Man and Culture - rubric Architecture and design
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Man and Culture" > Rubric "Architecture and design"
Architecture and design
Safronova E.M. - Saint Petersburg period of creativity of P. K. Vaulin (1906-1914) pp. 1-11


Abstract: The subject of this research is the stylistic peculiarities and means of artistic expression of the architectural majolica by Peter Kuzmich Vaulin. The object of this research is the architectural ceramics of Vaulin in facades of the buildings of St. Petersburg in the early XX century. The application of inclusive approach allows tracing correlations between the historical facts and the cultural characteristics of this period. The compositional-artistic analysis, comparative-descriptive method, and imagery-stylistic analysis were used for consideration of the means of artistic expression of architectural ceramics, compositional interaction of the materials and space, and examination of the style and formative peculiarities of ceramics. Detailed analysis is conducted on the Saint Petersburg period of the ceramist P. K. Vaulin, opening of his own ceramic workshop, and active participation in the development of decorative image of St. Petersburg in the early XX century. Special attention is given to the most remarkable works of the master for architectural decoration of the city. Emphasis is placed on his works for the Insurance Company Building “Russia”, which is brilliant example of the harmonious synthesis of majolica and architecture. The conclusion is made that the architectural ceramics of the master made in many ways determined the majolica decoration of St. Petersburg – compositional, textured, color, imagery-stylistic, and plastic peculiarities of the ceramic works of P. K. Vaulin contributed to aesthetic transformation of the environment. The scientific novelty of consists in the thesis that the ceramic workshop of P. K. Vaulin was one of the leading manufacturers of artistic majolica of the indicated period. It is also proven that the Heldwein-Vaulin workshop was able to organically synthesize the heritage of the best traditions of the past with the courage and ambiguity of the Art Nouveau.
Pushkareva T.V., Ivanova E.Y., Utkina I.V. - Architectural model through the prism of cultural-historical tradition and new technologies pp. 20-33


Abstract: This article provides a comprehensive research of the architectural model as a cultural phenomenon in cultural-historical dimension since its origin to the latest technological solutions applied in modern architectural modeling. Research methodology is based on the structural-functional and semiotic approaches. The analysis of historical-cultural and modern development of architectural model reveals the five sociocultural functions fulfilled by the architectural model in professional activity, society and culture: professional planning and coordination of architectural project; presentation of the project to customer; commemoration of the outstanding results of human activity; educational engineering; art modeling, namely within the framework of the ensemble type of stenographic art.  It is demonstrated that since the beginning of the XXI century, the main function of architectural model – improvement of the project – intertwines with digital modeling for the most part. However, the presentational, commemorative, educational and artistic functions of the architectural model continue to be implemented in actual material, scaling up the distribution and improving the professional methods and techniques of implementation. Analysis is conducted on the role of 3D- printing for the development of modern architectural model. The conclusion is made that the architectural model is a universal form of retaining and transmitting cultural experience, the possibilities of which are not diminished by the advancement of digital technologies and virtual reality. The relevance of architectural model in modern world is associated with the unique quality of the phenomenon- to give a person an enticing illusion of symbolic appropriation of space. Digitalization of the society, professional activity, and education expands the needs for architectural modeling, and simultaneously provides new opportunities for implementation of a number of sociocultural functions of the architectural model on a new level.
Elkina E.L., Ivanova E.Y. - Scandinavian design of the XXI century: traditions and modernity pp. 22-27


Abstract: This article presents the analysis of Northern design of the XXI century, its achievements, and significance. Design is viewed as a phenomenon that has evolved since the era of industrial revolution. The current trends in environmental design are explored. The author comprehends the years-long trend for environmental friendliness and responsible consumption in design as a whole, as well as the vectors of development of object design in particular. The key approach is the analytical approach, within the framework of which the design development trends are assessed as a part of popular culture. At the same time, their designated purpose to increase the competitiveness of goods on the markets. The design is based on the principles of functionality and feasibility. The goal design is to impose certain qualities upon things, such as aesthetic appeal, convenience, commensurability. Working on the design project implies certain stages: functional analysis, layout, construction, creation of a spatial and graphical structure. Design employs the data from multiple scientific disciplines: semiotics, ergonomics, sociology, aesthetics, philosophy, and culturology. The fundamentals of design originate in the history of art, architecture, modern trends and styles in art,  conceptual art, crafts in terms of industrial production, synthesizing with innovative technologies and materials. Use of the stylistics of Northern design is substantiated by demand for the things of high quality, but inexpensive design.
Chang X. - Environmental design and cognate disciplines pp. 35-46


