Man and Culture - rubric Audiovisual culture and art
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Man and Culture" > Rubric "Audiovisual culture and art"
Audiovisual culture and art
Obruchnikov I.M. - Continuum as a form of screen sound pp. 1-5


Abstract:  This article examines the peculiarities of realization of the aesthetic concept of screen sound in a form of continuum within the framework of formation of the audiovisual image. The determination of characteristic of details of the process of perception of the sound information by human being a recipient of screen oeuvre allows taking a more in-depth and thorough look at the nature of sound-visual image, as well as its realization in accordance with the contemporary trends in audio culture and sound aesthetics, and also suggesting a certain addition to the instruments of practical acoustical engineering in screen arts. The presented research is carried out with the attraction of certain positions of the phenomenological directions in history and psychology of art. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that the existing models of the screen arts phonography aesthetics are complemented and subjected to the development  in accordance with the actual achievements of the phenomenological directions in the history and psychology of art; the aesthetic attitude towards the screen sound is defined with regards to the modern realities of the screen culture.  
Bykova N.I. - The game as plot-and the aesthetic phenomenon of gaming cinema pp. 1-10


Abstract: The subject of the study is the game as an artistic device in modern cinema. The object of research is modern cinema art. The author examines the question of what the game is from the point of view of philosophy and art history. The study analyzes screen versions of famous works of world literature based on the game in its various manifestations. Of interest are several cinematographic works in this aspect, among them the national adaptation of F. Durrenmatt's novel "The Accident", the director V. Zhalakiavicius, and the screen version of the play "The Sleuth" by A. Shaffer.The main methods of this study are comparative-historical and analytical. A comparative analysis of the cinematographic material of different years makes it possible to trace the dynamics of changes in cinematic artistic techniques. In the study for the first time films are analyzed in which the game becomes one of the main plot-forming, aesthetic or semantic components, through the comprehension of which the understanding of the meaning of the artistic work takes place. The game is interesting as an artistic device in the film industry, since it allows to include in the space of the film a lot of cinematographic techniques that allow diversifying and improving the language of the cinema.
Semenchuk S.A. - Form of self-representation: acting work of B. V. Barnet in the films Dark Is the Night (1944) and Secret Agent (1947) pp. 1-7


Abstract: The subject of this research is the acting jobs of B. V. Barnet of the 1940’s. Film director Boris Barnet, who started his path as an “actor-model” at the Lev Kuleshov’s workshop, and was active in the movies during the 1920’s. However, the two major roles he played in the movies Dark Is the Night” (1944) and “Secret Agent” (1947), in which he appears in an unusual role of German Officer, in other words as an “enemy”. The shift in paradigm of the actor’s path of B. Barnet is viewed in the context the early period of his works, biography, and the history of moviemaking. For achieving the set goal, the author apploes the semiotic, contextual, historical-comparative and anthropological approaches. The conclusion is drawn on the crucial differences in creating the characters played by Boris Barnet in his films: the role in “Dark Is the Night” is the key work in acting filmography of the master; while the role in “Secret Agent” is rather a production requirement, which does not fully reflects worldview of the film director.
Stepanova P.M. - Visual anthropology as a basic part of the script of the role in screen performances of Fyodor Nikitin in the 1920s pp. 12-19


Abstract: Visual anthropology is viewed from the perspective of usage of the dominants of corporeal apparatus of the actor within a film frame, as a script of archetypical images structured by the filmmaker, as well as individual corporeality of the actor. The article analyzes the roles of Fyodor Nikitin in F. Ermler’s films of the late 1920’s : Katka's Reinette Apples (1926 with E. Ioganson), The House in the Snow-Drifts (1927), The Parisian Cobbler (1927), Fragment of an Empire (1929). The author applies the method of cultural anthropology, leaning on the works of M. Bakhtin, M. Eliade, and C. Jung. The article is firs to touch upon the problem of creating a screen image based on the two independent from each other scripts: visual is created using the corporeal nature of the actor and film editing approach of the director, and has powerful influence on the emotions of the audience; the inner is based on the unique actorly nature and can be autonomous from the created by an actor image, reaches the level of personal sensible experience of an actor. Similar principles of the work of actor and film director were also used in the theatre of Jerzy Grotowski in the 1960’s, The author concludes that the key principles for creating the unique screen images that can become the basics for a modern film actor have already been formulated and developed.
Monin M.A. - Succession and polemics of the meaning (Fanny and Alexander by Ingmar Bergman and The Sacrifice by Andrei Tarkovsky. Experience of comparing) pp. 23-42


