Электронный журнал Litera - №4 за 2017 г. - Содержание - список статей. ISSN: 2409-8698 - Издательство NotaBene
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Contents of Issue № 04/2017
Contents of Issue № 04/2017
Literary criticism
Tetik K. - Valery Bryusov and Urban "Texts" in Russian Literature ("Moscow" and "Petersburg" Texts) pp. 1-11


Abstract: The article deals with urban ("Moscow" and "St. Petersburg") texts in the poetry of Valery Bryusov. A lot of researches of literary critics are dedicated to this issue. In this article the image of the city is associated with two capitals Moscow and St Petersburg. The object of the research is the corpus of texts that fully represent the image of the two capitals. The poet describes these cities from the point of view of their historical and metaphysical reality. When appealing to the image of St. Petersburg, the symbolist Bryusov pays much attention to the architecture of the city. This fact raises a question about the method of ecphrasis in poetics. The methodology of this research involves the comparative analysis of Moscow and Petersburg poems by Bryusov as well as historical-functional and historical-genetic analysis methods. According to the author of the article, urban poems by Bryusov present Moscow and Petersburg texts quite fully. However, there are several very important differences between representations of these cities. For example, the image of Moscow is included in the metahistorical context but the poet keeps addressing to his contemporary epoch. Tehre are also old Moscow, the city of riot and Napoleon's war, and Soviet Moscow that is still to be understood poetically by the symbolist. The image of Petersburg (sometimes called Petrograd) is given in a very exclusive perspective and closely related to Peter the Great, an important figure for the poet. Poems that present the image of Petersburg are full of references to the city's architecture and monuments which allows to talk about the use of the ecphrasis method. However, both cities are highly spoken of by the poet both from the historical and metaphysical point of view which proves the ontological nature of Bryusov's works. 
Matveeva A.A. - Textual Functions of Pluperfect in Terms of Precedence (the Case Study of Literary Works of the XVIth - XIXth Centuries) pp. 12-20


Abstract: The subject of the research is the textual functions of the pluperfect tense in the French language that appear from the meaning of precedence. These functions include reconstruction of the cronological order of events as well as participation in the anaphoric reference to events that have been described earlier. In her research Matveeva analyzes pluperfect semantics in comparison with other forms of the past tense. She also analyzes changes in the way the pluperfect tense had been used in the period since the XVIth till the XIXth centuries. Matveeva offers her own classification of contexts where this tense has the aforesaid functions. To analyze cases of using the pluperfect tense, the author has used the functional interpretation of the psychosystemic theory of the verbal tense. The tense is studied by the author taking into account particularities of the personal psychological time. The main conclusions of the research relate to the classification of contexts of using the pluperfect tense. While the XVIth-century texts make the anaphoric reference using the purperfect tense only if there was an additional indicatory component, the XIXth-century texts make such a reference without the indicatory component. As for the function of keeping the chronological order of events, it had stayed the same throughout the research period. 
Question at hand
Manyanina E. - 'The Lesson in the Museum' after Nikolay Gogol's 'Deal Souls' Poem as a Practical Implementation of the Genius Loci Concept pp. 21-27


Abstract: The first part of the article is devoted to the author's experience in applying the state program 'The Lesson in the Museum' after Nikolay Gogol's 'Deal Souls' at Gogol's Museum. In particular, the author analyzes the contents of the lesson, how it fits into the school curriculum and what interdisciplinary connections it has. The second part of the article is devoted to the analysis of this education project as the way to implement the concept of Genius Loci that means the need to study a particular locus (place) in the process of analyzing an artist's (genius') creative life and biography. The methodological basis of the research implies the method of interpretation and description to analyze the influence of the writer's environment on his creative process and visual-analytical method as a summary of the author's observations related to the exposition of the writer's memorial museum and interaction with visitors to a museum. The research contributes to a deeper analysis of the issue concerning the importance of the lesson 'Dead Souls. Heart-to-Heart Conversation' carried out at Gogol's Museum. According to the author, the lesson has a significant advantage compared to a regular school esson because school students interact with a particular locus, the place where Gogol lived. As the implementation of the Genius Locus concept, 'The Lesson in the Museum' reveals the connection between Gogol's personality and his memorial place (locus) as a necessary condition for a deeper and fuller analysis of Gogol's creativity. 
Manyanina E. - Mikhail Pogodin's as a Cultural-Historical Phenomenon or Nikolay Gogol's Moscow Refuge pp. 28-37


Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of a literary salon run by the professor and editor Mikhail Pogodin in the cultural and historical context. The author pays special attention to such aspect of the topic as Gogol's visits to Pogodin's salon. The writer quite often stayed at Pogodin's during his visits to Moscow. The author of the article also touches upon the cultural importance of the wing of Pogodin's Manor that is now famous as 'Pogodin's Izba'. The author analyzes how it was built and what future the architectural memorial has. In the course of the research the author has applied the following research approaches: theoretical analysis of literary and academic sources, their classification and comparative analysis. The question about Pogodin's Izba that is located in the former Pogodin's Manor is an understudied topic in Moscow Studies even though this toponym can be often found in local history studies. The present article is a contribution to the analysis of this question from the point of view of literary studies and the main provisions of the research can be used to study Gogol's biography and creative life as well as to teach the history of the Russian literature. 
Tokarev A. - Alexei Parshchikov's Elliptical Poetics pp. 38-45


Abstract: The article is devoted to the particularities of Parshchikov's poetics that prove the unique artistic method of the poet whose creative work can be regarded as the metarealistic trend and has caused a stir in the environment of underground poetry and culture in general. The object of the research is the poem 'Departure' from the series of poems 'Dirigibles'. As many researchers say, this series of poems written by Parshchikov is one of the most difficult to perceive, comment and interpret. The research methodology implies analysis of a poetical text, discovery of intertextual connections and appealing not only to the traditional theoretical base created by Mikhail Epstein's in the 80's but also to modern concepts of poetry. For example, the author of the article analyzes the concept of 'total recycling' offered by Dmitry Golynko-Folfson. The research implies comparison of particular poetic interpretations and theoretical constructs. As a result, not only many 'dark' places of a poetic text have been uncovered by also the concept of Golynko-Folfson has been clarified. The main conclusion of the research is the proof of the idea that Parshchikov creates a unique 'elliptical' version of metarealism that makes a reader to doubt the singularity of the historical time and demonstrates how 'gaps' between events and objects in the artistic world paradoxically prove their principal continuity. 
Antonova T.V. - Extralinguistic Factors and Their Influence on the Translation of Culture-Bound Items pp. 46-52


Abstract: The author of the article examines extralinguistic conditions in the translation of culture-bound items from English into Russian. They are dealt as the subject of the research. The aim of this work is to systematize and clarify extralinguistic factors. The novelty of the research is an attempt to analyze the interaction between linguistic and extra-linguistic factors in the process of the translation of culture-bound words (the evidence — from the press). To reach the goal we are to apply the comparative method of linguistic study. The author reveals the content of such factors as temporary, sustainable, regional, cross-cultural and social information. The author comes to the conclusion that the balance of the factors depends on their interaction, but their explicit expression depends on a particular speech situation. So, any newspaper text is composed so as to inform its reader about the latest events. That is why this factor determines the process of translation Thus, extra-linguistic factors should be considered from the point of view of the things discussed in a speech or piece of writing and from the point of view of the communicative situation as well. The theoretical relevance of the research relates to the translation model for culture-bound items while the practical relevance relates to proper translation of socio-cultural information.
Character in literature
Tikhonenko V., Abramova N. - Character Stands against Canons. Existential Views of Chang Yong-hak «Myth about Sangrip» pp. 53-58


