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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Contents of Issue є 01/2018
Contents of Issue є 01/2018
Question at hand
Zheng L. - Particularities of Healthy Lifestyle Promotion in China's Printed Media (the Case Study of The Popular Medicine Journal) pp. 1-9


Abstract: At the age of the social and economic development of modern China, the issues of physical and mental health and healthy lifestyle values are growing especially important. The present article is devoted to the role played by Chinese general audience medical publications in promotion of health-saving technologies. In this regard, the author of the article pays special attention to the general review of the genesis and gradual development of Chinese general audience medical publications in accordance with particular sociohistorical periods. The author focuses on modern printed media that transmit today's China's health care policy. The author provides results of the analysis of typological and substantial particularities of The Popular Medicine Journal issues that have been published since 2006 till 2016. This journal is a long tradition and today has a dominant position in China's printed media. The Journal publishes articles and researches of respected representatives of modern Chinese medicine. The author emphasizes the important role and main provisions of traditional Chinese medicine, and their importance for health and well-being of a modern person. 
Merzlyakova K. - Particularities of Modality Realization in Spanish Gender Media Discourse (the Case Study of Cosmopolitan and Telva Magazines) pp. 10-16


Abstract: The subject of this research is functional and semantic particularities of expression modality in Spanish glamour magazines. The author of the article pays special attention to theoretical aspects of modality studies and various approaches to the matter because despite the growing interest in it, modality still remains one of the most multi-sided and contradictory phenomena in linguistics. The aim of this research is to define relationship between persuasion and illocutive modality in a media text. The author also analyzes the influence of utterances produced by a media discourse on gender construction. In her article Merzlyakova also presents results of popular Spanish glamour magazines analysis (Cosmopolitan and Telva) selected by using continuous sampling method. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that Merzlyakova views the persuasion function in addition to illocutive force of a produced utterance as especially important functional characteristics of media texts that can be used to analyse the position of an addressant in a media discourse and his or her relationship with the audience. Analysis of the implicit manifestation of an addressant's opinion makes it clear how media manipulates values, assessments and opinions of recipients. 
Literary criticism
Kotova A.V. - Concerning the Sources of Comparison: V. Fl. 6. 609Ц612 pp. 17-22


Abstract: Comparisons play an important role in the system of expressive means used in a poetic text. The author of the article focuses on the analysis of lexical-stylistic features of ancient epic poems written by Roman writers who based their plots on mythology. The purpose of this article is to analyze comparison as a stylistic device of the Roman epic poetry in I century of Christian era. The subject of the research is individual artistic features of comparing the main hero Yason to the Caucasus Mountain in Valerius Flaccus' poem 'Argonautica' (6. 609–612). In her research Kotova applies both general research methods and special philological methods of interpretation of ancient texts. As a result of the research, the author makes the following conclusions: comparison of man to mountain in ancient epos ascends to Hom. I1.13.754–755. In Latin epos the brightest comparison of man to mountain can be found in the passage from Aeneis (12. 697–703) that is based on verses from the Iliad and serves as a source for comparison in 'Argonautica' (6. 609–612). Using the description of Apennines, Valerius Flaccus adopted the lexical content and tertium comparationis. At the same time, the poet added the epithet 'hibernus' and reference to the previous comparison (6. 604–608) of the peak of Yason's helmet to maleficent Sirius. By doing so, the poet emphasized the fatality of Yason for Medea. Thus, Kotova analyzes how Valerius Flaccus reviewed the work of his predecessors and used comparison in his own writings. The results of the research extend our knowledge about Valerius Flaccus' writings and can be used in following researches of stylistic features of 'Argonautica'.   
Paramonova M.K. - Lexical Synonymy of Religious Lexis: Particularities and Types pp. 23-28


