Litera
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Contents of Issue № 04/2016
Contents of Issue № 04/2016
Linguistics
Makhina L.A. - Negative Judgemental Expressions as Structure Elements and the Meaning of Conflictogenic Texts pp. 1-10

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2016.4.20464

Abstract: The subject of the research is the expressive means of pejorative evaluation and particularities of using these means in conflictogenic German texts. Conflictogenic texts are practically not studied by linguistics as a particular kind of texts that constitute the field of agonal communication. Meanwhile, particular features of such texts include their ability to maintain and escalate the conflict through persuasive influence on recipients for the purpose of changing their communicative pragmatic attitude to the third parties or changing the matter of conversation to the alient one. Such change of the attitude to the 'alien' matter is made, among other things, by creating particular contrast images for the 'ours' and 'aliens' categories. The contrast between 'ours' and 'aliens' is created through polar evaluations of the aforesaid groups: meliorative and pejorative. In her research Makhina anayzes the negative evaluation of the 'aliens' group. The given linguistic analysis is based on lexico-semantic and contextual methods of analysis using the basic German dictionaries. Due the constant growth of tension in socio-political relations, modern linguistics focuses on studying language and speech phenomena that are functionally related t conflict communication situations and confict as a source and consequence of the opposition between participants of speech communication. A lot of researches conducted by Russian and foreign experts are devoted to the linguistic research of conflict situations in the process of communication. These researches are usually devoted to various aspects of the agonal communication, i.e. communication that is based no non-cooperative or dissonance speech actions of communicators. Despite a great number of researches on the matter, none of these researches cast enough light on the origin and structure of conflictogenic texts that are still the object of researches on forensic linguistics. The results of the given research allow to define conflictogenic texts from the point of view of linguistics and describe their main structural and semantic elements. 
Suvorova N.N. - The Morphological Content of Advertising Slogans in the Field of Education pp. 11-16

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2016.4.21424

Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of text ad from the point of view of morphology of the Russian language. The author addresses to this subject because it allows to consider an extensive language material, is interseting from the point of view of the Russian language and the lack of research in this area. This author of the article describes content words, peculiarities of their use and frequency of use in advertising slogans representing educational services. The object of the research is content words in advertising slogans representing the sphere of education. The purpose of the research is to describe peculiarities and to analyze how frequent content words are used in advertising slogans of education. The practical basis of the research involves advertising slogans in the sphere of education. To achieve the goals, the author has used data processing data including mathematical and statistical methods. During the analysis of advertising material of the education sector the author has revealed that such parts of speech as nouns, adjectives and verbs are more common than others. Nouns perform their basic function (naming) and come first. Verbs bring dynamics into an advertising slogan, attracts and holds attention of a consumer while adjectives decorate an advertising message or clarify a service. They are used mostly with the same frequency. Other parts of speech such as numerals, pronouns and adverbs, are met less frequently but perform very important functions, too, in particular, they make a reference to the item being advertised, clarify a service or present an advertising feature.  
Literary criticism
Paramonova M.K. - The Genre of the Funeral Sermon in Russian Oratorical Prose of the Second Half of the XVIIIth Century pp. 17-23

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2016.4.20020

Abstract: The object of the research is the genre of the funeral sermon as one of the most ancient rhetoric genres that was popular in Russian oratorica prose of the 18th century. The funeral sermon was actively developed during Peter's time and back in those times the aforesaid genre performed not only religious but also political functions. In the second half of the century the funeral sermon acquired the moral and didactic nature. The style of the word was changed, too. Long periods and numerous quotations from the Holy Bible were replaced by a shorter text and simple understandable vocabulary. The main research method used by the author of the present article is the comparative historical method: the genre is viewed in terms of the literary, cultural and historical environment of those times. As an example of the funeral sermon the author carries out a philological analysis of the text from Ekaterina's times 'The Speech for the Funeral of the Grand Duchess Natalia Alekseevna' written by the metropolitan Platon (Levshin). Never before in the academic literature funeral sermons of the second half of the 18th century was chosen as an object of an independent research since researchers usually pay attention to funeral sermons of Peter's time. However, the second half of the 18th century was the most beneficial for the development of the genre because it was the time when funeral sermons were actively written and published, the circle of people those funeral sermons were devoted to expanded and the genre was firmly established as the genre of religious oratorical prose. 
Intertextuality
Deminova M.A. - Verbalization Intertextuality in Journalistic Discourse pp. 24-31

