', 'investigative journalism' and 'data journalism'. 
Akimova O. - Generic Trademarks with the Semantic Role of the AGENT in the English Blog Discourse Event Schemas pp. 116-122


Abstract: The subject of the research is the generic trademarks that play the semantic role of the AGENT in the English blog discourse event schemas. The aim of the research is to reveal cognitive discursive peculiarities of generic pragmonyms that play the semantic role of the AGENT in representative event schemas of the English blog discourse based on the integrated linguistic and cognitive analysis. The rationale of the research is caused by the role of generic pragmonyms as one of the most productive sources of enriching the vocabulary as well as the units that influence the linguistic consciousness and create new cognitive structures. To achieve the research targets, the researcher has applied a combination of such research methods as discursive and contextual analysis and conceptual modelling. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that for the first time in the academic literature the researcher carries out an integral analysis of peculiar use of English generic pragmonyms playing the role of the AGENT in the event schemes represented by the means of the English blog discourse. The author comes to the conclusion that apart from deonimized pragmonyms that designate living creatures capable of perception and cognition, some generic pragmonyms play the role of the AGENT based on the metaphoric or metonymic transfer of meaning. 
Question at hand
Samosyuk N.L. - Cinematographic Narration Elements Used to Create the Collective Hero Image in the Novel 'Troublemaker' from L. Soloviev's Book 'The Tale of Hodja Nasreddin' pp. 123-132


Abstract: The subject of this research is the textual structure of L. Soloviev's novel 'Troublemaker'. The aim of the research is to demonstrate means of the development of the 'ornament masse' phenomenon in the narration structure of a literary text, this phenomenon representing the aesthetics of collective forms in the performance art of the social realism era. The author of the article focuses on the analysis of linguistic means used in the episodes when the collective hero image is created having both positive and negative connotations. Moreover, the researcher analyzes the role of the perspective as the means that organizes the modelled spacial construct in a literary work. Specific features of a conceptually created world prove that the keynote is used as a style-formation element. By applying the method of conceptual analysis, the author of the article proves the main provisions of Jon Krakauer's aesthetics who viewed the collective image of a hero as the means of realisation of ideological views and ideas. Comparing the conclusions made by the German researcher and results of this research, the author proves the extension of the term 'ornament prose' and involvement of cinematographic narration texts into such analysis. The author's contribution to the topic is the linguistic analysis that describes the mechanism of adaptation of visual effects to a text. The novelty of the research is caused by the author's analysis of perceptive mechanisms typical for the visual art forms in a literary text. 
Den'gina A.V. - Factors of the Vagueness of the Inner Form of English and French Phraseological Units with the Components of Religious Terms pp. 133-138


Abstract: As a link between the expression plane and content plane of a phraseological unit, the inner form defines the degree of expresiveness and figurativeness of the unit as well as peculiarities of its contextual use and plays an important role in the process of defining the interlingual correspondences. In this regard, analysis of the issues that relate to the aforesaidelement of the semantic structure of phraseological units are of great interest to researchers. The subject of this research is the phenomenon of the vagueness of the inner form of English and French phraseological units with the components of religious terms, i.e. religious vocabulary of different specialization. The author of the article compares the degree of expresiveness and specifics of a number of linguistic and exralinguistic factors that cause the phenomenon of the vagueness. These include rethinking, change of the component structure as well as the loss of certain realities or abandon of religious traditions or historical facts. The main research method used by the author is the method of scientific description that implied such techniques as interpretation, systematization, classification and statistical methods. The research results demonstrate that the most essential factor that causes the phenomenon of the vagueness, i.e. the loss of the derivation link between the literal and redefined meaning of phraseological units consisting of religious terms is the expressive rethinking that quite often results from the distorted identification of the components. The highest degree of isomorphism between compared languages in different aspects of expressive rethinking is the phenomenon of allomorphism. This phenomenon has been discovered by the author as a result of analyzing extralinguistic factors of the vagueness of the inner form. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that English and French phraseological units with the religious component have never before been the topic of comparative research in terms of the vagueness of their inner form. 
Markasova O.A. - Remark Transformation in Drama and Screenplay (the Case Study of Evgeny Schwartz' Works) pp. 139-148


