Electronics and Machinery - rubric Instrument Engineering, Metrology, and Electronic Measurement Devices and Systems
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Electronics and Machinery" > Rubric "Instrument Engineering, Metrology, and Electronic Measurement Devices and Systems"
Instrument Engineering, Metrology, and Electronic Measurement Devices and Systems
Gubanova A.A. - Development of a microprocessor controller of a servo drive of a 3d printer pp. 14-22


Abstract: The article contains the results of development of a microprocessor controller of a servo drive for a 3D printer based on the microcontroller AT89C52. The structure and basic circuit diagram, and the PCB have been designed. This development is implemented on an affordable, cheap and modern electronic base, which helps significantly increase the quality of follower drive control. The author considers a 3D printer with a two pivot moving platform and with vertical printing head positioning at a selected depth. The research methodology allows developing modern technical equipment using affordable and cheap electronic components. Such technical means can interact with each other and help design flexible circuits. As a technological platform, FPGAs are used, which help modify the system quickly. The designed microprocessor controller of a servo drive is small (120x80x1,5 mm), has low power demand and high functionality. It uses modern, affordable and cheap hardware components. Use of the microcontroller AT89C52 as a control and information processing unit significantly reduces the number of elements in a microprocessor circuit. If this system is launched, it will significantly reduce the operate time and help acquire higher quality of follower drive control. 
Pozdnyakov A.G., All-Tibbi W.H., Begun V.G. - Circuit Design Solutions when Using Float Level Indicators pp. 15-19


Abstract: The subject of the study is the transformation of information obtained from discrete sensors that are part of the float level indicators. When measuring the liquid level with a certain accuracy, it is necessary to use numerous discrete sensors the number of which depends on the measurement accuracy required. The number can reach about 150... 200 sensors and more. The resulting unitary code will contain the same number of digits. The code length must be reduced to allow further use of this information. The code must be transformed for this purpose. The methodology of the study is that the information obtained in the process of liquid level measuring must be compressed to reduce the length of the unitary code. Upon converting the information obtained from the discrete sensors using the method proposed in the article the information can be fed to a programmable logic controller for further processing or to the elements of digital indication for displaying the level value. The main conclusion of the study is that the use of digital chips for conversion of the measurement information obtained from the float level indicator allows us to simplify and reduce the cost of circuit design solutions.
Semko I.A., Zakalyuzhnyy A.A., Taukchi V.I. - Automated driving unit of a cutting machine pp. 19-26


Abstract: Despite apparent simplicity of the process of paper cutting, the machines, performing this function, are a very important component of printing industry. The quality of preliminary paper cutting significantly influences the quality of the final printed material. It is especially important when printing color materials on one- or two color printing presses or at final processing of materials on machines with automatic feeders. In this case, each sheet of paper is to get through several different machines or through one printing machine several times. And each time the sheet of paper should be automatically straightened within two adjoining sides. Therefore, to guarantee high quality printing, it is necessary to have sheets of the same size, even 90 degree angles and appropriate surface of edges. Otherwise, one and the same sheet can be straightened differently in the alignment mechanism. The purpose of the work is to create a prototype model of a program controlling device for cutting machines used in printing industry. The article considers the system used for cutting automating on cutting machines and controlling this process on s PC. The authors describe the structure of a driving unit of a cutting machine. To achieve the research purpose, the authors use computer simulation and calculation of the necessary processes, then perform mathematical analysis of the obtained model and design the system. The designed system is tested. In the result, the authors develop and realize a discreet drive control system. The authors experimentally prove that a proportionally-integrally-differentiating regulator can be used to guarantee the necessary preset requirements of paper cutting, based on the developed system, and to ensure accurate back gage setting. 
Belozerov V.V., Krechetov A.L., Oleinikov S.N. - About Information Security of Automated Control Systems pp. 24-39