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2016.4.20661

Abstract: The article deals with the question of how the verbalization of intertextuality in journalistic discourse on electronic media material Lenta.ru. In modern Russian philology observed flash of interest in the study of intertextual relations. This is no accident. Scientific interest is due to public requests. Language responds to changes in the discursive behavior of society. Modern discourse is filled with fragments of other people's texts of different degrees of severity. There is a compilation of texts and understanding different cultures, nostalgic experience of the texts of the previous era. The article presents a linguistic analysis of the ways of expressing precedent phenomena in journalistic materials Russian publication Lenta.ru. The paper identified ways of verbalization of intertextuality in journalistic discourse. The publication Lenta.ru materials are widely used as an objective expert opinion for the consideration of the topic, and intertextual signs for evaluation and imaging. Most of the citations related to the verbal level, as they contain an indication of the source citation. Cognitive-verbal level also mastered editions of journalists. Most used precedent phenomena is canonized, that is used sources that specifically studied the man. They used all kinds of precedent phenomena: texts, statements, situation names. However, they are rarely analytic transformation, mainly semantic. Sometimes the transformation is not happening at all, then there is only one layer of meaning.
Poetry and the poet
Fetisova E.E. - Neoacmeist Poetry of Yuri Levitansky and Entertaining Poets pp. 32-51

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2016.4.21064

Abstract: In article traditions of acmeism and neoacmeism, transformation and art "refraction" of a romantic esthetics of neoacmeism in works of the poet of "front generation" come to light (Yu. Levitansky), and also representatives of "variety poetry" (R. Rozhdestvensky, E. Yevtushenko). Also the problem of space and time are considered, Yu. Levitansky, R. Rozhdestvensky, E. Yevtushenko's poetry is compared with an existential continuum of "The divine comedy" of Dante, "a synchronous and reminiscential chronotope" thanks to which the genre polyphony projecting each concrete work in an infinite context of interpretations and prototexts, and "a monologue on a polyphonic basis" is created. Detailed classification and a typology of genre forms of the specified authors is carried out. The romantic esthetics of neoacmeism which has arisen during art searches of "men of the sixties", building poetic миромодель, the prospect of new opening causing subsequently on the ways of cultural science, philosophy, the domestic and world literature is for the first time analyzed. In article importance for the analysis of temporary category in poetry of "the Renaissance acmeism" of the hermeneutic concept of V. Diltey according to which time is considered as special type of category of inner world having objective value for comprehension of reality in experience is noted. The undertaken analysis convincingly shows that one of the major ontologic constants participating in forming of a picture of the poetic world, and also the art direction of neoacmeism is the specific concept of art time and space. Are established, in addition to subjective time and space, internal space of time and external space of time (V. Vernadsky's terms), and also cyclic, probabilistic causality and conditional meanings, "operators" of time and space. The independent status of methodology implies that it includes the ontology modeling the world. This factor is especially important for the analysis of the poetic text in an akspekta of its mythology, art time and space as creativity of acmeists a priori ontologichno and by means of the specific mythology containing in itself a set of archetypes of different eras and centuries creates authoring miromodeliruyushchy reality. At center of comparative approach – similarity of means of expression and authoring stylistics - from literary receptions, general phrases, quotes, hints up to a community of the authoring concept of a lyrical plot, art space and time - a synchronous and reminiscential chronotope – a similar image provided in A. Akhmadullina, E. Yevtushenko, R. Rozhdestvensky's poems, "The divine comedy" of Dante, lyrical cycles of A. Akhmatova, poetry of Ars. Tarkovsky and R. Rozhdestvensky. The comparative and typological method is added by elements of both structural, and receptive and hermeneutical approaches. The comparative analysis and a method of semiotics reconstruction of the poetic text serve as a key to understanding of semantics and inner patterns of a paradigm of neoacmeism. Novelty of operation is that works of low-probed poets of front generation are exposed to all-round interpretation, is considered in the light of operation of the mechanism of cultural memory as synthesis of form and content. The ciphered reminiscences in poetic texts are connected to authoring reception of polysemanticism, the "politsitatnost" having implicit character. Images archetypes it is associated along with several quotation sources – bible, folklore, different images of domestic and foreign literature thanks to what acquire the status of several potential "prototexts" and interpretations. From the formal point of view it promotes origin of genres on a joint of two and more genre "valences". The conclusion that the neoacmeism (Russian "Renaissance") contains in the structure which center is constituted by "semantic poetics", a certain uniting mental code of the Russian culture which unites external and formally absolutely various poets within a single literary trend is drawn. In this sense it is possible to speak not about akmeistichesky tradition in modern poetry, and about continuous development of "semantic poetics" of acmeism and the neoacmeism inheriting it in creativity of a number of modern poets, that is about formation of poetic practice of acmeism for all XX century, and without basic change not only esthetic, about and semiotics prerequisites which mainly and marks change of poetic systems. Thus, in modern literary criticism constructive dialogue of two art systems – acmeism and neoacmeism – is considered in several aspects: comparative (the analysis of typological communications, reminiscences, hints), gnoseological (similarity of outlooks of poetic systems), intertextual (so, A. Akhmatova's poetry serves as "prototext" of lyrics of Yu. Levitansky, Ars. Tarkovsky, E. Yevtushenko), ontologic (the unity of the mythology creating, in turn, determined миромодель - so "the Akhmatova myth" creates immanent to itself structure of individual author's mythology of neoacmeists), and, at last, at the level of "minitext" of poetics of titles, epigraphs, dedications. Philological and philosophical hermeneutics now in total created the field of an interpretative discourse of modern poetry.
World literature
Bykova N.I. - The Problem of Worldview and Social Adaptation in the Novel by Milan Kundera "The Unbearable Lightness of Being" pp. 52-63