Abstract: This article examines the interrelation between environmental design and cognate disciplines, such as design of architectural environment and landscape architecture. The research is structured on the sources of Russian and Chinese authors. The article consists of five parts. The first one explores the classification of environmental design and cognate disciplines in educational systems of Russia and China. The second part describes the peculiarities in development of the academic discipline “Environmental Design” in the aforementioned countries. The third and fourth parts underlined the similarities and differences between environmental design, landscape architecture, and design of architectural environment. The key research method became the comparative analysis, applied in studying the various areas of activity, as well as systemic analysis for examination of educational structures of different countries. In the course of this study, the author talks about the “artistic” specificity of environmental design as an academic discipline, referred to education in the field of “art” in Russia and China. The disciplines “Design of Architectural Environment” and “Landscape Design” are included in the fields of “Practice of Engineering” and “Agriculture”. Despite the fact that the three disciplines reviewed by the article consider environment as a culture and value space, dissimilarities in their classification in the context of educational system form the difference between them with regards to preparation of students.
Zhigaltsova T. - The village of Vorzagory: spatial organization and monuments of the cultic wooden architecture pp. 57-66


Abstract: The subject of this research is the historical settlement of Vorzagory located in Onega District of Archangelsk Oblast. It has multiple cultic monuments of regional significanc: Vvedenskaya Winter church, NIkolskaya Summer church, bell tower, Church of Sts. Zosima and Savvatiy. The object of this research is the review of the structure of spatial organization of the settlement as a reflection of world perception of the dwellers of White Sea coast. In May of 2018, within the framework of the project “Wooden Temple in the Context of Studying the Russian Traditional Culture: Syncretism of the Material and Religious (based on the materials of the Russian North and Arctic)” was performed the expedition “Historical Settlement of Vorzogory (“Pogost with villages”)”. This settlement territorially simultaneously refers to the typical rural settlements in the Russian North and Artic territory of Onezhskoye Pomorye. The scientific novelty lies in coverage of the previously unpublished archival and field materials. The result of research lies in determination of the structural content of spatial organization of the village of Vorzagory, where the “pogost” is used as a town-forming dominant. The acquired data and analyzed materials can be applied in scientific, educational and museum activities.
Nazarova L. - Current Trends of Style Formation in Design of Museum Web Sites pp. 77-90


Abstract: Composition of museum web sites is aimed at organization of art elements (text, two- and three-dimensional graphics, audio- and video materials) and creation of the hierarchy of their components.  This allows to harmonize the space of the multimedia product as a creative art, to formulate and specify the image and sound models and predict special features of the consumer culture.  For a designer it is very important to express their creative intention by using the graphic arts and make it understandable for the audience. The subject matter of the research described in the article is the designing of a museum web site as a multimedia product.  The focus of the research is the process of designing of a musem web site as a multimedia product and criteria for evaluating the design of a museum web site as a multimedia product including: the structure of the scenario (multi-variant and non-linear), functions (easy to use navigation, good usability of websites) , correspondence of the multimedia design to the creative intention and stylistic elements of oneof the three paradigms of culture development (classic, modernism or post-modernism).  
Pankratova A.V. - Flat design as a marker of hypermodernism pp. 101-111