Abstract: The object of this research is Evgeny Schwartz' plays 'The Novel About Young Mates' and 'The Ordinary Miracle' and his screenplay 'Don Quixote'. The subject of the research is the main structural and semantic means used to create remarks in drama and screenplay. The author of the article examines such aspects of the topic as the quantitative correlation of remarks, functions of inter-replica remarks and pacelled constructs, peculiarities of the composition structure and semantic organisation of remarks in Schwartz' works. The author of the article focuses on the analysis of the remark tranformation mechanisms in different types of texts. The research has involved such methods as the analysis of the material considering the communicative, semantic and functional orientations of syntax. The research covers the areas of philological and art historical intrepretation of texts. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author defines the frequency of the use of remark lexical contents in drama and screenplay. The main conclusions of the research are the following: in drama and screenplay remark and replica have relations based on conplementarity, interdependence and counteraction and semantic contents of remarks are concentrated within the limits of the transfer of what is seen or heard. 
Literary criticism
Folimonov S.S. - Folklore Beginnings in Poetics of Novel by V. F. Tendryakov «Pure Waters of Kitezh» pp. 149-158


Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of the folklore foundations of poetics of novel by V. F. Tendryakov «Pure waters of Kitezh». The subject of research interest is the identification of features of the functioning of the genre of oral and unsophisticated prose in artistic environment.The appeal of the well-known Russian prose writer to the socially-utopian legend about the wanted city is due to the need of searching for a kind of symbolic form, «Aesop language», without which it is impossible to imagine a true representation of Soviet reality in the 1970-s–1980-s. However, the urgent need for such an instrument in conditions of total censorship opened up great opportunities for the writer to solve artistic problem, connected with the formation of a unique author’s style. The methodology of the research is based on ideas put forward in the works of P. S. Vykhodtsev, A. A. Gorelov, D. N. Medrish, I. A. Ossowiecki, J. A. Trykova, and others and is a complex analysis of folklore-literary interactions at all levels of the literary text. The conducted research allows to assert, that the genre specificity of the folk utopia enabled the author to freely interpret the legend, using it as a semantic core, around which precedent texts from the world of oral poetry and prose are accumulated. The model of creative interaction of the borrowed material, chosen by the writer, was reflected in all levels of the story, defining the features of the composition structure, the methods of creating character images, the rhythm of the narrative. In addition, a detailed study of the folklorism of this work lays the methodological prerequisites for a deeper reading of the Tendryakov literary heritage as a whole.
Zhitenev A. - On the Literariness in the Theory of Russian Formalism: Viktor Shklovsky about the Writers of the XVIIIth Century pp. 159-167


Abstract: The theory of Russian formalism views literariness as a set of features that distinguish a literary text from all other texts and has always been the topic of acute discussion. Viktor Shklovsky's researches of the 1920s-1930s were focused on literariness as a result of his interest in the marginal forms of the literary process in the XVIIIth century as well as the phenomenon of mass literature. Noteworthy that his ideas closely related to the realities of that period and involved discussions about the 'social order' and 'literary life', thus presenting the writer's views on the creative writing, status of a writer and creative goals. The methodology of the research combines various methods such as comparative history, hermeneutical and phenomenological approaches as well as individual provisions of the 'history of terms' concept. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the author's attempt to view Viktor Shkolvsky's works on the literature of the XVIIIth century and such authors as M. Koramov, V. Levshin and M. Chulkov as a specific form of self-reflection aimed at overcoming the author's creative crisis and creating opportunities for using the methodology of the Russian formalism in the analysis of the literary life of different eras. 
Bakula V.B. - The Narrative and Compositional Structure of N. Bolshakova's Novel 'Alkhalalalai' pp. 168-175


Abstract: The research is devoted to the novel written by a Sami writer N. Bolshakova 'Alkhalalalai'. The aim of the research is to define peculiarities of the narrative and compositional structure of the novel. This novel is the first one in the literature of Russian Sami created in the period of the origin of their written language (the last third of the XXth century). Eastern Sami literature relates to the literature of Finno-Ugric literature and is one of the earliest and least studied types thereof. This is what causes the rationale of this research. The main research methods used by the author included structural descriptive and formal methods as the best methods to analyze the narrative and compositional structure of a text. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that this is the first research to analyze the plot and narrative structure of a novel. The research results demonstrate such peculiarities of the narrative and compositional structure of a novel as the lyrical plot, expressive introductory events, free narration, and multi-functionalitiy of the landscape. The main expressive means used by the writer to convey her message is the narrative parallelism technique and a great number of extra-plot elements (myths, legends, lyrical digressions) and delayed exposition. The novel has bright ethnic folklore features. The writer enriches her novel with ethnographical material and gives an insight into the culture of Sami and Itelmes. The peculiarity of the narrative and compositional structure of the novel is revealed through the features of the author's singular style and her picture of the world. 
Arstanova V. - The Motif of the Love Between Close Relatives in Mikhail Lermontov's Early Writings pp. 176-184