Abstract: The subject of the research is the synonymy of religious lexis. In the course of her research Paramonova has discovered that religious lexis typically has excessive synonymy that creates more means of describing the same phenomenon. The main feature of synonymy of religious lexis is the relationship of absolute synonymy. The author describes the sources of absolute synonymy (word-formative processes, foreign vocabulary, words with different inner form, etc.) as well as particular features of synonymic pairs and rows (depending on the scope of application, styles and expressivity). The research material involved about 150 synonymic pairs and rows selected from the edition 'God, Religion' of the Russian Topical Vocabulary, analyzed and classified. Quite frequently religious lexis has been studied by researchers as part of the linguistic world-image, Orthodox discourse and vocabulary reflection, however, there are very few researches of this systemic linguistic phenomenon. Successive analysis of synonymic relations in religious lexis allows to describe features and patterns that have never been described before. 
Eternal symbols
Krinitsyn A.B., Galysheva M.P. - Venetian Text in Russian Poetry of the 19th - 20th Centuries pp. 29-48


Abstract: The subject of the research is the image of Venice in Russian poetic texts of the 19th - 20th centuries. The aim of the article is to outline the image of Venice as it is presented in the poetry of the Silver Age, by analyzing the brightest examples of so called 'Venetian' poetry. The authors viewed that poetry as part of the literary tradition and traced back how the perception of the city had been changing over the 19th - 20th centuries, at the same time, they aso analyze the texts they've selected in terms of the writers' ideology using texts by the same authors to clarify the author's message. The authors analyze 'Venetian' texts by Alexander Blok, Nikolay Gumilev, Sergey Gorodetsky and Osip Mandelstam. The author of the article applies the structural analytical method to analyze motifs of 'Venetian' texts and comparative historical method to analyze tranformation of motifs at the diachronic level. The results of the research demonstrate the following: even though poets of the 20th century had very different world views and aesthetic concepts, their images of Venice had a number of typical motifs: transcendence of pure beauty and increasing anxiety of a lyrical hero, tragic perception of the reality and presentiment of death (both of a hero and Venice), and combination of eternity and fragility of the city. Both symbolists and acmeists preferred the image of the night Venice depicted mostly in dark colours. Being an integral phenomenon, the image of Venice had predetermined the modus of each new poetic text that interpreted Venice in its own way while orienting at precedent texts at the same time. 
Bondarenko Y. - Quasi-Autobiographical nature of PR-Biography pp. 49-62


Abstract: PR-biography is a new speech genre that was created as a result of adaptation of a traditional biographical narration to PR-dicourse essense and purposes. The subject of this research is the main grammar, lexico-semantic and textual linguistic means that indirectly demonstrate the speech situation and discursive context in which PR-biography texts and genres are created and function. These means also indicate transformations that happen to the biographical narration model as a result of its being included in the PR-discourse. Along with observation, induction and deduction, the author of the article has also used the method of explanatory description that is based on discovering relations between linguistic facts and extra-linguistic (communicative) situation that combines communicative features of both biography and autobiography in one text. The author of the research also describes how these features are demonstrated through the first-person and third-person narrations that become stylistic means of modelling a distance between a hero and audience, particular implementation of an authorship category and means of expressive a positive attitude developed by PR-biography. The results of the research can be used to clarify existing classifications of PR-biographies as well as to develop recommendations about how to write PR-biographical texts. 
Milovanova A.I. - Creation of an Unreal Phenomenon by Phraseological Units Using the Somatic Component pp. 63-69


Abstract: Phraseological units convey their meanings through an unreal image and are of great interest to researchers because phraseological units have contradictory notions inside their structure as well as components that have a cultural importance. The author of the article analyzes means of creation of unreal phenomena by phraseological units with the somatic component. The author pays special attention to the role of somatism in the process of creation of an unreal phenomenon, phraseological activity of somatism and cultural specific features of such phraseological units in the Russian language. The author has used the classification and analogue methods which allowed to divide phraseological units into groups depending on the frequency of this or that somatism being used. The main approach to studying cultural specific features of phraseological units was the component analysis and determination of the cultural knowledge conveyed by the structure and vocabulary of phraseological units. As a result of the research, the author offers her own classification of means of creation of unreal phenomena by phraseological units using the somatic component. This allows to define the main patterns of phraseologization of these wordcombination as well as to describe somatisms that are most active in terms of phraseology and reflect cultural specific features. The results of the analysis demonstrate that cultural specific features of somatisms in the Russian language are caused by a specific attitude of a Russian to particular parts of the body. 
Balikoeva M.I. - National-Cultural Peculiarities of Farewell (the Analysis of the Ossetic and English Languages) pp. 70-76


