Man and Culture - rubric Ethnology and cultural anthropology
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Man and Culture" > Rubric "Ethnology and cultural anthropology"
Ethnology and cultural anthropology
Koptseva N.P. - Modern Cultural Practices to Preserve Ethnic Identity of Northern, Siberian and Far Eastern Indigenous Peoples in the Republic of Buryatia pp. 17-30


Abstract: Object of research is to study processes of ethnic and cultural identification and self-identification, the characteristic North for indigenous people and Siberia, living in the Republic of Buryatia. The problem of research specific Post-Soviet the practician of preservation of a unique cultural heritage of the indigenous small people is put. Legal mechanisms, information cultural practicians, art cultural practicians are considered. It is suggested that modern practicians of preservation of ethnocultural identity of indigenous people of the North and Siberia are genetically connected with the Soviet cultural policy. Still key role belongs to state regulation which is carried out not so much by means of law-making, how many by means of activity of executive bodies of the power in subjects of the Russian Federation. The main method - field researches in places of compact accommodation of the indigenous small people of the North, Siberia and the Far East under the leadership of the author in 2010-2013. As important methods poll and questioning, processing of results of questioning, focus group, expert interviews act. As a result of the conducted research the following conclusions, the contents elements of scientific novelty were drawn:1 . In the Republic of Buryatia of a measure of the state support of ethnocultural identichnost of the indigenous small people by means of legal mechanisms carry "secondary" character in relation to the federal legislation. The republic has no own unique regional legislation connected with preservation of a unique cultural heritage of indigenous people, measures of the state support of the native languages of these people. However this situation means that support of processes of ethnocultural identity of the indigenous small people in this subject of the Russian Federation is carried out by means of other mechanisms, which, probably, not especially in special legal guarantees.2 . For a state policy on support of ethnocultural identity of the indigenous small people in the Republic of Buryatia the specific Post-Soviet practicians connected by are characteristic that the executive body of the government – the Ministry of Culture – assumes the organization, coordinating, the budgetary financing of a number of the actions which sources of carrying out root in the Soviet cultural policy. These are calendar national holidays, support of national creativity, amateur performances. It is difficult to tell what would be processes of ethnocultural identity without these active actions of the state. It is possible to assume that assimilation processes which are fixed by demographers, would be much more intensive, than now.3 . The state language policy in the Republic of Buryatia in relation to the native languages of indigenous people is also connected not with law-making, and with support existing pedagogical and information the practician on teaching of the native languages at schools, and also on functioning of information resources in the Evenki language. The Soyot language is in more difficult situation, than Evenki. It is obvious that the cultural heritage of Soyots needs more intensive state protection, than now.
Robustova E.V. - Ethical characteristics of everyday life of the Besermyan in the Experience of Ethnographic Research by N. P. Steinfeld pp. 25-32


Abstract: The object of this research is the publicistic documental “The Besermyan” –  the experience of unrenowned author of the turn of XIX – XX centuries Nikolai Pavlovich Steinfeld. The subject of this research is the moral and household lifestyle of the Besermyan – the indigenous people localized in the territory near Cheptsa River Basin. The author underlines that distinctness and traditional values of culture the Besermyan people have been retained until the present, this is why in the late XX century, their historical name has been restored in the register of independent peoples of Russia. The methods of historiographical analysis allow conducting critical analysis of the popular science composition of N. P. Steinfeld on the Besermyan as a written ethnographic source of the late XIX century. Assessment is conducted on the level of historical authenticity of reflection of lifestyle and habitudes of the Besermyan in prerevolutionary period. Considering current ethnographic data and practical tasks on preservation of cultural heritage of the past, the author determines the scientific-historical meaning of Steinfeld’s article as one of that provides fullest description of culture of the Besermyan in prerevolutionary scientific works.
Pimenova N.N. - Cultural Heritage of the Small Indigenous Groups of Krasnoyarsk Krai and the Present-day Cultural Practices pp. 28-66


