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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Man and Culture" > Rubric "Ethnology and cultural anthropology"
Ethnology and cultural anthropology
Koptseva N.P. - Modern Cultural Practices to Preserve Ethnic Identity of Northern, Siberian and Far Eastern Indigenous Peoples in the Republic of Buryatia pp. 17-30


Abstract: Object of research is to study processes of ethnic and cultural identification and self-identification, the characteristic North for indigenous people and Siberia, living in the Republic of Buryatia. The problem of research specific Post-Soviet the practician of preservation of a unique cultural heritage of the indigenous small people is put. Legal mechanisms, information cultural practicians, art cultural practicians are considered. It is suggested that modern practicians of preservation of ethnocultural identity of indigenous people of the North and Siberia are genetically connected with the Soviet cultural policy. Still key role belongs to state regulation which is carried out not so much by means of law-making, how many by means of activity of executive bodies of the power in subjects of the Russian Federation. The main method - field researches in places of compact accommodation of the indigenous small people of the North, Siberia and the Far East under the leadership of the author in 2010-2013. As important methods poll and questioning, processing of results of questioning, focus group, expert interviews act. As a result of the conducted research the following conclusions, the contents elements of scientific novelty were drawn:1 . In the Republic of Buryatia of a measure of the state support of ethnocultural identichnost of the indigenous small people by means of legal mechanisms carry "secondary" character in relation to the federal legislation. The republic has no own unique regional legislation connected with preservation of a unique cultural heritage of indigenous people, measures of the state support of the native languages of these people. However this situation means that support of processes of ethnocultural identity of the indigenous small people in this subject of the Russian Federation is carried out by means of other mechanisms, which, probably, not especially нуждают in special legal guarantees.2 . For a state policy on support of ethnocultural identity of the indigenous small people in the Republic of Buryatia the specific Post-Soviet practicians connected by are characteristic that the executive body of the government – the Ministry of Culture – assumes the organization, coordinating, the budgetary financing of a number of the actions which sources of carrying out root in the Soviet cultural policy. These are calendar national holidays, support of national creativity, amateur performances. It is difficult to tell what would be processes of ethnocultural identity without these active actions of the state. It is possible to assume that assimilation processes which are fixed by demographers, would be much more intensive, than now.3 . The state language policy in the Republic of Buryatia in relation to the native languages of indigenous people is also connected not with law-making, and with support existing pedagogical and information the practician on teaching of the native languages at schools, and also on functioning of information resources in the Evenki language. The Soyot language is in more difficult situation, than Evenki. It is obvious that the cultural heritage of Soyots needs more intensive state protection, than now.
Pimenova N.N. - Cultural Heritage of the Small Indigenous Groups of Krasnoyarsk Krai and the Present-day Cultural Practices pp. 28-66


Abstract: The subject of the research is the contents and the form of keeping and transmitting the cultural heritage of the small indigenous groups of Krasnoyarsk Krai (the Evenkis, the Nganasan, the Chulyms).The author performed ethnographic studies in the areas of the Chulyms’ compact settlement in the village of Pasechnok, Tjukhtetski Region, Krasnoyarsk Krai. Vectors of the changes in the cultural space of the small indigenous groups in the conditions of globalization and reindustrialisation of the Russian Federation Nothern Territories are represented on the basis of the present-day cultural practices and their reflection in the scientific literature.  The site studies methods, modeling of social types (M. Weber) were used. The conceptual analysis of the notion “cultural heritage” had a great meaning as well as the critical revision of scientific texts on the topic of the cultural heritage of the small indigenous groups of the North, Siberia and the Far East. It is proved that the post-Soviet methods of keeping the cultural heritage of the small indigenous groups of Krasnoyarsk Krai comes, mostly, to making it a part of museum exhibitions, assigning the cultural symbols of shamanism by the cultural group. In connection with this a special cultural phenomenon of neoshamanism has appeared which is rather a representation of postmodernist cultural practices than that of the premodernist. We may observe the difference between the vectors of a real social economic and cultural situation of the small indigenous groups of Krasnoyarsk Krai. These differences between the vectors are connected with the processes of modernization and reindustrialization of the Siberian regions of the Russian Frderation. The differences are also observed in the cultural practices connected with the ethnic identity (where the exotic peculiarities of the small indigenous groups of the Siberia can be seen). Solution of this contradiction is bind to the virtualization of the cultural space of the Nothern peoples and to the rules and regulations mechanisms that regulate the usage of cultural signs and symbols of the Nothern nations.
Lebedev S.V., Maksimovich V.F. - Russian North: historical and ethno-cultural peculiarities of formation of the Russian region pp. 28-63