Abstract:  The topic of this article is the movies “Fanny and Alexander” Ingmar Bergman and “The Sacrifice” by Andrei Tarkovsky. The subject of this research is their conceptual and structural interrelation. The author questions whether it is possible to view each movie as a so-called addendum with regards to another. The article thoroughly analyzes the temporal structure of the aforementioned movies, similarity and difference of their inner spaces, distribution of characters, and their meaning. The author also compares the circumstances under which the movies have been created. The article applies the method of phenomenological analysis (emphasizing the fact that a movie is given to the audience as a single temporal reality), as well as method of structural analysis (that views the relationship between characters as a certain landmark structure, which delivers a particular message to a spectator). A conclusion is made that both movies have the obvious similar features (beginning with the circumstances of their creation), as well as clear and less clear discrepancies. At the same time, it does not mean that “The Sacrifice” that came out four years later than “Fanny and Alexander” is a somewhat secondary or derivative with regard to it. It rather manifests as a two-sided latent discourse of the authors, their existential positions, and cultural traditions, into which both of them are inscribed in one or another way.   
Bezenkova M.V. - Development principles of screen reality in Soviet documentary cinematography of the 1930s pp. 24-34


Abstract: The object of this research is the fundamental principles of capturing and analysis of new reality of the 1930’s in creative works of the most prominent national documentarians of that time. The article traces the similarities and differences in the relevant film journalism and newsreel of 1930’s from the perspective of compositional structure and visualization of a character; defines the concept of “documentary film image”; makes suggestions of the audience interpretation of reality through the prism of author’s mark. Based on the material of the films of D. Vertov and E. Shub, the author traces the evolution of original styles of the two brightest documentary artists, and determines the main trends of the development of documentaries that would be relevant until the “Thaw” period. The author conducts a gradual analysis of the plasticity and imagery nature of documentary material, new editinf and dynamic expressive means and methods of their implementation in such films as “The Symphony of Donbass”, “Three Songs About Lenin”, “Komsomol: Patron of Electrification”. The relevance of problematic is substantiated by transformation of the traditional approach towards the art analysis of the audio-visual content. The article examines the concept of “chronotope”. The new capabilities of sound art allow indicating the new expressive means based not on the language of classical arts, but the language of Soviet avant-garde of the 1920’s, adjusted to the need of creativity of the 1930’s. The novelt of culturological interpretation of the prospects of growth and establishment of the Soviet documentary art of that time is tested by the author on the film analysis of the most notable auteur films of that era (D. Vertov and E. Shub), which demonstrate the new forms of visual performance adding a publicist element.
Bezenkova M.V. - The establishment of canonic elements in Russian cinematography of the first decade of the XXI century pp. 26-37


Abstract: The subject of this research is the transformation of the screen canon in Russian films of the first decade of the XXI century. The article meticulously analyzes the three new trends characteristic to the films of this period, which in the author’s opinion, reflect the new canonic features of Russian cinematography. The first trend – emergence of a hero able to take action. The second trend pertains to formation of a new mythological structure of the past, visualized in modern national war films. The third trend is associated with delineation of space and functioning of film characters, which forms a new look of a screen worldview. The main conclusion lies in the idea of formation of a new image of full-fledged hero, establishment of a new canon of capturing the spatial elements of screen environment along with the new ideologemes aimed at structural moral-ethical principles of the audience. The concept of canon is justified by the development of figurative language of the films of the first decade of the XXI century.
Paulyus P.I. - Realization of the ideas of Scandinavian myth in cinematic universe A Song of Ice and Fire pp. 31-45


Abstract:  The subject of this research is the use of archetypical constructs within the framework of cinematic universe “The Game of Thrones”. The object is the phenomenon of the modern audiovisual arts. The key aspect of the topic is the analysis of application of the phenomenon of “Scandinavian myth” in modern film industry. This phenomenon is interpreted as a factor of transformation of mass consciousness that illustrating a set of “social myths” of globalization era, which is traced in a broad range of movies. The presented features are generalized on the example of created from the novels by G. Martin cinematic universe “A Song of Ice and Fire”, which in is named “The Game of Thrones” film’s release and is one of the brightest examples of “new mythology” in mass consciousness. The author makes the following conclusions: one of the development trends of film industry is the active use of cliché complex, which forms a special cultural reality interpreted as a Scandinavian myth, based on the fatalistic providence; using the phenomenon of time and space manipulation, the hi-tech types of art form the new models of “intellectual field”, which disrupt the outdated information and semantic structures of cultural space. This leads to implementation of the principle of balanced unity, referred to the collective unconscious. Thus, these models develop the concepts of mythology of art, its interrelation with society, which is expressed in the effect of satisfaction of the demands of gross audience. 
Beliakov V. - Accuracy and staging effect in the historical newsreel pp. 42-50


