Электронный журнал Litera - №2 за 2016 год - Содержание, список статей - ISSN: 2409-8698 - Издательство NotaBene
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Contents of Issue № 02/2016
Contents of Issue № 02/2016
Literary criticism
Nilogov A.S., Varava V.V. - Russian Literature Versus Russian Philosophy (Conversation of A. Nilogov with V. Varava) pp. 1-10


Abstract: The phenomenon of the Russian classical literature is considered to be internationally recognized. However recently even in Russia it was repeatedly called into question including taking into account constantly falling interest in reading as such. Alternative views on the Russian classical literature gradually get into Russian literary criticism, thus restricting the developed representations. Modern Russian literature can hardly already apply for "the ruler of thoughts" as in the good old days. Numerous spiritual and intellectual traditions restrict it on all fronts, offering in exchange at least substantial practices. The actual Russian philosophy acts as one of them and two representatives of Russian philosophy have decided to discuss the literary topic. The following methods have been used in their conversation: analytical, hermeneutic, interview, critical, literary, synthetic, comparative, philosophical, and heuristic. According to V. Varava, modern Russian literature needs a new existential breakthrough to show efficient alternative ways out of the spiritual crisis which has covered the country. However, according to A. Nilogov, today literature as a written form of literature is technologically replaced with an electronic form that exist only on the Internet. 
Vodyasova L.P. - The Functions of Metalexemes in the Literary Text (Based on the Works of Mordovian Writers) pp. 11-19


Abstract: The subject of analysis in the article is the metalexeme as the class of words with the highest level of generalization. Research objectives include: 1) to define the class of metalexemes; 2) to describe the main features thereof; 3) to determine the functions that they perform in the literary text. According to the author, metalexemes have the following features: broad conceptual basis allowing to relate it to a wider class of denotations; absence of a definite denotative meaning and high level of abstraction generalized in the language system; indirect nominaton and, consequently, sinsemantia. The descriptive research method was used based on observations of metalexemes and their functioning in the literary texts written by Mordovian writers in Erzya. Based on the research results the author concluded that the marked words are often used by writers for shorter names of a detailed written fact, phenomenon, or a whole episode for its generalization, summarization and qualification . These words generally reflect the author's evaluation of the reported and repeat the previous part of the text or any of its component at a higher level of abstraction (anaphoric replacement) and can also be used in the exposition, thus organizing all further description or narration (cataphoric replacement).
Reznikova K.V. - The Problem of the the Epic Cultural Heritage of Krasnoyarsk Krai Indigenous Peoples pp. 20-34


Abstract: The subject of the research is the epos of indigenous ethnic groups of Krasnoyarsk Krai (eposes of the Evenks, Nenets, Dolgans, Enskies, Selkups, Chulyms, Yakuts, Kets, Nganasans) including the Evenki epic works. Based on the results of field researches conducted by students, graduate students, and researchers of the Siberian Federal University, the author of the article describes the actual condition of folklore of indigenous ethnic groups of the North and Siberia. The content analysis of the Evenki epos "Brave Sodani Bogatyr" is carried out, the most significant images and symbols typical for Evenki epic works are described. Linguoculturological methods of research were applied, the overview of epic works of Krasnoyarsk Krai indigenous ethnic groups and the content analysis of the chosen fragments of the Evenki heroic epos were carried out. The author concludes that eposes of various ethnic groups possess a similar plot structure: exposition or introduction (description of time, place, main characters); complications (misfortune, desire to travel, matchmaking); climax (fight against opponents, notably that relatives of a future wife can be such opponents); denouemenе (marriage, homecoming of the bogatyr). In addition to the plot structure, eposes also have general motifs, such as the anger of the hero changing his appearance and the hero putting charms on his arrows to gain a victory over the rival. 
Tadzhibova A.N. - The World of Metaphor in Mass Media Discourse pp. 35-44