Abstract: The subject of the research is the contents and the form of keeping and transmitting the cultural heritage of the small indigenous groups of Krasnoyarsk Krai (the Evenkis, the Nganasan, the Chulyms).The author performed ethnographic studies in the areas of the Chulyms’ compact settlement in the village of Pasechnok, Tjukhtetski Region, Krasnoyarsk Krai. Vectors of the changes in the cultural space of the small indigenous groups in the conditions of globalization and reindustrialisation of the Russian Federation Nothern Territories are represented on the basis of the present-day cultural practices and their reflection in the scientific literature.  The site studies methods, modeling of social types (M. Weber) were used. The conceptual analysis of the notion “cultural heritage” had a great meaning as well as the critical revision of scientific texts on the topic of the cultural heritage of the small indigenous groups of the North, Siberia and the Far East. It is proved that the post-Soviet methods of keeping the cultural heritage of the small indigenous groups of Krasnoyarsk Krai comes, mostly, to making it a part of museum exhibitions, assigning the cultural symbols of shamanism by the cultural group. In connection with this a special cultural phenomenon of neoshamanism has appeared which is rather a representation of postmodernist cultural practices than that of the premodernist. We may observe the difference between the vectors of a real social economic and cultural situation of the small indigenous groups of Krasnoyarsk Krai. These differences between the vectors are connected with the processes of modernization and reindustrialization of the Siberian regions of the Russian Frderation. The differences are also observed in the cultural practices connected with the ethnic identity (where the exotic peculiarities of the small indigenous groups of the Siberia can be seen). Solution of this contradiction is bind to the virtualization of the cultural space of the Nothern peoples and to the rules and regulations mechanisms that regulate the usage of cultural signs and symbols of the Nothern nations.
Lebedev S.V., Maksimovich V.F. - Russian North: historical and ethno-cultural peculiarities of formation of the Russian region pp. 28-63


Abstract: The Subject of research is the study of historical and cultural phenomenon of the Russian North. The Russian North is a unique historical and cultural region of Russia. The history, particular social conditions, isolation from the Central Russia, which contributed to the preservation of arts and crafts, gave it special features. However Northern conditions contributed to the initiative, persistence, widespread literacy, which led to the fact that the North did not become a living ethnographic Museum, and remains a modern, highly urbanized Russian region in which not only preserved but also developed many kinds of folk art. The following methodological approaches are used in the paper: cultural and anthropological, historical and cultural. The main research methods are specifically historical, dialectical, comparative analysis. The main conclusions of the research are: the explanation of the phenomenon of the Russian North by the presence of the geographic remoteness of the region from the Central Russia; the absence of serfdom in the history of the North; the predominance of old believers among the population in the past; late industrialization and urbanization of the Russian North. All the factors favoured the creation of a unique cultural space, in which different Russian Northern folk arts and crafts (Kholmogory bone carving, Severodvinsk painting on wood, Vologda lace-making, Veliky Ustyug blackening of silver and more) received the development, in the Russian North. Majority types of folk art in the North continue to evolve in the XXI century. The study materials can be used in the development of training courses on Russian History of Art and also Ethnology in educational institutions of professional education.
Trushkina E.Y. - Anthropology of visual communication: history and methodology pp. 29-43


Abstract: The article iis focused on the history of development, as well as theoretical and methodological bases of anthropology of visual communication on the example of S. Worth and J. Adair's works. Relations between cinema technologies and methods of cultural anthropology of the second half of the XX century are analysed. Various aspects of ethnographic filming are considered. Transformations of theoretical and methodological attitudes of anthropologists at differents stages of development of discipline are analyzed. Some concepts of visual anthropology, first of all - concepts of biodocumentary and indigenny cinema are considered in details. Some approaches of philosophy and methodology of science, phenomenology, and methods of the source studies relating to analysis of audiovisual documents are used. The main contribution of the author is finding out the ways of understanding by anthropologists of what the film is and what its functions are. It was found that both considered researcher, S. Worth and J. Adair, dealt with basic issues of the nature of visual means (media) and a role of visual images in forming and structuring reality. Their ideas shaped the basis for the theory of ethnographic semiotics and development of anthropology of visual communication - the direction which determines development of the visual anthropological theory and practice today.
Fedorov S.I. - Economic activity of the Yakuts in the conditions and climate change and deficit of cold temperature: traditional practices and challenges of modernity pp. 37-48