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2016.4.21063

Abstract: The subject of study is a novel of contemporary novelist Milan Kundera "The unbearable lightness of being". The object of research is problems raised by the writer, in particular, the problem of attitude with the characters and social adaptation. The author in detail investigates the images of the main characters, especially the composition and the main ideas of the novel, allowing to understand the issues. We study the question of the relationship of the narrator, characters and author. Special attention is given to reminiscences, among them the myth of king Oedipus, the interpretation of which is important for understanding the mindset of the characters. The main methods of this study are comparative historical and analytical. Analyzes proposed by the writer of philosophical concepts and moral and ethical. Scientific novelty of the article lies in the fact that the question of the worldview of the heroes of the novel "the Unbearable lightness of being" in relation to the image of the narrator, philosophical and ethical concepts in detail not investigated. This novel is very important for understanding of creativity of M. Kundera, because, on the one hand, it marked the most important human problems associated with the choice of life, "body and soul"; on the other hand, this work is one of the most widely read in the works of the writer, because the serious problems of a philosophical worldview revealed through human values.
Commutation
Stetsenko N.M. - Examples of Information in the News Media Text pp. 64-72

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2016.4.20334

Abstract: The research subject is the various methods of comment information in the modern news media text. The research object is news of the media texts of Russian versions of the Ukrainian Internet sites and the electronic versions of newspapers. Stetsenko has analyzed the functional and genre features of news texts of modern print media discussed in the aspects of the speech influence, categorical content of the news media text, the interaction of verbal and nonverbal series of news publications, category estimates. Particular attention is paid to methods of expressing the authors opinion about the news facts. The main method used in the work is media linguistic analysis method by which the patterns of verbal interaction and media series are discovered and described, also the functioning of the elements of all media text levels are studied. The scientific novelty of the work is caused by the fact that the author selects and describes certain techniques in the text of the news. The techniques allow the author to comment on published information (language game in the headlines of media text, text references to authoritative sources ; appeal to the preceding events, facsimiles with verbal component, signatures under the facsimiles. It is concluded that different methods of comment are used in the news media texts as a source to a recipient.
Historism
Tsvetov D.L. - The Geographic Destiny of the Besieged Leningrad Culture pp. 73-81