Abstract: The subject of the research is the questions of information security and resistance to unauthorized penetration in automated process control systems. The results of statistical analysis of incidents, failures, accidents and fires on industrial facilities which have different levels of automation are presented. The solution which completely excludes an opportunity by means of a malicious code, to interfere with managing functions of industrial controllers is presented by development of the additional programming module providing data exchange in SCADA system and in managing controllers. The methodological basis of the research is the systems analysis and system synthesis of processes and means in automated systems. The main result of the research is the solution which completely excludes an opportunity by means of a malicious code, to interfere with managing functions of industrial controllers. The price of such solution is the development of additional programming module which will provide data exchange in the SCADA systems projects and in projects of managing controllers, hiding communication parameters, and also random access to memory of managing controllers.
Gubanova A.A., Kotkovets S.A., Zolotarev V.V. - Layout of the automatic water purification system using float-type sensors on the Arduino Uno platform pp. 24-30


Abstract: The object of research in the work is the created system of automatic water cleaning (model) with the use of float-type sensors on the Arduino Uno platform, which is intended as a training material when familiarizing with float-type sensors. The article presents the developed schemes of electrical connections, on the basis of which the system control algorithm was created. Particular attention is paid to the algorithm of the system, built on a modern widely available platform Arduino Uno using the controller ATmega328. The article conducted theoretical and experimental studies, including work with simulation models and full-scale installation, as well as using standard programming methods. The novelty of the study is as follows:- in the development of the layout and experimental study of the technology of purification of contaminated water;- in obtaining the output characteristics of the developed system, adequately describing the cleaning processes;- creation of algorithms and software based on existing approaches in the field of programming.
Gubanova A.A., Guzarevich A.S., Taridonov N.E. - Distance measurement unit of search robot control system pp. 27-31


Abstract: Solving the problem of determining the distance in the autonomous navigation system of a mobile robotic system is of great practical importance. For autonomous movement the robot must have a navigation system whose measurements prevent it from collisions with various obstacles. This paper demonstrates the control system of the distance measurement unit of the search robot. In practice, different kinds of robotic systems tend to move chaotically. For the organization of autonomous movement of the mobile robot it is necessary to equip it with measuring sensors and an intelligent processing system that prevents the robot from colliding with obstacles. The article deals with the principle based on the analysis of measurement results by ultrasonic distance sensor from the robot (sensor) to the front of the obstacle both in a static position and in the process of robot movement. The novelty of the paper lies in the fact that presence of an obstacle in the direction of the robot’s motion is determined by the time of the arrival of the reflected radio pulse emitted and received by the sensor in the ultrasonic frequency range. The project contains structural, functional and principal schematics. This research might provide increased precision and speed during indoor search and rescue operations. Other areas of mobile robotic systems application include mapping, protection of the premises and indoor service activities (cleaning, movement of goods), etc.
Gubanova A.A., Guzarevich A.S., Taridonov N.E. - Stepper Motor Control System pp. 41-47


Abstract: At present, a stepper motor drive which has already become a traditional executive device for many electronic devices and systems is a good alternative to microdrives consisting of a high-speed motor with feedback and a mechanical gearbox. The subject of study of this article is a stepper motor. In this paper, the control object (OS) is a two-coordinate transport module based on linear stepper motors (LSD) which is used for the manufacture of high integration chips. For this purpose, a probe that includes a two-coordinate transport module is used. In this article, the technique of controlling the full-step mode was used for a linear stepper motor when designing the system. The stepper motor control system is designed to generate signals on the stepper motor windings and control the rotation speed of its shaft as well as to control the number of pivot steps. In the course of the study, the author developed structural and electric schemes and an algorithm for controlling the system. The developed system is characterized by small overall dimensions, low power consumption, wide functionality. The device uses a modern, widely available, low-cost element base.
Gubanova A.A., Shibalkina E.V. - A device for accumulator batteries express testing pp. 45-53


