Litera
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Contents of Issue 03/2015
Contents of Issue 03/2015
Literary criticism
Perevalov V.P. - History illustrated in the images of the A. S. Pushkins The Stationmaster pp. 1-61

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2015.3.17259

Abstract: This article researches the issues of history manifested in creative images. The subject of the analysis is the novel by Alexander Pushkin “The Stationmaster”, which represents a great example in this case. With thin the ever-increasing number of various interpretations of Pushkin’s work on the story of the life of Samson Vyrin, the phenomenon of time is strangely under-studied. The strange fact is that within the existing interpretations there is a predominant factor of abstract time (past-present-future) that calls for transition towards perception of specific time. This is the starting task of the observations and reasoning presented in the article. The article reconstructs precise time of events and the timespan of the story.  The “calendar-overlay” timeline correlates with the biographical data of Pushkin and his (close) acquaintances, and plays the role of a reliable compass in establishing the complicated relation between the image fabric of Pushkin’s novel and the reality that served as the source of the story. In fact, the biographical image of “The Stationmaster” is the relations between Pushkin, Karamzin, and the “young Jacobins” (Decembrists) during 1816-1826/27. The main result of the analysis of this creative work in the mirror of precise time is the discovery of paradoxical impression in the image of the main character of the hero of the story and the persona of N. M. Karamzin, who loved paradoxes. The discovery of an unknown Karamzin in the renowned novel of Pushkin enriches the possibility of a deeper understanding of the historical continuity between them within the development of Russian spiritual culture.
Interpretation
Fedorova Y. - Avicenna and Attar of Nishapur: two versions of the legend of the legend of the birds/souls on the quest for God pp. 62-90

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2015.3.17097

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the research of the stories of two Persian authors: the philosophical proverb “Tale of the Bird” by the most prominent representative of philosophy Avicenna (980-1037), and the “Conference of the Birds” by the illustrious poet and one of the leading representatives of the Persian philosophical Sufism Attar of Nishapur (1145/46-1221). A special attention is given to the comparative analysis of several key episodes of the stories by Avicenna and Attar: introduction to the proverb and the poem, the story of the quest in search of their King, as well as the description of the meeting between the birds and the King. Using a complex of methods of historical-philosophical and textological analysis, as well as the method of philosophical interpretation of literary text, the author successively examines how the similar story of the quest of the soul-bird for God is realized by the philosopher in a small proverb and a poet in a big poem-Masnavi, and determines a number of topics and concepts of Sufi theory and practice, referred to by the separate elements of the story in the proverb and the poem. The author concludes that the allegoric form elected by Attar and Avicenna to relate the theoretical ideas does not pose principle difficulties for understanding of the philosophical concept of both authors. Attar attempted to demonstrate the path of the human soul to God (Sufi method of cognition of God), while Avicenna attempted to describe his own spiritual experience and irrational method of learning the truth.
Imagination and its fruits
Lukashev A. - The story of the study of Mahmoud Shabestaris poem Gulshan-I Raz pp. 91-113

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2015.3.16478

Abstract: The subject of this research is the story of the study of one of the key landmark of the medieval Sufi literature – the poem by Mahmoud Shabestari “Gulshan-I Raz” (Rose Garden of Secrets). The author gives an in-depth examination to the little-studied page of this story – the medieval tradition of understanding of this landmark. The work also looks at how this poem is being studied and interpreted today by the Iranian, European and Russian scholars. This article attempts to provide those who study the work of Shabestari with access to the main complex of research literature. The medieval prime sources are being examined in the context of history of thought. The author’s contribution consists in the fact that the work presents the first in the European (including Russian) orientalism detailed review of the medieval tradition of commentary on a landmark. The article offer the more prominent modern works, dedicated to the Persian poet. Mahmoud Shabestari’s poem “Gulshan-I Raz” is being demonstrated as the fundamental source that gave rise to an entire tradition of literary and theoretical essays on Sufism.
Comparativism
Faritov V.T. - Nils-Nietzschean. Nietzschean motives of tale S. Lagerlof pp. 114-142

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2015.3.16871

Abstract: The subject of the present article is to study the philosophical content of the geographic tales S. Lagerlof about the journey of Nils (1906-1907). The author provides an explication of philosophical ideas of Nietzsche in the text of the Swedish writer. It focused on the problem of the will to power as a central point the teachings of Friedrich Nietzsche. The specificity manifestation of the will to power in nature and in human existence. Also, the phenomenon of Dionysian beginning, the problem of the relationship of being and becoming, and the problem of morality. The present study used the methodological principles and guidelines of comparative literature and philosophical analysis of a literary text. The main result of the study is the explication of Nietzschean tale S. Lagerlof "Amazing Adventures of Nils Holgerson with wild geese on Sweden". The author revealed the parallels of the test of a literary text with the philosophical writings and rough notes of the German philosopher. Thus disclosed heuristic potential of the conceptual development of Friedrich Nietzsche and the philosophical significance of fairy tales S. Lagerlof.
Mimesis
Spektor D.M. - Mission of the comic pp. 143-224

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2015.3.16482

Abstract: In article various aspects and forms of comic action are considered. Sources of comic ambivalence, mixture within the ancient comedy of cheerfulness and gloating are designated, comic and demonic began. Reveal including various forms of the comic: craziness, parody, satire, wit and humor. The nature of the comic is compared with the nature tragic, including in respect of their ontology. Their general sources — appeals to πάθη, and sources of their distinctions are established. The appeal to ontology allows to conclude a reference in a framework agona-oppositions of life unity and life game, concluded in transition from "reference" to "mystery", mimesis and a narrative in their ontological legitimacy and conditionality. The method of research is connected with a consecutive reduction comic to its historical bases; in its course sources and changes of a reference (competitive fight) are compared with their maintenance (evolution of the marriage unions). Internal overlapping of a reference is given to communication with overlapping of a reference and its attendant of game mimesis. Scientific novelty of research consists in establishment of mission comic, concluded in ontological pluralism, or the way of life including transitions between its childbirth. Life as exclusive and patrimonial resists to itself as the known integrity specified as concerning the game nature of transitions (between various childbirth of life), and aesthetic and art "unity" of a reference and mimesis narrative.
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