Abstract: This article examines the questions pertaining to economic activity of the Yakuts in the conditions of climate change and “deficit of cold temperatures. Such aspects of agricultural activity as horse breeding, animal husbandry, hunting, and horticulture. An attempt is made to assess the scale of influence of changing climate upon the traditional life and industries of horse breeders, animal farmers, and hunters of the rural areas of Sakha Republic (Yakutia), as well as examine which difficulties they face and how they respond to the challenges of modernity. The acquired field materials are collected through the methods of overt observation, in-depth interview, audio, photo and video records. The attention is focused on the rural population who show concern over the situation of their households under such fast-paced circumstances: they do not know what to expect from nature next year, and many of them are not capable of handling the emerged problems. The main conclusions consist in revelation of certain problems in the life of rural population in the territories of Sakha Republic that emerge due to the climatic changes.
Tsydypova L.S. - To the question of impact of transformation of Barguzin Buryats lifestyle in 1930s 1960s upon the specificities of national costume pp. 40-46


Abstract: This article examines the reflection of transformation of lifestyle in everyday clothes of Barguzin Buryats. The process of formation of new daily routine provided for new type of livelihood; a new type of interaction between human and the environment. The external peculiarities of traditional clothes of the ethnos organically correlation with the internal cultural-worldview representations and constants. Changes in the external look of traditional clothes of the ethnos, in turn, characterize the level of adjustment to the external environment. An important role in formation of the traditions of manufactured clothes has played the type of natural landscape. Qualitative method of research of the traditional clothes during the period of transformation gives an idea about the origins of one or another form of separate components of clothes. The analysis of informative interview allows understanding the organization of internal structure of the ethnic community during the considered timeframe. The objects and elements of socioeconomic relations of inoethnic groups of the territory find reflection in the process of transformation of the traditional clothes; multiple elements of design and décor have been borrowed. Mechanism of transfer and functionality of the cultural traditions allowed researching the meaning of the space-time ties in the traditional ethnic apparel. As one of the key sources of the work were used the field materials related to the time of Soviet reforms in the lifestyle of Barguzin Buryats.
Riazanova E. - Priorities of Muslim youth with regards to spending spare time in modern Germany pp. 45-53


Abstract: This article analyzes how the young ethnic Muslims of 2nd and 3rd generations who were born in Germany, as well as Muslim students studying in Germany, spend their spare time. The author used such methods as field ethnographic observation and unstructured interview with the respondents. The pool of respondents was formed via snowball sampling. Studying the pastime of Muslim youth, the author was able to trace the degree of their integration into German society. Since multiple sociocultural needs are usually fulfilled during the spare time, examination of the leisure of youth allows determining moral and spiritual image of a person. This article is first to analyze leisure time of ethnic Muslims residing in Germany based on the field material acquired by the author, which defines the scientific novelty of this research. The conclusion is made that usually ethnic Muslims of 2nd and 3rd generations (young people without higher education) spend their spare time on the Internet, doing sport or entertaining activities. Young Muslims studying in the universities prefer intellectual leisure activities: reading, visiting museums and exhibitions. The priorities of young Muslims of the 2nd and 3rd generation resemble a slow paced level life, keeping it easy, with no ambition in getting higher education. For Muslim students or Muslims who already received higher education, the priority in pastime include spiritual and cultural development, accumulation of investments and landing a highly-skilled job with decent salary.
Yakovleva K.M., Prokopieva A.N. - Yakut traditional costume: the search for identity pp. 62-70


Abstract: This article considers the Yakut traditional costume, which has attracted particular attention of the public and scholars in Sakha Republic (Yakutia) since 1990’s. For the past quarter of a century, Yakut folk costume became an object of the various experiments and reconstructions in the process of reviving national traditions. Such peculiar attitude on the traditional costume demonstrates the transformation of people’s ethnic identity, which developed under the influence of the national and regional historical events, and at this point has reached completion. The theoretical-methodological basis for this research in accordance with its interdisciplinary characters consists of the following methods: systemic, historical-typological, cultural-historical, socio-cultural, ethnographic surveying and recording of oral tradition trough in-depth interview, photo and video facts. The conducted research allowed revealing particular attitude on the folk costume, and certain hidden dispute in the society concerning of how the Yakut traditional costume should look like. This leads to an important question: how the look of the traditional costume relates to the understanding of native culture, ethnic identity and the need to show it with differentiation of the “native and foreign”.
Kanasz T. - Attitudes Towards Poverty and Wealth in Polish, Belarusian and Russian Cultures pp. 63-105
Abstract: The article is built on the thematic-rhematic analysis of Polish, Russian and Belarusian proverbs about poverty and wealth. Special attention is paid to the characteristics of Polish, Russian and Belarusian mentalities. The results of the given research show similarities in understanding of poverty and wealth in three cultures. The attitudes towards poverty and wealth are ambivalent in traditional and contemporary societies. In all cultures analysed we found both dispraise and praise of poverty and wealth.
Spektor D.M. - Symbolic exchange, death, and mystery of gift pp. 68-83