Abstract: The authors consider accumulator batteries of mobile communication facilities. Battery self-discharge depends on the quality of the materials used, the technological process of production, the type, and the construct of the accumulator. It increases sharply with the increase of environmental temperature and upon the internal separator damage in the result of inappropriate service or aging process. Rechargeable or accumulator batteries are more popular among the final consumers, and their production is one of the most dynamically developing sectors of the economy. It promotes consumer services competition; therefore, the problem of creation of an express-testing device for accumulator batteries is urgent. Unlike the imported devices, it will have low cost-price and comply with all repair and service requirements. The research methodology is based on the fact that accumulator capacity reduces while in operation. The reduction speed depends on the type of electrochemical system, the service technology, the battery chargers used, and conditions and terms of exploitation. Accumulator’s internal resistance (current source resistance) determines its ability to give up heavy current. Its dependency obeys Ohm’s law. At law rates of internal resistance, an accumulator can give up heavier peak current (without significant reduction of terminal voltage), and, consequently, the bigger peak power; while high resistance leads to sharp reduction of peak power at sharp reduction of load current. Internal resistance of an accumulator depends on its electrochemical system type, capacity, number of cells connected in series, and increases by the end of its life. The authors have designed the hardware component of a device for accumulator batteries express testing. The device can be used in authorized service centers and electronic stores. 
Oleinikov S.N., Dolakov T.B. - The Electric Meter Announcer of Fire and Electric Harm in Residential High-Rise Buildings pp. 51-58


Abstract: In this article the question of need of control of fire and electric harm for high-rise buildings of the inhabited sector, by means of electric meters announcers is considered. The offered approach is proved by the fact that in apartment residential high-rise buildings there is no gas supply of apartments, and the main source of life support in them, besides heat and water supply, the electric power on which quality fire safety since low-quality electric power increases probability of the fires from electric devices by 3 times and more depends is. The methodology of assessment of reliability and fire safety of el.ectrical household appliances, electroadjusting products, electric cables and wires for these purposes is offered. The scientific novelty of the offered innovations is confirmed with two patents of the Russian Federation - on the invention of a way of diagnostics of FEH (No. 2622558) and useful model of the electric meter announcer (No. 13459) and also researches of authors in the inhabited sector of Krasnodar Krai. Diagnostics of FEH by means of EMA in high-rise buildings, first of all realizes prevention of fire of the electric device shutdown when "the structure of FEH" becomes fire-dangerous and also allows to realize early detection of dangerous factors of the fire. 
Belozerov V.V., Batshev A.S., Lyubavskii A.Y. - On automation of identification of the liquid packaged products pp. 135-145


Abstract: The object of this research is the processes of dispensation and control of the liquid packaged products for the purposes of their identification in order to detect counterfeiting. It is established that with presence of the packaging sample (capacity, weight) and control sample of the liquid (density, dynamic and kinetic viscosity, freezing temperature, and viscosity index), the expert analysis can be conducted without the need to open the container. Experiments were conducted on various types of motor oil, packaged in various containers (1-4L). The methodology relies on application of weight electrometry of liquid packaged products, without opening the container. The novelty of this research consists in development and application a “capacitive sensor cap”, which is used on liquid containers. Such solution would allow fast verification of the contents by turning the container upside down, connecting it, and placing it on an electronic scale.
Lukyanov A.D., Goryanina K.I., Fam D.T. - The identification of the parameters of the transforming system of MEMS-accelerometer ADXL345 using the least squares method pp. 171-179


Abstract: The subject of the research is the issue of ensuring the accuracy of measurements made with the help of small-sized MEMS-accelerometer for the purposes of orientation, navigation and monitoring. The object of the study is a transformation system of sensors of triaxial MEMS-accelerometers and the related mechatronic and electromechanical transducers, affecting the accuracy and introducing errors to the measured signals. The authors consider static errors, causing zero shift and gain errors in different channels. The errors are presented in the form of accelerometer response ellipsoid.To identify the parameters of accelerometer response ellipsoid, the authors apply the stochastic approach and the linear least squares method; using this method, the authors assess the size of the semiaxis of the triaxial ellipsoid. The novelty of this study consists in the stochastic formulation of the problem of the accelerometer response ellipsoid parameters assessment on the base of the cloud of experimental points. Besides, the problem and the study of the possibility to assess the response ellipsoid parameters using the least squares method on the base of a reduced cloud of experimental points, covering only the part of the response ellipsoid quadrants, is also of a great scientific interest. 
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