Abstract: The Subject of research is the study of historical and cultural phenomenon of the Russian North. The Russian North is a unique historical and cultural region of Russia. The history, particular social conditions, isolation from the Central Russia, which contributed to the preservation of arts and crafts, gave it special features. However Northern conditions contributed to the initiative, persistence, widespread literacy, which led to the fact that the North did not become a living ethnographic Museum, and remains a modern, highly urbanized Russian region in which not only preserved but also developed many kinds of folk art. The following methodological approaches are used in the paper: cultural and anthropological, historical and cultural. The main research methods are specifically historical, dialectical, comparative analysis. The main conclusions of the research are: the explanation of the phenomenon of the Russian North by the presence of the geographic remoteness of the region from the Central Russia; the absence of serfdom in the history of the North; the predominance of old believers among the population in the past; late industrialization and urbanization of the Russian North. All the factors favoured the creation of a unique cultural space, in which different Russian Northern folk arts and crafts (Kholmogory bone carving, Severodvinsk painting on wood, Vologda lace-making, Veliky Ustyug blackening of silver and more) received the development, in the Russian North. Majority types of folk art in the North continue to evolve in the XXI century. The study materials can be used in the development of training courses on Russian History of Art and also Ethnology in educational institutions of professional education.
Trushkina E.Y. - Anthropology of visual communication: history and methodology pp. 29-43


Abstract: The article iis focused on the history of development, as well as theoretical and methodological bases of anthropology of visual communication on the example of S. Worth and J. Adair's works. Relations between cinema technologies and methods of cultural anthropology of the second half of the XX century are analysed. Various aspects of ethnographic filming are considered. Transformations of theoretical and methodological attitudes of anthropologists at differents stages of development of discipline are analyzed. Some concepts of visual anthropology, first of all - concepts of biodocumentary and indigenny cinema are considered in details. Some approaches of philosophy and methodology of science, phenomenology, and methods of the source studies relating to analysis of audiovisual documents are used. The main contribution of the author is finding out the ways of understanding by anthropologists of what the film is and what its functions are. It was found that both considered researcher, S. Worth and J. Adair, dealt with basic issues of the nature of visual means (media) and a role of visual images in forming and structuring reality. Their ideas shaped the basis for the theory of ethnographic semiotics and development of anthropology of visual communication - the direction which determines development of the visual anthropological theory and practice today.
Kanasz T. - Attitudes Towards Poverty and Wealth in Polish, Belarusian and Russian Cultures pp. 63-105
Abstract: The article is built on the thematic-rhematic analysis of Polish, Russian and Belarusian proverbs about poverty and wealth. Special attention is paid to the characteristics of Polish, Russian and Belarusian mentalities. The results of the given research show similarities in understanding of poverty and wealth in three cultures. The attitudes towards poverty and wealth are ambivalent in traditional and contemporary societies. In all cultures analysed we found both dispraise and praise of poverty and wealth.
Spektor D.M. - Symbolic exchange, death, and mystery of gift pp. 68-83


Abstract: The subject of this article is the symbolic exchange in its connection with “death” and mystery of gift. The author thoroughly examines such aspects of the topic as archaic equivalence of the value and sacred object of the exchangeable females. Special attention is given to the primary nature of sacrifice that is not the subject of exchange (with gods, dead, etc.), but inspires the “state of enthusiasm” and justifies the (secondary) value of exchangeable things (value). Sacrificial offering on one hand, and exogamy on the other, if meticulously reconstructed, allows re-creating the gift-exchange logic – a substrate of human subjectivity, realized by the inter-communal relationship. The method of this research is associated with the analysis and historical reconstruction of the gift, sacrifice, and symbolic exchange. Its logical counterpoint lies in criticism of the existing interpretations. The scientific novelty consists in proof of the fact that the act of exchange “generates the surplus value”, transforming the object (women) from the given into impersonal and generalized “consumer product” as the primary prototype of “commodity”, in which the common property – usefulness – dominates over the singular specificity. Without having understood of the initial profit of exchange, it is impossible to understand the development of its forms.
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