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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Litera" > Contents of Issue № 02/2014
Contents of Issue № 02/2014
Literary criticism
Rostovtseva Y.A. - Reception of Ekaterina the Second's Laws in V. Levshin's Utopia 'Newest Travel or Written in the City of Belev' pp. 1-21

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2014.2.13631

Abstract: Article is devoted to V. A. Levshin's utopia "The latest travel composed in the city of Belev" (1784). Work was published in the XIII-XVI parts of the "Interlocutor of Fans of the Russian Word" magazine. Researchers, as a rule, focused interest on its first part representing the ideal city on the Moon. The city-state has a primitive political system, in it there are no written laws. Life of lunatist is compared with legendary "a golden eyelid". Levshin's composition was considered in scientific literature, first of all, in the context of a subject of a freemasonry, motives of air travel. In the first key researches N. K. Piksanova, V. I. Sakharova, L. V. Omelko, in J. Breyllar's researches are written, T.V. Artemyeva consecrated an aeronautics subject. Laws of the utopian state were described in S. L. Baer's works and some other scientists, however a subject of separate research didn't become. Meanwhile, the end of "The latest travel" represents a panegyric of Ekaterina's Russia in which the paramount place is allocated for the wise laws "Monarchess's velikiya". It should be noted that not only reception of laws of Catherine II, but also an image of Ekaterina's Russia in Levshin's utopia I didn't become a subject of studying earlier. The author of article considers a literary utopia in an unusual context of legislative reforms of Ekaterina the Second. The basis of a scientific method is made by textual comparisons and motivny communications between Levshin's composition and group of texts of the Ekaterina's legislation.On the basis of "A big order of the empress" (1767), "The charter of deanery, or the police officer" (1782) and a number of manifestos, charters and maxims of different years attempt to reveal becomes, the laws of the ideal state which are how described on "The latest travel" correspond modern to it reality.
Poetry and the poet
Naumenko G. - "From Pindemonte" in the Passion Plot of the Kamennoostrovsky Cycle pp. 22-65

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2014.2.12287

Abstract: The poem "From Pindemonte" ("I cheap appreciate the loud rights..."), entering the Kamennoostrovsky cycle under figure VI, is considered in the present article as the poetic statement of Pushkin in the context of the cycle answering to Mickiewicz his poetic cycle "Fragment" (UstCp). The research objective consists in detection of "mitskevichsky implication" and in the literary analysis of the poem from the point of view of Pushkin's dialogue dispute with Mickiewicz on a way from slavery to Freedom in Christ. Therefore an object of research is "mitskevichsky implication" as the main key to reading of the poem. In article an attempt of interpretation of conceptual sense of the title "From the [VI] Pindemonte" in the Passionate plot of a "evangelical" cycle is made. The used method of "fixed reading" and the analysis of intertekstualny dialogue of two national poets relies on close semantic connections between the Kamennoostrovsky cycle and "Fragment". The Kamennoostrovsky cycle is the second and finishing part of "a spiritual cycle" of Pushkin in which Christ's Passions and mercy are opposed to apocalyptic Christianity with a social orientation. The title "From the [VI] Pindemonte" has character of the cryptogram. Through figure VI the poem is correlated with Passionate Saturday, in the afternoon "Christ's descents in a hell", and marks a spirit victory over the death predicted to the tsar's singers by the Polish poet prophet. To poems of "Fragment" the use of such words by Pushkin as "joker" and "taxes" is explained by Intertekstualny sendings.
World literature
Koptseva N.P. - On the Question about Means of Representation of the Ideological Space of Renaissance in Dante Alighieri's Vita Nyova pp. 66-77

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2014.2.13261

Abstract: Object of research - the work of the great master Dante Alighieri of Vita Nyova, the first work of the poet having difficult genre accessory. In the text of Vita Nyova of Dante Alighieri are combined outlook of "the medieval person" and "person Renessans". The main objective of research consisted in pointing to some concrete forms of this combination in Vita Nyova. The philosophy of Love of Dante Alighieri is built as an indissoluble combination of poetry and philosophy, as transformation of human love in immortal divine love. In the Vita Nyova center of Dante Alighieri - transformation of abstract and theological theses about immortality of soul alive and an ekstazny form of transformation of the mortal person in immortal. The main method of research - germenevtichesky procedures in relation to Vita Nyova. Identification of symbolical complexes which contain in the text of Vita Nyova. Scientific novelty of research is connected with the instruction on concrete features of a genre, images, citings, the plots stated in Vita Nyova of Dante Alighieri and pointing to transition from medieval outlook to Renessans's outlook. The concept "Renaissance" is considered not only as "Revival of the Antique cult of the sensual world", but also as "Revival of human soul", search of ways of finding by human soul of real divine immortality. The master Renessans was looked for and found the forms for new ways of revival and release of human soul in line with Christian tradition.
Hermeneutics
Perevalov V.P. - 'The Cope Worn Out' (On the Meaning of a Rarely Noticed Fragment in the Bronze Horseman and Selection of One Detail Therein) pp. 78-128