Abstract: Changes in the post-war Korean society are reflected in the Korean literature. There is an interesting opportunity to study the psychological portrait of the imperfect Korean in his time in the story of Chang Yong-hak «Myth about sangrip». The evolution of the protagonist of the Inhoo, as the image contrary to the traditional values of the Korean people, where respect for mother as a "Saint" as well as indisputable moral Canon. This Canon is recognized and broken by hero. The analysis of the story clarifies that the author's position that the basis of morality not a set of traditional laws and regulations of Korean society, but on the respect and understanding of other people's feelings, having reckon others more than your own. The methodology of the research involves the comparative analysis of the novel in context of the contemporaries of the writer. The image of a contradictory character, unconventional shows in the story by writer, suggests that distinguishes Chang Young-hak from modern Korean literature of the postwar period and helped to bring the story beyond the traditions.
Kolobova K.S. - Metafiction Game in Gunter Grass' Novel 'My Century' pp. 59-65


Abstract: The subject of this research is metafiction or metafiction game in literary writing. The object of the research is the methods that actualize a metafiction game in a structure of a literary writing at all levels of a text: composition, content and theme. The author of the article views the category of metafiction in relatino to the category of fiction/fabulousness. The theory of metafiction has become the ground for a number of literary researches. Analysis of the category of metafiction allows to better understand a message and the world created by the author. The methodological basis of the research is the method of contextual interpretation as well as description including a set of observation techniques, comparison and theoretical generalisation of linguistic analysis results. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that Kolobkova analyses this literary writing in such terms for the first time in the academic literature. The researcher's special contribution to the analysis of Gunter Grass', German writer's, works from the point of view of metafiction. 
Author's view
Semilet T.A. - The Philosophy of War in the War Correspondence by George Grebenstchikoff for the Newspaper Zhizn Altaya in 1916 pp. 66-73


Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of the correspondence sent by George Grebenstchikoff to the newspaper Zhizn Altaya from the World War I frontline in 1916. The scholars who have been researching George Grebenstchikoff’s heritage have emphasized mostly his fiction while journalistic texts are yet underexplored and his reports for Zhizn Altaya are still rather archive items than challenges for scholars. The subject of the article is the philosophy of war by George Grebenstchikoff represented in the analyzed set of his correspondence. Scientific works on the essence, sense and structure of the philosophy of war shape the methodological background for this research. Scientific originality of the research is achieved both through penetration into a most underexplored side of George Grebenstchikoff’s writing, namely his war correspondence, and through revealing his attitude towards the war, his understanding of its nature and manifestations, the authors prove that in the analyzed set of correspondence the war is represented as the disaster possessing the features peculiar to a mythical creature who is destroying nature with its iron plod, barbed wire, fire spits, nickel flies and metal frogzillas. The unwritten is crucial for the philosophy of war in the correspondence. It is what the journalist regards as insignificant and not deserving to be written out. War reports by George Grebenstchikoff show no battles and attacks, nor the concept of the enemy, nor the purpose of the military actions, nor heroic words, nor descriptions of offensives or retreats, mediocre or gifted commanders, nor victories and defeats as the false values of wartime. Siberia is regarded by George Grebenstchikoff as the antithesis of the war. It is another dimension, remedy and relief, vivifier and soul purifier. Siberia smells and sounds good, is colorful and beautiful all the year round. It is the true and absolute value.
Romanova K.S. - Byzatine Motives as Moral Parables in Gustave Flaubert's and Nikolay Gumilev's Writings pp. 74-80


Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of artistic functions of geographical and mythopoetical particularities related to the image of Byzantium in Gustave Flaubert's and Nikolay Gumilev's writings. The research focuses on the city as a painting theme and aesthetic reflection. Being a city with rich and dramatic history and complicated 'cultural genealogy', Canstontinople has been attracting attention of many Russian and Western European writers. Gustave Flaubert and Nikolay Gumilev created the image of Constinople in theiw writings for various artistic purposes. In her research Romanova analyses the following literary works: Flaubert's philosophical drama 'The Temptation of Saint Anthony' and Gumilev's poem 'Consantinople' and his tragedy 'Poisoned Tunic'. The research methodology involves comparative analysis of Gumilev's and Flaubert's works as well as mythopoetical, biographical and psychological methods of analysis. Based on the research the author concludes that complexity of the image of Byzantium determines its attribution to many philosophical and aesthetical concepts. In his play Flaubert presented Byzantium where the action took place as a concentrated phenomenal world rejected by the main hero. In Gumilev's writings Byzantium is a contradictory image that presents Gumilev's thoughts on the question whether it is possible to overcome the sinful human nature. 
Borunov A.B. - Variety of Speech and Methods of Measuring It in a Text (Linguostatistical Analysis) pp. 81-86


Abstract: This article is devoted to particularities of using statistical methods in linguistic researches of natural language. The main purpose of the research is to describe the main methods of linguostatistical research that serve as criteria for speech variety in a text. The provisions of this research can be used in future research of both Russian and foreign languages to define and prove stylistic variety of speech using statistical models and formulas. The linguostatistical analysis described in this research completes traditional linguostylistic analysis. The methodology of this research involves analysis of research literature on the matter, descriptive method and destructive analysis method. The research provides brief but logically grounded formulas of speech variety that are usually called variety oefficients. In addition, the article presents the method of stylistic variety of both verbal utterance and written text as well as the method that describe results using mathematical formulas that define speech variety coefficients. 
Bochkina M.V. - The Disintegration of the Connection of Times in M. Shishkin's 'Letter Writing Guides', L. Ulitskaya 'Yakov's Stairs' and E. Vodolazkina's 'Aviator' Novels and How the Authors Overcame it pp. 87-93


Abstract: The present article is devoted to the attempt to analyze the disintegration of the connection of times and how modern authors overcame it in such novels as 'Yakov's Stairs' by L. Ulitskaya, 'Letter Writing Guides' by M. Shishkin and 'Aviator' by E. Vodolazkina. Shakespear's play The Tragical Historie of Hamlet, Prince of Denmarke is taken as the main motif of such disintegration. In this regard, Bochkina also analyzes the concept of time in the aforesaid literary works. According to the researcher, time does not structure the narration in a literary text but often becomes the matter of the writer's reflection. The research method used by Bochkina in her research is the comparison of texts and culture-historical approach. The theoretical basis of the research includes B. Uspensky's, A. Gurevich' and E. Vodolazkina's researches on philology. Thus, the researcher analyzes different interpretations of the problem in the aforesaid novels and deffines the mutual influence of the main Medieval and Post-Modernism concepts of time. The researcher underlines that even though these authors have a very different concept of time, they have a common idea about disintegration of time as they present it in their word choice and narrative structure. This idea is realized by writers through memoirs and letters written by novel characters. 
Myth and mythemes
Klimkov O. - Philosophical Concept of Religion in Vladimir Soloviev's Works pp. 94-102


Abstract: The object of this research is Vladimir Solovyev's philosophy of religion described in general terms of his philosophy. In his research Klimkov pays special attention to the concept of religious mind developed by Solovyov in his writing 'Readings about God-Like Humanity' as well as a number of other works. Klimkov analyzes the basic prerequisite for Solovyov's philosophy of religion, in particular, the idea that religious belief and religious experience need to be completed with religious mind (or religious way of thinking). Noteworthy that this kind of thinking may become part of cultural experience of both believers and atheists. Using phenomenological and historical analysis methods, the author of the article analyzes the main question whether it is possible at all to understand religious phenomena from the point of view of philosophy. The main conclusions of the reserach are the author's statement that relevations of religious experience are a continuous process in our life, the author's theory of 'religious branches' and ideas about coincidence of historical and logical orders in the process of religious insights and that it is necessary to try to avoid rationalism extremes in philosophical interpretation of religion. The author also defines three main elements, nature, God's beginning and human personality, and describes three stages of religious development. 
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