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2016.4.20494

Abstract: The siege of Leningrad continues to be an actual topic for interdisciplinary research in various fields. From the point of view of cultural studies the blockade of Leningrad is a unique cultural phenomenon, the appearance of which induced a number of factors and primarily to the geographical destiny of St. Petersburg, the city that emerged in spite of the seemingly unfavorable natural and cultural environments. The author aims to determine the role of the influence of geographical coordinates of Leningrad in the process of metamorphosis of its culture in the blockade time, as well as clarify cultural and historical significance of the siege of the city for the course of the great Patriotic war. The author suggests to clarify the infuence of the geographical factor on the citizens' mind and culture of Leningrad through introducing the concept of 'geographical destiny'. This is the term used by Yury Lotman in his article 'Modern Times Between the East and the West'. Georgraphical coordinates of St. Petersburg that later became the grounds for the Russian intellectual and social discourse of a new cultural concept 'Window on Europe' as it was raised by Alexander Pushkin in his poem 'Bronze Horseman', all of the sudden became the reason of its transformation into a completely different 'open' semantic concept, 'blockaded' or 'besieged' Leningrad. The narrow piece of land that used to take the Russian culture to European strategic development model through the sea became the place where the Russian culture that had European values (at all levels of culture and as an 'ideal' city for Europe itself) faced the countercultural and antihuman foces. It was the place where the main battle of the Second World War took place and it was the battle between 'barbarity' and culture. The nature of the battle considerably defined the historical and geographical factor as well. 
Memoires
Tsvetov D.L., Goncharova N.V. - The Traits of Blockaded Leningrad Inhabitants in 1941-1942 (Based on Materials of Primary Sources) pp. 82-92

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2016.4.20398

Abstract: The present research has been carried out as part of studies devoted to the culture of Leningrad during the first months of the military blockade (1941 - 1942). The authors of the article analyze materials of primary sources in order to define typical traits of inhabitants of the blockaded city created by interdependent changes  in the city culture and life style of Leningrad citizens. The subject of the research is the realities as they were perceived by blockaded people, verbalized by them and directly related to cultural metamorphoses of the wartime city. First of all, that implies cultural changes at the level of communication organisation (public utilities and social relations) and food supply. In the course of analyzing documents, the authors have used hermeneutical procedures allowing not only to explain the genesis of these traits but also to understand a person who has these traits. The practical importance of the given research is that the authors make a contribution to the development of the overall perception of Leningrad's culture during the Great Patriotic War. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the authors obtain scientific generalisations as part of historical cultural research, i.e. typical traits and personal qualities of blockaded people. These features and traits are defined as human-unknowing, human-deprived and human-thirsting. 
Mimesis
Spektor D.M. - Time and Text (Continuation of "Ways of Golem") pp. 93-107

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2016.4.19167

Abstract: The subject of the research is represented by the reference- mimesis- story relationship previously traced based on the analysis of the text of P. Ricoeur's "Time and Narrative" and continued based on the material of the 2d volume. The study develops the idea of the narration time in its difference from chronological. "Compression" and "stretch" are given in connection with the modes of narrative time, in turn, binds to the archetypal ritual structures. The study focused objective review of mimesis adopted since Aristotle as the exclusive foundation of the narrative.The research method based analysis and reconstruction of the concepts of "mimesis and scheming" in the treatment "of the past and the future." With the chronological structure of the time compared his discursive markup.The scientific novelty of the research is to develop a narrative concept of time; its structural markup compared with the referent. Reconstruction of the last allowed to outline the ways of constructing the theory of time in the form of treatment of emotional and ecstatic (compression) and reflective (stretching) and reinterpret the traditional categories of the past and the future in the light of the concept.
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