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2014.2.13985

Abstract: In this article the historico-philosophical and political and state views of A.S. Pushkin actual for modern Russia are investigated. A subject of consideration is "Bronze Horseman". Petersburg story (1833). From the moment of publication the Pushkin masterpiece caused and still causes huge number of various responses and a set of contradictory conceptual interpretations. Distinctive feature of the offered reflections consists in a combination of the main tendency in the general evolution of works of the Poet with close attention to episodes often "through passage" and not noticed details, besides various in versions of clean manuscripts. Such approach causes possibility of judgment of work in its full volume and authentic structure, but not to adjust the elite a place from it under in advance accepted as dominating idea. The method of "slow reading" and the comparative analysis allow to establish more precisely in contexts of different level concrete value of this detail and/or fragment in dialectic unity of parts and whole. Article consists of two sections. In the first two interpretations of "Bronze Horseman" are critically investigated. In the first of them the fragment interesting us appears out of reconstruction of ideological sense of the poetic story. Thereof the richness of its contents is impoverished and, in my opinion, is distorted, degree of the perfection reached in it considerably goes down, demanding completion in the subsequent Pushkin creations.On the contrary, for the second interpretation the studied fragment – the integral and organic part whole. Moreover, in it the unique information explaining clairvoyance of the hero, supernature of his madness is concluded. The microanalysis of this treatment presented in article allows to challenge it in favor of natural understanding fantastic in "Bronze Horseman".The second section of article represents chronological sequence of use of the word "cap" in Pushkin's creativity. The main tendency of the evolution observed here, in my opinion, confirms and supplements the previous conclusions about increase of natural, concrete and realistic approach in understanding by Pushkin of the historical phenomena.Generally the offered treatment opens some aspects of Pushkin outlook, is aimed at in-depth constructive discussion of views of the Poet of reality.
Linguistics
tayebianpour F., . - Means of Expressing the Modal Form of Possibility in the Persian Language pp. 129-143

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2014.2.12190

Abstract: In Russian modal opportunities value, still draws attention of the Russian linguists and researchers. This concept, undoubtedly, contacts not one language unit, and the whole statement. As existence of the statement without embodiment of its ultimate goal – communications – doesn't make sense, definition of possible means for knowledge and understanding of the statement in each language deserves special attention. The special characteristic of modal opportunities value, its communication with logical concepts of reality and unreality, its ability in representation of various language means of expression in any language, draw attention to this subject not only the Russian linguists, but also linguists of the whole world. In this article lexical and grammatical means of expression of modal value of opportunity in the Persian language are considered. This consideration is made on the basis of the dissertation work comparing these means in the Russian and Persian languages. For writing of the thesis relating to article methods of consideration of scientific sources, the comparative and comparative analysis of the Russian and Persian offers in the sphere of functional grammar were used. Novelty of this work consists in primary consideration of means of expression of the concept "opportunities" of the Persian language. In initial work this consideration took place taking into account the approaches accepted in the Russian linguistics for definition of these lexical and grammatical means. As a result we found important and common lexical and grammatical means of expression of value of opportunity in the Persian language.
Aesthetics
Chernenko V.A. - Ontological Aspects of Aesthetic Experience (or About the Four Lines Written by Rainer Maria Rilke) pp. 144-154

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8698.2014.2.13813

Abstract: Object of research are ontologic aspects which prove in esthetic experience, define and fund it. Acts as object of research - esthetic experience. The special attention is paid to philosophy of the antique thinker Heraclitus Ephesius and its explications in analytics of life of M. Heidegger. As illustrative material the author of article took four final lines of the poem of R. M. Rilke "In monastic corridors of Loretto" on the example of which attempt of phenomenological identification of ontologic bases of a source of art creation is given. The methodology of research leans on a method of philosophical phenomenology, a hermeneutics and fundamental analytics of life in its Heidegger's option. During research the author comes to conclusions that the esthetics is a science about such experience of development of reality which is based on contemplation or expression in sensually perceived form of the absolute values which aren't giving in to adequate verbal expression, but shown to the subject in experience or participation to completeness of life. Or: the esthetics is a science about harmony of the person with the Universum. It is science about primary reality to us the World (contemplation discretion). The beauty gives life undertaking strength "Da Budet!" and end purpose "It is good …". Balancing between accident and need, isolation and openness, possible and impossible, final and infinite, single and general – the beauty is a call, an appeal to overcoming of a statics. In fine the person feels accepted in whole in the unostentatious importance; exempted from own need of; in opportunity to be other; without "therefore" and "why"; comprehensive clemency when nothing is excluded (even ugly).
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