Abstract: The subject of the research is the motif of the love between close relatives in the early period of Mikhail Lermontov's creative writing (since 1829 till 1834). This motif can be found in the following works: a newly found novel thought to be written by Lermontov, his Eugene, The Spanish, Menschen und Leidenschaften and incomplete novel Vadim. The motif of the love between close relatives is one of the main motifs in the early writings of Lermontov and has roots not only in the romantic tradition but also the biography of the writer himself. In her article Arstanova compares the motif of the love between close relations in Lermontov's early writings to French and English literature (François-René de Chateaubriand and George Gordon Byron). She also draws the parallel to the development of the motif in the XXth century. The main result of the research is the author's statement that the above mentioned motif was caused by the influence of the literary tradition and biographical prerequisites. The researcher also describes how the motif developed and faded in Lermontov's creative writing. Lermontov did not raise that motif in his works created after 1834 because it was no more important for him. 
Lykova O. - The Analysis of Gender-Specific Peculiarities of Insincerity pp. 185-191


Abstract: The subject of the study is gender characteristics of insincere statements and behavior. The experimental material includes 100 video fragments in Russian and 100 video fragments in American English. The study of this material included perceptual-auditory and perceptual-visual types of analysis, which were conducted with the involvement of groups of test-auditors. The results of perceptual-auditory and perceptual-visual types of analysis revealed some gender differences in insincere statements and behavior. However, most of the parameter values noted by the subjects when working with the material are in the zone of average values, which makes the study of these parameters especially difficult and indicates the relevance of this problem. Processing such a data set (915,600 cells) was carried out for the first time, but it did not reveal major gender differences in the speech and behavior of communicants, which indicates the need for further study of this problem.
Egizaryan P.E. - Portuguese Future in Portuguese Grammatical Essays of the XIXth - XXth Centuries pp. 192-196


Abstract: The object of the research is interpretation of the grammar of the future tense in the Portuguese language in grammatical essays of the XIX-XXth centuries. Three essays were written in the genre of neogrammatism before 1910 and three were created in the genre of structuralism after 1970. The subject of the research is the prospect of the views on overall linguistic issues of the tense category (three-part structure and egocentricism of the temporal indicator, close connection between expression of the future tense and modality) as well as topical issues of the Portuguese language (expression of modality meanings by certain temporal forms and vice versa, common use of the periphrastic future and specific features of its semantics). The research was based on the contrast comparison of data from grammatical descriptions in the Portuguese language of the XIX and XX centries. The main conclusion of the research is that already in the first half of the XIXth century grammar experts viewed the future tense as a complex phenomenon and described it taking into account not only temporality but also modality and pragmatic meaning of words (even though they made at a rather basic level). Grammar experts of the second half of the XXth century investigated problems that had been already raised before but did it with more diligence. The new aspect was their detailed analysis of the future periphrase ir+Inf. 
Kiselev S.S. - The Struggle for National Identity and Multilingualism in Terms of Globalization Processes (the Case Study of France) pp. 197-206


Abstract: The subject of the research is the arguments against the Toubon law of 1994 that the authors compare to the most recent major  language policy decisions made by the government of France. The Toubon law is viewed as the geopolitical (defense of national culture) and domestic security means (ensurance of the social order). Nevertheless, discussions around this law demonstrate that it lacks a distinct policy and consensus about the areas of future development of the French language. The conservative Toubon law opposes to liberal attempts to simply French spellling in 1990 and the Fioraso law of 2013 that permitted teaching disciplines in English. The author of this article analyzes arguments of the followers and opponents of the above mentioned laws and provides a rich illustrative socio-political material that proves theoretical provisions of the research. In his research the author has applied methods of contextual and discursive analysis as well as the methods of observation, generalisation and description. As a result of the research, the author concludes that the ideological fight to defend the national culture from globalization processes and ensurance of the public order through unifying of the national language seems to be lot. Despite all the laws issued, France does not support the defence of the French language openly and admits teaching disciplines in English at Franch universities under the influence of globalization, world economy and European Union. Thus, a new vector of France's language policy is being formed. 
Tkachenko O. - The Rhetoric Polyphony of the Author's Preface in Fedor Dostoevsky's Novel The Brothers Karamazov pp. 207-214


Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of rhetoric and polyphonic textual means and their relations in Fedor Dostoevsky's preface to his novel The Brothers Karamazov. In this research Tkachenko examines rhetoric methods that give a polyphonic tone to the text as well as peculiarities of a polyphonic text and means of affecting the reader. The rationale of the research is caused by the fact that rhetoric structures are still an understudied issue in the studies of Dostoevsky's prose while the author's preface has a big rhetoric potential as a literary form. The research is caused by the fac that the novel polyphony of Dostoevsky has been viewed from the point of view of rhetoric poetics for the first time in the academic literature. Moreover, the author of the article describes different modes of polyphony and for the first time describes the chronological polyphony and polyphony of a textual space partially related to the specific features of the author's preface and important for the main plot of the novel. 
Kuleshova V.O. - The Principles of Creation of English-Russian Terminological Dictionary of Photonic Crystals Terms pp. 215-222


