Theoretical and Applied Economics - rubric World economy and international economic relations
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World economy and international economic relations
Vladimirova A.V. - Measuring 'Asean Centrality': Network Analysis of the Asia-Pacific Region's Foreign Trade Relations pp. 1-9


Abstract: The article is devoted to the role of The Association of SouthEast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in the Asia-Pacific region (APR). In her article Vladimirova explains the political discourse term 'Asean centrality' that is used to express the idae of the regional leadership of ASEAN. The fact that the author has chosen to study this particular topic contributes to her choosing the network analysis as the main research method providing that it allows to calculate centrality ratios fo the region's states and to compare them. The author of the article analyzes drawbacks and benefits of existing network ASEAN models and offers her own calculation model. Even though her hypothesis about Asean centrality in APR's trade networks hasn't been proved, the analysis has demonstrated that ASEAN states play a highly important role in the region. In addition, the author fixes and verifies the growth trend in Vietnam's centrality which has never been mentioned in previous models. The research is based on international trade data for the period since 1996 till 2015 published by The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). 
Ozarnov R. - Gravity model of international trade among EAEU, SCO and BRICS countries pp. 14-27


Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of factors influencing the economic and financial cooperation of countries with developing market, namely EAEU, SCO and BRICS, by means of building a gravity model of trade. Special attention is given to affiliation of the countries to former USSR. The established timeframe starts with the crisis for Russia 2014 and continuous until the present. The subject of this research is the economic and financial relations emerged in the process of cooperation of EAEU, SCO and BRICS member-states with developing market. The author examines the factors affecting economic and financial cooperation of these countries, such as the size of external trade, gross domestic product per capita, trade openness index, currency appreciation rate of importing and exporting countries, distance between the countries, affiliation of the country with developing market to EAEU, SCO and BRICS. Using econometric methods, the author determines the factors impacting the cooperation of countries with developing markets within the three blocks EAEU, SCO and BRICS based on the gravity model of international trade. This defines the scientific novelty of this work. The peculiarity of this model consists in availability of lag exchange rates. Inclusion of lag in reference to the currency rate of the exporter led to exclusion of 2014 data from sampling. The acquired results should be taken into account Russias cooperation on bilateral and multilateral basis within the framework of EAEU, SCO and BRICS.
Tsvirko S.E. - System of state regulation and control over pricing in Great Britain: legislative and institutional aspect pp. 22-38


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the specificities of state regulation and control of pricing in Great Britain. The object of this research is the approaches towards adjustment of the system of state regulation and control over pricing in Great Britain, considering their impact upon the country’s economy. Examination of the systems of state regulation and control over pricing in foreign countries, particularly in Great Britain, is essential for determining the positive experience for its potential implementation in Russia. The author analyzes the legislation in Great Britain in the area of pricing; reveals the method of direct and indirect regulation of prices; describes the system of regulatory and control authorities over pricing in Great Britain. It is demonstrated that the customs regulation and taxation play a significant role in the developed countries with regards to pricing. The example of Great Britain argues that liberalization in many spheres, absence of overregulation of markets of goods and services, promotion of competition for preventing the monopoly high or monopoly low prices, is stimulating for the economy.
Khazova V.N. - Peculiarities of development of the renewable energy sources in the Russian energy market pp. 24-36


Abstract: The subject of this research is the strategies and trends of development of the sector of renewable energy sources in Russia. The goal of this work lies in the following aspects: assessment of the current situation in the sector of renewable energy in Russia and the prospects for its development; analysis of the implemented support measures of the sector and systematization of the global experience of recommendations on government support of the sector; evaluation of their role in development of the renewed energy; assessment of growth prospects of the portion of renewable energy sources in Russia’s energy sector, as well as the impact of the aid granted by the government of the Russian Federation in this regard.  The relevance is substantiated by the act that the ongoing within world energy sector transformation implies increased competition and the demand for new technologies. The advancement of technologies leads to the expansion of energy accessibility. The research methodology is structure on the review and analysis of statistical information sources of the Russian and foreign agencies and reports of the Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation on the state of renewable energy; analysis of support measures provided by the Russian government. The conclusion is made that the development of the sector of renewable energy sources in Russia lags behind many countries. The author outlines the causes of the current situation, as well as suggests the measures for overcoming the barriers in development of this sector. The article assesses the current situation of the renewable energy sector in Russia, and determines the patterns of its functionality in the world and prospects for its development in Russia.  
Krasova E.V., Bogach A.S. - Modern trends in development of Russian export of food products and agricultural raw materials pp. 49-58