Abstract: The article deals with the question of how accurate is one or another filmed event, as well as its correspondence with the realities of time. Having analyzed a number of archival chronicle film footage, the author can be assured that multiple scenes were filmed using the staging elements, and some of them staged. This becomes noticeable in working with the early national newsreel of the World War I period. Although, separate scenes are authentic. The author attempts to identify which criterion and knowledge form the accuracy of the footage. The source of such knowledge usually imply the ordinary experience of the audience, previously seen films, books, and other types of mass media. In addition, in shooting the chronicle material, the camera operators try to follow the certain moral and ethical norms of the historical period. Staging elements in the early newsreel are traced not only on the example of the World War I period, but also the so-called imperial documentaries and film magazines of the era. It is noted that in separate cases, the camera operators during the film editing, used not only the linear methods, but also acquired the skills of essential film editing, which was inherent to the later period. It is concluded that the historical newsreel not always demonstrates the objective truth of an event; the filmed images often carry the organizational and prearranged character, beginning from staging separate scenes, ending with following to the established ritual of one or another ceremony.
Lysova N.A. - Television method of historical reconstruction and reality show in a documentary TV series genre as a form of preservation of cultural memory pp. 59-67


Abstract: In this day and age, the problems of preservation of cultural memory and heritage alongside actualization of cultural experience become more and more relevant. As a response to the trends of “obliviousness”, culture’s self-regulation mechanisms become mainstream, enhancing the value and semantic aspect of the traditions. The author operates the concept of “cultural memory”, interpreted following J. Assmann, as a particular form of revival and translation of cultural meanings and values of the past onto the present. The subject of this research is the currently popular artistic method of historical reconstruction with the elements of reality in a documentary TV series as one of the key forms of preservation of cultural memory. The article is based on the use of axiological and cultural-functional approaches that allow revealing the functional value of such TV projects for social and cultural processes in the life of modern society. The novelty consists in examination of the popular TV projects, structured in accordance with the genre of documentary TV series, employing the method of historical reconstruction and elements of reality as a form of preservation of cultural memory. The effectiveness of such projects is ensured by the specific synthesis on the one hand, and the inherent to modern mass visual culture penchant for the unique and fascinating images; while on the other hand – the use of such quality in formation of the historically authentic situations of real actions of participants of the projects, sincere experiencing of the clash of life pattern and peculiarities of relationship characteristic to the past. Thus, the content of cultural memory attains embodiment in the materials that possess visual effectiveness, and at the same time, translate authentic meanings of historical events relevant for preservation of cultural identity in the modern world.
Jdanova V.A. - Blossom of Myth. Problems of Ideological Reformation of the 1920s: Reflection in the Soviet Motion-Picture Process pp. 64-85


Abstract: Object of research is reflection in the Soviet cinema of the 1920th of social changes in society. Reflection – not always direct, mediated, metaphorical, poetic. For example, Moscow eras of military communism, the New Economic Policy – in the movie "Aelita" of Ya.A. Protazanov. In article separate aspects of the Soviet film process of the second half of the 1920th years are analyzed. Some ideological components of creativity of Dzigi Vertov are investigated. Movies "Aelita" (1924, the director Ya. Protazanov), "the Third Petty-bourgeois" (1927, the director A. Room), "The poet and the tsar" are considered from the point of view of reflection of ideology at cinema (1927, the director V. Gardin). Article is based on archival material (archival funds "Glaviskusstvo", "Sovkino" of RGALI) and the press of this period ("The Soviet cinema", "Film Week", "Film Front", etc.). The comparative analysis of sources is applied. On this period of development of the Soviet cinema scientific researches Yu.I are published recently. Goryachev, N. M. Zorkoy, V. S. Listov, E. Margolita, A. Rubaylo, V. I. Fomin and other film experts. Statement of a research objective differs in novelty: identification of projections, systems of reflection of the changing social reality in the Soviet film process of the 1920th. The characteristic in this research of details of reflection in film process of changes of sociocultural image of the country will allow to find details and focal points of film process of the 1920th. It is necessary to refer a conclusion about gradual strengthening of mythemes in the Soviet cinema, "rooting" in movie space of not poeticized reality, and the mythological scheme of functioning of socialist society to scientific results of research.
Zaitcev A.Y. - To the question of development of Russian animation of the XXI century: the project Mountain of Gems pp. 71-78