Abstract: In her article Balikoeva analyses speech etiquette farewell formulas in the Ossetic and English languages. Cross-cultural differences, specific picture of the world of different nations and language differences affect relationships between people of different culture and efficiency of their interaction and mutual understanding. This creates the need to analyze different mechanisms of cultural perception. The author of the article analyzes and compares speech farewell formulas in two languages in order to define similarities and differences in the national speech etiquette, the latter being part of natoinal culture, behavior and communication. In the course of her research the author has used methods of semantic, structural and comparative analysis, continuous sampling method and survey using a questionnaire. The results of the comparative analysis demonstrate common and specific features of farewell formulas in these two languages. The author underlines that speech farewell formulas are a stereotype that demonstrates one's attribution to a certain language and culture and performs different functions. They are intended to preserve national culture, on the one hand, and identify one's attribution to a certian national culture, on the other hand.
Solntseva E.S. - Relevance of Elements in Multimodal Texts pp. 77-84


Abstract: The subject of the research is the multimodal elements in 100 articles of electronic edition of The New York Times of March, 2017. Solntseva examines various kinds of such elements, in particular, photo, video, hyperlink to associated articles, hyperlinks to the front-page news, subscription offer, advertising and technical links. The author focuses on frequency with which these elements can be found in electronic articles. The author also analyzes the dependence of the frequency of multimodal elements on their relevance. The author applies the method of empirical analysis (observation) and describes kinds of multimodal elements in the aforesaid edition using the method of continuous sampling as well as uses the method of classification depending on the frequency of each element in a given or other articles. The main result of the research is the author's description of 5 relevance levels of multimodal elements and discovery of the inverse relation between information relevance and frequency of references to this information in a given or other articles. This dependence can be described using the following formula: the more likely an element is to appear in an article and the more frequent similar elements are found within an article, the lower their relevance for the article is. The author also discovers the inverse dependence between the frequency of a multimodal element and relevance thereof: the more relevant information is, the more frequent this information can be found in articles and the more frequent this information is expressed in the best parts of the article. 
Ovchinnikova O. - Subculture of French Metropolises: Performance Features and Patterns of Enriching Vocabulary of Youth Argot pp. 85-90


Abstract: Today nonstandard becomes a marker of social, political and cultural changes in the life of the society. Nonstandard is typical for metropolises and their suburbs, young people being the main part of population there. Youth argot plays an important role in nonstandard as a system. Representatives of this reference group try to stay aloof from the other part of the society so they have their own subculture. At the same time, youth quickly assimilates new trends of the society. The analysis carried out by the author demonstrates that this reference group tends to a fast yet full communication of ideas as it is required by the fast pace of their life. This is why youth word creation is mostly focused on the play upon the appearance of the word. The results of analysing empirical material selected from specialized sources of uncodified speech using the continuous sampling method demonstrate that French youth do not only assimilate existent words and patterns of vocabulary enrichment in accordance with their needs and purposes but also create their own method of writing to communicate through messangers and SMS. The importance of youth vocabulary is growing as a result of extended cross-cultural communication and international contacts. Young people are open for everything new and quite vively respond to changing realities. Thus, analysis of their vocabulary allows to better understand world views and picture of the world of young people and to adapt to the environment they live in. 
Myth and mythemes
Spalek O.N. - National Stereotypes in Terms of Polish Phraseology and Modern Social Research pp. 91-99