Abstract: The subject of this article is the current trends in development of Russian exports of food products and agricultural raw materials, which have developed in the difficult international economic conditions for Russia. The object of this work is the Russian export of a special, strategically important commodity group – food products and agricultural raw materials. Development in export of food products and agricultural raw materials is an important direction of Russian foreign trade, along with the export of raw minerals. The main scientific and practical problem of the article is the change in dynamics and nature of exports of some commodity groups in the transition to a new level of production and export of Russian food and food raw materials. The purpose of the research is to actualize the trends in development of Russian exports of food products and agricultural raw materials. The article substantiates the urgency of the subject, examines the dynamics and share of exports of food and agricultural raw materials in the total volume of Russian exports since 2000, as well ass presents the factors of growth in export of Russian food products in 2015-2016, analyzes the dynamics and structure of the most important commodity groups such as wheat, fish and vegetable products. As reasons for the growth of food exports, the article indicates the devaluation of ruble, good crop yields, and the policy of import substitution and export stimulation.
Korneiko O.V. - Chinas experience in developing fish farming pp. 59-64


Abstract: The object of this research is the fish farming industry of China – the most successful country worldwide in this regard, demonstrating high rates of growth and rapid expansion onto the global seafood market. China raises more fish than catches in the wild, covering 80% of the domestic demand for fish products. The subject of this research is the key factors of success of China’s fish farming activities, mechanisms and methods of the state aid, emerging bases of the efficient innovative and technological development of the sector. Special attention is given to reconsideration of China’s experience due to the fact some circumstances were not previously taken into account. The work examines that status and factors of development of fisheries and fish farming in China based on the data provided by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, annual statistical digests of China, and other sources.
Gutenev M.Y. - Prospects for development of the NSR as a socioeconomic resource for development of the Russian state and its security in the XXI century pp. 61-67


Abstract: The article is devoted to assessing the development prospects of the Northern sea route. The research examines the main concerns of international investors and partners about the commercial viability of the NSR. The author proposes deliberate and systematic implementation of strategic objectives for the Arctic development, to create a comprehensive plan for the implementation of measures aimed at forecasts for the development of the NSR. Despite the considerable international interest in the Russian Arctic from potential foreign partners and investors, there are also great concerns about the commercial viability of the NSR. For example, with regards to which of the foreign shipbuilding and shipping companies would be interested in the development of the NSR, there is no single point of view about the prospects of this transport corridor. The main problems today are political, economic and internal corporate barriers. One of the top agenda of development of the NSR in the twenty-first century should be the development of cooperation with foreign partners, aimed at the harmonization of rules and regulations on the usage of the Northern sea corridor, as well as comprehensive work on improving its reputation and image.
Arshavskiy G. - Business Communication with China: Features, Mistakes and Delusions pp. 64-89


Abstract: The article is devoted to a problem of business communications with China, namely to the typical mistakes and delusions allowed by foreign businessmen in the course of the work with the Chinese partners. At the same time, the author notes traditional cultural specifics of China which are fully reflected and in the business environment. Due to the steady opinion on extreme complexity of business communication with China in article the question of possibility of implementation of effective communications and cooperation with the Chinese business community is raised. In article theoretical, formal and logical and analytical methods of research are used. The author analyzes mistakes which are made by foreign businessmen in the communications with the Chinese party, and the conclusion that numerous difficulties which they meet, first of all, are connected with ignorance of the business specifics of China in many respects having a traditional cultural and historical basis and, as a result of this ignorance, with application of primordially western forms and approaches to business is drawn. The value of this research consists in its practical importance, i.e. in the description and the analysis of typical mistakes of foreign businessmen and the companies in communications with China, and also in reduction of real examples from business experience of the author. Besides, in this article the corresponding recommendations allowing to avoid or minimize risk of commission of similar mistakes in communications with the Chinese colleagues are made.
Zharikov M.V. - Conceptual approaches towards the development of payment system pp. 98-110