Abstract: This work is dedicated to the development of the Russian animation school on the example of a particular project. The object of this research is the TV series “Mountain of Gems” created in 2004-2018 by the animation studio “Pilot”. The subject of this research is the artistic and technical solution of its visual imagery. The author examines the main ideas of the project, its specificities, stylistic and technical arrangement of separate films of the project. An important factor for this analysis is that initially all creators of the project were put into the equal circumstances: dramaturgy based on the tale read by the author, equal running time, and identical studio resources. The author’s special contribution to the research of this topic along with its novelty is defined by the development and implementation of systematic analysis of the films from the cycle “Mountain of Gems” made with the use of computer technologies. The choice of films is dictated by their aesthetic value, originality and uniqueness of artistic and technical means for creating visual imagery. The author reveals the computer technologies applied in creation of these TV series. The main conclusions emphasize the role and contribution of this project to the development of Russian animation.
Zhemchugova O. - The evolution of characters of the mainstream cinema of the Unites States and Soviet Union/Russia pp. 83-92


Abstract: This research examines the mainstream cinema of the United States and Soviet Union. Despite the ideological polarity, the culture of these countries was interconnected in multiple way; it incorporated similar tools for expansion of the important symbols, as well as expression of public moods. In the preceding war period, the movie characters of the two countries were rather alike – they lived within the space of the perfect dream that corresponds with the relevant values of this era. However, in the post-War period, the evolution of the heroes of mainstream cinema of the United States and Soviet Union started has taken different courses. The main result of the conducted research consists in determination of regularities in development of the images of protagonists in the mainstream cinema of the United States and Soviet Union/Russia. It is demonstrated that in the US movies the priority in such images belongs to the individual as such, while in the Russian cinematographer – to the interrelation between individual and society. This article illustrates the reason why such pattern was taking place.   
Bykova N.I. - The art of cinematography and cinema museums: world practice and contemporary problems pp. 84-93


Abstract: The subject of this research is the cinema museums, while the object is the art of cinematography. The author examines the global experience in the area of creation of cinema museums, as well as studies the history of Russian Cinema Museum and prospects of its further development. Special attention is given to the modern status of cinema museums and issues associated with determination of their functions, which at the present stage remain unambiguous. The perception of the world experience in regards to this question is necessary for resolving the problem of creation and functionality of the cinema museum in Russia. The main methods of this study is the comparative-historical and analytical. The work analyzes the key concepts of outlook upon the cinema museums, as well as their sociocultural importance. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that the cultural phenomenon of the museum of cinematography art requires thorough examination. Cinema museums are located in multiple countries of the world, however, the question of what does the notion of cinema museum imply, is rather complicated due to the syncreticity of the screen arts.
Golubkina S.E. - India in British cinematograthy of the late 1930early 1940s (based on the films of Brothers Kordas creative union) pp. 105-115


Abstract: Based on the analysis of several films made by the brothers Kordas creative union in the late 1930s early 1940s, the author considers the method of formation in them the image of India and its inhabitants, highlighting the stereotypes inherent in the discourse of Orientalism and the traditions of colonial binary logic. In a broad sense, the work refers to the ideology of British colonialism, which in Russian historiography developed primarily from written sources of the second half of the nineteenth century. A correlations between the film images and the previous literary tradition, the political strategies of the British Empire on the sunset of the colonial period and the official propaganda are traced. The author concludes that the approach to Indian theme meant the use of scenes, which would have been impossible to imagine in the European world. The exotic played the main role in escapistic in spirit, fantastic and adventure films Elephant Boy 1937, the Drum 1938, The Thief of Bagdad 1940 and The Jungle Book 1942. As a result, the image of India represented an image of the Other that did not imply compulsory negative characteristics. India in the Kordas films is a special world with its own history, visual code and dictionary, which is far from the image of the country ready to obtain the independence from the British Empire.
Batova M.A. - Suggestive techniques of screenwriting: taboo and unpredictability pp. 123-131


Abstract: The subject of this research is the suggestive techniques of screenwriting on various level of perception of the movie, which engage the audience into cinematographic scene. The majority of movies reproduce the topic of social taboo, pulling upon the forbidden desires, and thus, instigating the audience. Such movies intend to distort the socially accepted moral and ethical restrictions, blurring the boundaries of the generally accepted standard. Alongside the violation of social taboo, one of the most important elements of drawing attention of the audience is unpredictability, used in dramaturgy to create an effect of incompleteness of story and the desire to reveal it. The research is based on the analytical and comparative methods, which allow analyzing particular effects intended by the author at the conceptual and dramaturgical level of the screen work. As a suggestive dramaturgical element, unpredictability can be reflected as a deferred event or a unpredictability  that forms the screen image and character of the hero. Analysis is conducted on the movies “The Return” (2003), “Loveless” (2017) directed by Andrey Zvyagintsev; “Fight Club” (1999) directed by David Fincher; “The Departed” (2006) directed by Martin Scorsese; “Melancholia” (2011) directed by Lars von Trier. The research result consists in characterization of the modern trend of preserving unpredictability within a narrative structure of the movie to maintain non-triviality of the storyline.
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