Abstract: The subject of this research article is the analysis of Polish national auto- and heterostereotypes. Stereotypes are an essential element of the cultural code used by a group at a certain time and represent a mental picture of the world. Self-identification inevitably makes one oppose himself or herself to 'aliens', i.e. representatives of other language groups, nationalities and races. This is the reason why phraseological units often verbalize stereotypes about other nations. As stable beliefs, stereotypes are based on cultural specific features, traditions, religion, social and economic life of a certain ethnic group. In this research Spalek compares stable beliefs conveyed by phraseological units and obtained in the course of surveys of auto- and heterostereotypes in a modern Polish society. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author describes similarities and differences of national stereotypes conveyed by Polish phraseological units containing horonyms and ethnonyms and discovered as a result of recent Polish researches. As a result of this research, the author discovers that stable beliefs conveyed by phraseological units often do not conform to modern stereotypes. The latter may change over the time, lose their importance and be replaced with new ones. 
Author's Mask
Lyulina A.V. - Abductive Speech Acts in Propaganda Discourse of the Great Britain pp. 100-106


Abstract: Being the discourse with a dominating manipulative intention, propaganda discourse uses a lot of speech acts with high manipulation potential. One of the kinds of speech acts is the abductive speech act described by Lyulina as the means of representing abductive thinking of a speech producer that contributes to a fuller undrestanding of necessary perlocutionary effect. According to the classification offered by the author of the research, most frequently the Great Britain propaganda discourse uses the following abductive speech acts: abductive speech acts with an informative component containing a metaphor; abductive speech acts with an informative component containing comparison, abductive speech acts with an informative component containing a phraseological unit or other fixed expression (proverb or saying). The subject of this research is the particular functions of abductive speech acts in propaganda discourse of the Great Britain. The research is based on the author's substantiation of the recipient-centered approach and intentional analysis as the main research method. The novelty of this research is caused by the fact that the author discovers and describes a special kind of manipulative speech acts as well as carries out an analysis of particular functions performed by these speech acts in propaganda discourse of the Great Britain based on the recipient-centered approach offered by the author. As a result of her research, Lyulina makes the following conclusions: abductive speech acts are very frequently used by famous politicians (20% of the overall number of manipulative speech acts being used); in most cases abductive speech acts trigger such manipulation targets as 'availability threshold' and the most significant physical manipulation targets (emotions, instincts, feelings). 
Monograph peer reviews
Selemeneva O.A. - About the Verbalization of a Non-Natural Reality. Review of the Book by Shlyakhov V. I., Saakyan L. N. The Text in the Communicative Space. M.: LENAND, 2017. pp. 107-110


Abstract: The reviewed work is the monograph of the teachers of Pushkin State Russian language Institute V. I. Shlyakhov, Professor of the department of the theory and practice of the teaching Russian as a foreign language, and L. N. Saakyan, associate Professor of the department the General and Russian linguistics. In the book the authors describe categories of text in the semantic-structural and cognitive-communicative aspects. This approach allows to study the indissoluble unity of the surface structure of the text and its main categories and the deep structures. The monograph consists of three parts. In the first chapter «The Main categories of the text» analyzes the communicative space as a unique en-vironment, which fully manifested the meaning of the words and emo-tionally-estimated relation of man to inform. It examines the traditional text category (coherence (cohesion), temporality, modality and others) in the light of the cognitive-communicative approach. In the second chapter «The Phenomenon of the scenarist in oral and written texts» discusses modern linguistic doctrine of the text, in particular the theory of the scripts and frames, the theory of the impact of the texts on consciousness and human activity. The authors use the theory of the scripts and frames in the analysis of different types of speech activity (including such com-plex as the communication in the mode of confrontation, of domination, collaboration) and describe the stage of interpretation of scenarios of verbal interaction. The third chapter is «The Category of indirection in the texts (indirect ways of conveying thoughts and emotions in the text)» is dedicated to categories of indirection as the main features of indirect, complicated meaningful communication. The authors describe such indi-rect means of information transfer, as metaphors, irony, euphemisms, al-lusions, omissions, etc. The paper discusses a number of research techniques that can be used to identify in the texts meanings, concentrated in the deep structures of metaphors, parables, euphemisms, idioms, and allusions. Special attention is paid to explanatory techniques that reveal the deep structure of the text. The advantage of the book is the abundance of the examples of art (prose and poetry) texts by national and foreign authors with comments. The monograph has a theoretical and application nature. The authors’ material has direct access to the practice of the teaching Russian as a foreign language. 
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