Abstract: The subject of this research is flat design as the basic sylistics and visual expression of the era of hypermodernism. Since modern design no longer corresponds to the characteristics of postmodernism, an assumption is made on the advent of the new period in design – hypermodernism. Hypermodernism is the term that implies the enhancement of design trends founded in the era of modernism: orientation towards modernity, design for manufacturability, split with the past, and absence of aesthetic hierarchy. Flat design is a style that visually expresses the aforementioned trends. The research material includes the final research projects in graphic design, interior design and industrial design, completed by the students of the department of Design of the Moscow Power Engineering Institute and the department of Graphic Design and Visual Communications of the Russian State University named after A. N. Kosygin. The article employs the method of semiotic analysis, which allows determining the key attributes used in flat design explicating the essential characteristics of flat design. The conclusion is made that flat design reflects the basic request of the era of hypermodernism – democratization of mentality, leveling of any differences up to the destruction of individuality. The idea of leveling of social differences, underlying the design of modernism, in hypermodernism reaches the idea of erasing any differences, any hierarchy, including the aesthetic. The presence of aesthetic hierarchy in design suggests the use of expressive means – index signs, iconic signs, and symbolic signs. The deconstruction of aesthetic hierarchy leads to the use of unexpressive signs – simulacrums. Most unexpressive sign is the fourth-stage simulacra – the sign, which relationship to any reality is reduced to zero. Flat design uses fourth-stage simulacra as the main form, thus meeting the demand of hypermodernism.
Semenenko D.A., Nazarov Y.V. - The use of tactile floor signs in public buildings pp. 103-111


Abstract: The infrastructure of modern states and megacities is very complex and extensive, so human orientation in urban space is extremely necessary. This article is devoted to the problem of adapting the surrounding space for blind and visually impaired people, the publication is designed to help solve the problem of orientation in the environment of this group of consumers. After all, despite the seemingly relatively small number of blind and visually impaired people compared to healthy citizens, in reality there are more than 2.2 billion people with visual impairments of varying complexity in the world, who, like ordinary people, should be able to move freely in the surrounding space.   For a detailed understanding of the stated problem, the authors analyzed the experience of using various means in public buildings, such as tactile floor signs, mnemonic circuits, tactile signs, navigators, as well as mobile applications. Problems of accessibility of the environment for people with disabilities arise everywhere. Understanding the accessibility situation and searching for various solutions that contribute to the adaptation of the environment, as well as describing all kinds of developments related to the field of "affordable design" and presented in this article, will be able to improve the quality of life of blind and visually impaired people in our complex world.
Gudkova T.V. - Architectural-artistic expression of style and way of life in a minimalist living space pp. 106-114


Abstract: The subject of this study is the architectural-artistic expression of style ofl ife and ways of life in the residential minimalistic architectural space. The article discusses the architectural living space as a small social space, which has similar characteristics to the general concept, but at the same time, it has specific features. The generality of the functions of architectural space as a more general category, and residential architectural space, gives reason to research it on par with other architectural social spaces. The author marked features that are typical to minimalistic architectural space, as well as reflect the way and style of life. Based on the anthropological approach, minimalistic residential architectural space is considered as a special way of objectifying itself through architectural and artistic means of style and way of life. By the virtue of the basic stylistic means of minimalistic architecture, the author concludes that the leading means of the architectural-artistic expression of the style and ways of life in minimalistic living space consist in simplicity, hollowness, and functionality: simplicity in everything (objects, furniture, surfaces, functions, etc.); hollowness of the inner space (no things with minimum of the furniture); as well as the quality and high-tech functionality of vital processes in the "sleep-awake" mode.
Sokolova M.V. - Victorian country house as a mirror of the Victorian lifestyle pp. 121-130


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the social aspect in the history of British manor architecture. The author examines the design of a Victorian country house, which fairly accurately reflects a particular lifestyle common to the English landlord of Victorian era. The article gives detailed characteristics to the two main elements of the English manor house – the so-called master unit and service facilities; as well as analyzes the structure of each part, and what role their elements played in everyday life of the manor’s owner. Besides the traditional for the art history method such as formal analysis, the author resorts to the meticulous study of layout concepts, using the historical-cultural methods. Despite the fact that the Victorian manor house often became the subject of detailed research, there are very few attempts to trace the correlation between its architectural concept and peculiarities of lifestyle of a specific social class in a specific era.  Pragmatic thinking, characteristic to the era of positivism, generates the desire to find the most rational solution corresponding to the requests of a Victorian family.
Grigoreva M.B. - Leading project methods of interpretation of traditional culture in formation of an artistic image of the environment (on the example of modern public interiors of Crimea) pp. 127-136