Abstract: The goal of this article consists in solving an important scientific practical task – the assessment of beneficial effect obtained through creation of the single payment system within the framework of EAEU. The research is aimed at acquisition of new data and targets, the focus on which would allow a fairly smooth implementation of the universal principles of functionality of payment system in the context of EAEU, namely principles of the single monetary policy, single interest rate, and reaching convergence in the dynamics of economic development in accordance with the key macroeeconomic indicators. For determining the beneficial effect, the article applies the methods of quantitative and qualitative analysis of statistical data and expert opinions obtained from experience of operation of the electronic system for mediation of transactions in the European Union. Practical relevance of this work is defined by the possibility of using the model of payment system, which is capable of ensuring the process of optimal harmonization of finances of the EAEU member-states on the bases of gradualist approach. The research results may be valuable for economic science in development of the concept allowing to launch and ensure optimal performance of the electronic payment system in the EAEU.
Khromova N. - Problems in Russias diamond industry under the conditions of systemic reforms and ways to solve pp. 105-115


Abstract: This article explores the relevant problems in development of the Russia’s diamond industry (RDI). Special attention is paid to the problems pertaining to state regulation of Russia’s diamond industry. The author notes that the key factor halting the development of RDI lies in the flawed sectoral legislation, which puts Russian diamond producers into uneven circumstances with their foreign counterparts, and despite the presence of unique raw resources, does not allow RDI to utilize the global practice and fully exercise its potential. The author underlines that in the recent years there have been substantial legislative changes with regards to liberalization of state regulation in the area on diamond industry. Special attention is given to the India’s economic policy in diamond sector for the purposes increasing its competitiveness and possibility of borrowing positive Indian experience of state regulation for development of RDI. Among main conclusions of the conducted research is the proposal of borrowing the positive India’s experience in order to modernize the organizational-economic structure of diamond processing in the Russian Federation. Additionally, the author formulates the necessary measures for implementation of state regulation and state support of RDI in practice.
Sokolov M., Abramov R. - Institutional Aspects in Transnational Integration of the Union State Members in the Innovation Sphere pp. 113-127


Abstract: CIS countries typically demonstrate a rather low level of R&D/GDP intensity and low share of expenditures for science, low development of hightech economic sector and negative saldo of the trade balance in relation to innovative products. At the same time, problems of transnational integration in the sphere of innovation within the Union State started to attract interest of researchers at the turn of the 2011 - 2012. One of research aspects is the need to develop efficient instruments that would ensure efficient transnational integration of Russia and Belarus in the innovation sphere. The object of the present research is the integration of Russia and Belarus within the Union State. The subject of the research is the combination of institutions that provide for the integration of the Union States in the innovation sphere. The authors of the article pay special attention to institutional issues and integration prospects of the Union State members in the innovation sphere including the need to develop a single strategy that would guarantee productivity and efficiency of all institutions under research. The methodological basis of the research involves analysis of fundamental researches and modern theoretical researches in the sphere of institution development, innovation activity and transnational integration including that within the Union State. Based on the analysis carried out, the authors have defined the key problems and development prospects for Russia's and Belarus' institutions that ensure the development of integration processes in the innovation sphere. In conclusion, the authors agree with experts and researchers, both Russian and Belorussian, and come to the conclusion that despite numerous institutional and political issues, the authorities, business entities and social communities of the Union State members understand the need to activate the innovation cooperation. In 2012 during the Union State Programs Forum held in Minsk it was underlined that innovation activity is the guarantee of stability both of an individual entity and state in general, that being true for the Union State, too. Thus, it is important to develop transnational information research data base of fundamental and applied problems that would ensure active information exchange between specialists from different countries and strengthen legal basis in the sphere of protection of rights to intellectual activity products as well as to activate process of creating and developing regional and national innovation networks. Implementation of the above described transformations will require to create new institutions as well as to develop institutions that already exist in the innovation sphere which makes the rationale of the present research.  
Ledeneva M.V., Plaksunova T.A. - Economic growth and prospects for economic development of African countries southward Sahara pp. 129-139