Abstract: In her article Kuleshova proves the need to create an English-Russian terminological dictionary in a relative new field of knowledge, the theory of photonic crystals. There is no such a dictionary today. Creation of a dictionary is an integral task on the basis of the systems approach, in this case, it is caused by the need to develop the system of terms of photonic crystals in the Russian language. The author examines the conceptual grounds of the dictionary and defines thematic and aspect-related orientation of the dictionary, its purposes and volume, criteria for selection of terms, etc. The author offers her own classification of terms and harmonizes these terms to other terminological systems. The subject of the research is the anlaysis of the principles to be observed when creating a terminological dictionary, the object of the research is the terminological system of photonic crystals. To select the research material, the author has applied the continuous sampling method as well as the method of scientific description implying systematization and interpretation. The main results of the research are the structure of the dictionary at the marco- and microlevels, rules for selection of terms and development of a terminological system of photonic crystals. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author systematizes terms in the theory of photonic crystals and harmonizes English and Russian terminological systems in this field. The dictionary is to be used by specialists in the field of photonic crystals theory as well as physics and other technical science students. 
Kutalmysh S.L. - Phoneme /i/ in Turkish and Kazakh pp. 223-233


Abstract: The present study applies to the /i/ status in Turkish and Kazakh in the field of phonology and phonetics. Turkish and Kazakh are both Turkic languages with a common origin. This study aims to explain the difference between the acoustic realization of the /i/ proto-phoneme in Turkish and Kazakh by analyzing the historical development of the phoneme and its modern acoustic characteristics in both languages. The comparison of acoustic and articulation peculiarities of [i] in Turkish and Kazakh reveals the difference in the movement of the speech organs in these languages. Different tongue movements make realizations of /i/ in the languages to sound different. Analysis of texts which is done in the framework of this study showed that this difference existed during at least 150 years. Moreover, as it is shown in the study it is typical not only for the realizations of the /i/ phoneme but also for realizations of other phonemes in Turkish and Kazakh. However, in spite of the different acoustic characteristics the /i/ phoneme is understood easily by native Turkish and Kazakh speakers. This fact is analyzed at the end of the article. The actual reason for the difference between Turkish and Kazakh languages is contained in the field of the issue that makes this articulation difference existent.
Mass literature
Krylova M.N. - Modern Literature for Teenagers: Early Adulthood pp. 234-242


Abstract: The article raises the problem of propaganda of early adulthood in the modern sentimental novel – the books about love for girls. There are three groups of novels. The first group – it's an ordinary Teenager book of good quality, raises relevant problems of formation of character, relationships with adults, peers and teachers, fight injustice, that is "disguised" a novel about love for the acquisition of a stable position in the book market. The second – high-quality Teenager book that combines actual problems with a strong line of love and thus working on early adulthood. The third (unfortunately, the most numerous) – the book of poor quality in which the main theme is love, the characters are sketchy, problems are not worked out, artistic merit are questionable. Such book teaches teenage girl willing to love, to seek relationships with boys and thus serves as an early maturing of readers
Feng M. - Peculiar Features of the Documentary Biographical Sports Literature of the XXth Century (the Book of Selected Works 'Sportsmen' From the Series 'Lives of Great People' pp. 243-250


Abstract: The literature about sports and sportsmen of the XXth century still remains an understudied issue. The author of the article demonstrates that sports essays unite the documentary writing and literary writing when an author describes the world of sports based on sports facts and biographical memories. In the XXth century researchers often referred to the synthesis of documentary and literary beginnings in works of different genres and themes, however, the nature of the documentary-literary prose is sitll difficult to be defined. The subject of this research is the synthesis of the documentary and literary in essays about sportsmen as well as the conceptual and genre peculiarities of a series of essays 'Sportsmen' from the Lives of Great People. The author has applied the following methods and approaches: biographical that implies interpretation of an essay as reflection of biographical and personal features of famous sportmen as well as problem thematic and comparative methods. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that for the first time in the academic literature the researcher views sports documentary literature in the form of essays. The main conclusions of the research are the following. The results of the analysis demonstrate that essays from the Sportsmen collection presents a synthesis of documentary and literary methods and genres. The researcher describes particular means and method used by the author to depict important sports events that played a great role for the entire country and reveal personal traits and biographies of sportsmen. Some essays combine analytical and essay-like free narration form that is based on complex association relations and figurative generalisations. These and other aspects define peculiarities of the literary manner of essay writers. 
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