Abstract: The subject of the research is the mass media discourse and a media metaphor as a method of impact on public consciousness. The object of the research is the web-based media in Russian and German that contain information on the events taking place in the world. Special attention is paid to the language of media discourse which is characterized by fast adaptation to the changing realities of our life, subtle analysis of the social priorities influencing consciousness of people and determining their behavior and exact reflection of these aspects in the texts. Evaluativity and capability to influence mass consciousness are important functions of media discourse. Changes of social conditions and public formations lead to the change of language and by that to change of people. In her research the author has applied the complex method of research which includes methods of the comparative description of metaphors and analysis and the method of continuous sampling of discursive fragments. The author comes to the conclusion about interrelation of lexico-semantic processes and social and political changes as it is most effective as means of reflection of changes in the society life. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author describes metaphors that are staticized in the Russian and German media discourses, and promoting, in general, the formation of ideas of election campaign in the USA and creation of the political image of candidates. Such approach to research has allowed to determine general tendencies of the development of mass media discourse in Russia and Germany.
Kulagina-Yartseva V.S. - Dora Ashton. Existentialism (Translation) pp. 45-55


Abstract: The author considers the history of the development of existentialism in America. The economic crisis of the thirtieth years developed into moral crisis of the fortieth, and "alienation of masses" under the influence of the psychology and economy of war developed into "alienation of the individual". Alienation becomes the keynote of the post-war decade. In art, the ideas broadly called existential began to prevail. Language of existentialists became part of the criticism in the late forties - early fiftieth. The big role in judgment of the artistic process was played by Sartre. During his long visit to the United States Sartre gave lectures at many American universities. In addition, Friedrich Nietzsche, with his prophetical tone and appeal to antiquity (Apollonian and Dionisian) also happened to be in tune with the feelings and creative urges of many artists belonging to New York School. The myth problem did not draw former attention of artists at the beginning of the fiftieth any more, and all traces of mythical hints disappeared from paintings. 
Myth and mythemes
Krinitsyn A.B. - The Myth of Sacrifice in Dostoevsky’s Later Novels pp. 56-70


Abstract: In his research Krinitskin analyzes mythological motives in Dostoevsky’s novels suggesting their precise definition based on folklore studies and traditions of scientific literary criticism. The specificity of personal myths determined by Dostoevsky’s and the character’s ideas in Dostoevsky’s later novels is described. The researcher describes the myth about sacrifice, the central topic in such novels of as “Crime and Punishment”, “The Idiot”, “The Demons” and “The Brothers Karamazov”. The majority of the above mentioned novels shows this myth in several variants of the plot revealing its contradictory and ambivalent nature: it turns out that both categories of characters, those preaching the ideas of theanthropism and those preaching the ideas of God as the outward projection of a human's inward nature, think about saving the world via sacrifice. The research methods used in this work include historical and cultural, hermeneutical, comparative-historical and comparative and typological analysis of mythopoetics data. The main results of the research is the determination of specifics of myths development in late novels of Fedor Dostoyevsky based on the leading modern concepts of the myth, with the final definition of the myth in Dostoyevsky's five books. The purpose of the research was also to examine the myth about sacrifice in novels "Pentateuch" in the aforesaid figve books. The researcher underlines the ambivalent nature of the philosophical meaning of sacrifice as a mythological theme which, in its turn, determine diversity of poetics and ideological and artistical system of each novel in general.
Spektor D.M. - Writing and Time. Way of Golem pp. 71-83


Abstract: The subject of the study is represented by triple ratio referentsii- mimesisa- story, traceable on the text of P. Ricoeur's "time and the story." The study proved that chronological time is closely related to the body-space reference and co-compliant activities. "Story" in opposition to it (reference) other (non-chronological) time (other-world), the "collection-itself" in the subject position. This procedure is related to the re-reading of the text, including the re-viewing the incident arising from the formation of subjectivity-and-retrospective differentiation-occurring entities. The article made an attempt this reconstruction (the qualitative) time in its projection on the structure of the narrative-the story.The method of investigation is connected with the analysis and theoretical reconstruction of the concept of "mimesis" in the treatment of "soul" and "spirit". This ratio is assumed in the base of the temporal structure of the reconstruction.The scientific novelty of the research is to develop the concept of time-the story of language, events, plot, genre typology of characters and stories. With the "treatment" of subjectivity / entity mapped "conversion" to the original, word, seen in perspective "vanishing point" as a reference point "pro-of-knowledge", and the starting point of historical intelligence (humanitarian properties).
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