Abstract: This article is dedicated to analysis of the process of economic growth and development in African countries southward Sahara – the least industrializes region of the world. The main prerequisites for industrialization and economic growth in of African countries southward Sahara are the high urbanization ratios: the growing number of workforce, their qualification level, high portion of youth within the population structure, expanding domestic market, growing middle class, de-escalation of internal political confrontations and attenuation of cross-country armed conflicts, advancement of digital technologies. The information and empirical basis is comprised of the data of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization and the World Bank. The scientific novelty consists in determination of the points of growth in Africa southwards Sahara by means of application of the methods of statistical data analysis. The authors analyze the indicators of economic growth and industrialization of African countries southward Sahara, substantiate the increasing role of this region for the global economy. The article reveals spatial aspects of industrialization of African countries and allocation of the industrial production. The authorities of African countries must manage the industrialization processes, namely focus on the development of infrastructure, improvement of investment climate, transparency of legislation, reduction of administrative expenses for businesses, reduction of corruption, and prevention of armed conflicts. The regional integration would contribute to solution of the aforementioned issues. The key vectors in cooperation of African countries southward Sahara and Russia are the areas of oil extraction, energy sphere, information and communication technologies, and agriculture.
Ozarnov R. - The peculiarities of Russias foreign trade with BRICS countries pp. 181-192


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the peculiarities of Russia’s foreign trade with BRICS countries. The subject of this research is the economic relations emerged in the process of organization of Russia’s foreign trade with BRICS member states. The author examines and analyzes the statistical data on export and import, their structure, as well as financial and nonfinancial means of foreign trade. The forecast of Russia’s export and import with BRICS member state for 2018-202 is provided. The participation of countries in BRICS Association opens prospects for trade and economic cooperation and sustainable development for each of group member; for Russia, the cooperation with BRICS countries is one of the priority directions of the country’s long-term development strategy. The research is based on the general scientific methods of cognition (analysis, synthesis, comparison), table and graphic interpretation of statistical information, and time series. A conclusion is made that over the recent decade, Russia’s foreign trade turnover with the BRICS group demonstrates steady growth, which allows forecasting further positive dynamics in the trade and economic relations; an important role in this process is played by the financial and credit institutions. The scientific novelty lies in statistical examination of the exported and imported commodities, and the overall commodity turnover. The author explores the export and import structure between Russia and China; circumstantiates the statistics of commodity turnover between Russia and Brazil, Russia and India, Russia and South Africa; suggests the instruments for stimulating Russia’s foreign trade with BRICS countries.
Samorodova E., Parshutina I., Soboleva Y. - The Russian Economy Under Global Globalization Processes: the Place inthe NIDL (the New International Division of Labor) pp. 187-198


Abstract: The subject of the research is processes of involvement of Russia in modern system of the international job specialization and the international trade relations. The object of the research is the condition of the Russian foreign trade sphere caused by national peculiarities of development of economy. Authors in detail consider the following aspects of a subject: forming of open economy as tendencies of national economic development; a condition of the foreign trade sphere as a result of features of the present stage of development of national economy in the conditions of globalization of economies; specifics of the place and a role of Russia in the international job specialization. The methodology of a research is based on use of system approach, methods of the specific and economic, logical, statistical analysis, generalization, expert evaluations are applied. During the research conclusions that in a number of parameters the economy of Russia can be carried to one of global world trade centers, on some other – to the periphery of the world economy are formulated. In spite of the fact that in economy of Russia the separate elements corresponding to post-industrial model of managing are created, raw orientation of the Russian export determines the main place and a role of Russia in MRT. Features of structure of import and change in its dynamics mean use of model of import substitution which is objectively supported need of similar actions for conditions entering of political and economic sanctions. Import substitution, along with a bearish tendency in export and import, confirms decrease in openness of national economy, reduces possibilities of receipt of additional benefits from participation in MRT. Can change and strengthen the line items in MRT Russia in the conditions of lack of geopolitical risks for implementations of innovative model of development and implementation of innovative upgrade of economy. Novelty of a research is that the national environment of forming of the international economic relations is considered as a basis of participation of the country in system of the international job specialization; on the basis of the commonly accepted traditional indicators author's estimates of degree of openness of economy of Russia, from the point of view of the prospects of its participation in MRT during an era of globalization of world economic space are given.
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