Abstract: The subject of this research is the imagery and stylistic solution of modern public interiors located on the territory of Crimea (hotels and restaurants) arranged in ethnic style. In the past decade application of the elements of traditional culture as fundamental in creation of the image of public space gained popularity, which defines the relevance of this topic. First and foremost, it is associated with the revival of interest to folk culture: authentic cuisine, folklore, surrounding environment, which in turn, is a certain response of humanity to the ongoing globalization processes. The goal of this work consists in determination of the leading project methods in creation of ethnic atmosphere of a public space on the example of objects located on the territory of Crimea. The study is based on the analysis hotels and restaurants as most expressive objects from the artistic perspective. The scientific novelty consists in a comprehensive analysis of public objects with explicit stylization of Central Asian art. Determination of artistic techniques ensures a systematic approach to the assessment of artistic value of modern public spaces. The creation of image is viewed from the perspective compositional methods, which in turn, become the basis for further design and décor of the environment. As a result, the author reveals the two leading methods in formation of the image: retrospective and authorial stylization. It is established that both method have positive and negative side with regards to perception by a recipient. Practical significance of the study consists in formation of possible evaluation categories in the analysis of creative approaches of authors towards implementation of ethnic theme in designing environments.
Chang X. - The project УDance of LeavesФ Ц an example of arranging exhibition space within the framework of environmental design pp. 131-145


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the various methods of creating exhibition space as a specific artistic form of interactivity. The foundation for this research became the original project “Dance of Leaves”. The name is associated with the theme and visual content of the exhibition, which is dedicated to the role of photographer and photographs in modern life. This also defines the social significance of the project. The selected theme is reflected in exhibition structure, executed in form of trees and leaves, where a photographer is compared to a tree giving life to the leaves – the photographs. Besides the methods of exhibitory and environmental design, the author applied different technological approaches, which turned the exhibition into a platform for interaction between the exhibition space and a person. One of such approaches became the use of various lightening approach. The research also demonstrates the role of social communication methods in creating designer projects. The conclusion is made that the design of exhibition space is a platform than incorporates the art and technologies. It is not just the phenomenon within the framework of a sign event or platform for information exchange or interactivity between the attenders or attenders and environment, it is also the phenomenon that may be continues outside the boundaries of a specific place or time, as well has functional meaning in everyday life.
Lebedev N. - The experience of design engineering of industrial equipment: to the question on standardization in industrial design (based on the project of modernization of testing equipment of the Indian company BiSS) pp. 161-184


Abstract: Relevance of the covered in this article questions of referring to standardization in the course of design engineering is defined nu the observed over the recent decade changes in the character of organization of the surrounding a human object world, its complication and growing disarray. The subject of research is the specificity of implementation of standardization principles in project engineering of industrial design with emphasis on interpretation of the latter as the activity on development of user experience. Special attention is given to the description and analysis of experience of referring to project capabilities of standardization in the course of developing design for industrial testing equipment. The author examines the modern research in the area of industrial design, as well classical works in the field of design theory. The scientific novelty consists in determination and specification of the role of standardization in modern industrial design, which currently underlies the development of experience of user interaction. An important outcome became the creation of a project, which novelty is substantiated by international patent. The result of implementation of standardization principles in the course of design engineering of control and protection mechanisms of testing equipment lies in the complex solution of such tasks, as ensuring stylistic unity of the entire product line, ergonomics of operators’ positions, conservation of material, human and time resources. The author outlines the prospects of implementation of standardization in industrial design in the nearest futures due to the need for bringing a growing array of technical devices to a common standard.
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