Abstract: The subject of this article is the symbolic exchange in its connection with “death” and mystery of gift. The author thoroughly examines such aspects of the topic as archaic equivalence of the value and sacred object of the exchangeable females. Special attention is given to the primary nature of sacrifice that is not the subject of exchange (with gods, dead, etc.), but inspires the “state of enthusiasm” and justifies the (secondary) value of exchangeable things (value). Sacrificial offering on one hand, and exogamy on the other, if meticulously reconstructed, allows re-creating the gift-exchange logic – a substrate of human subjectivity, realized by the inter-communal relationship. The method of this research is associated with the analysis and historical reconstruction of the gift, sacrifice, and symbolic exchange. Its logical counterpoint lies in criticism of the existing interpretations. The scientific novelty consists in proof of the fact that the act of exchange “generates the surplus value”, transforming the object (women) from the given into impersonal and generalized “consumer product” as the primary prototype of “commodity”, in which the common property – usefulness – dominates over the singular specificity. Without having understood of the initial profit of exchange, it is impossible to understand the development of its forms.
Dmitriev I. - Anthropology of fashion of the Russian diaspora in 1920s 1930s on the pages of emigrant magazine Illustrated Russia pp. 72-82


Abstract: The goal of this article is to determine the level of impact of the emigrant magazine “Illustrated Russia” (1924-1939) for the history of development of the world fashion industry of 1920’s – 1930’s. The author analyzes a wide range of publication from the “Illustrated Russia” dedicated to the fashion theme (articles on the male and female fashion with images; advices on selecting wardrobe, hairstyle and makeup; advertisements of clothes and accessories manufactures) through identification of correlation between the fashionable trends and social processes of that period. Particular emphasis is made on the activity of the Russian emigrants in fashion industry of the 1920’s – 1930’s and their role in development of the aesthetics of fashion in the XX century. The author comes to a conclusion that the materials of the emigrant magazine “Illustrated Russia” help restoring the retrospective picture of evolution of the global fashion industry in the 1920’s – 1930’s and contribute to studying the anthropology of fashion of the Russian diaspora of the early XX century.
Sharaeva T.I. - When speaking of the wedding, even a withered scull is rolling (to the question of the meaning of sheeps head in wedding rituals) pp. 73-81


Abstract: The subject of this research is the semantics of sheep head in wedding rituals of the Kalmyks. In the the traditional wedding ceremony, offerings to various patrons, ancestors and sun bestowing prosperity and good life. Rituals with throwing the sheep’s head out of chimney among the Turko-Mongol peoples were aimed at requesting abundance in life of the newly married couple, childbirth, and blessing of the dwelling. In cultural traditions it was considered that sheep has “solar” nature, possesses cleansing, protective and fruitful power. In the course of this study, the author applies the comparative and problematic approaches, as well as semiotic approach in examining separate elements of the rituals and their interpretation. The conclusion is made that the a solar symbol smeared with oil on forehead of the bride is currently correlated with the idea of “solar nature” of a sheep, its sacrificial mission in the rites of offering, rebirth and request for protection, ritual “substitution” of a human. The offering of sheep’s head with cults to the senior generation was related to the cult of ancestors and the concept of “opening” of sacred channels for achieving the ultimate connection through the ritual actions.
Fedorov S.I., Yakovlev A.I. - Transformation of the culture of life sustenance of modern Yakuts (on the example of hunting) pp. 84-90


Abstract: This article raises the question of current socio-cultural processes, namely transformation of the traditional culture of Yakuts. This process captures all areas of daily life – from chores to leisure and festive activities. Practically all aspects of human life are subjected to transformation; however, the field observations demonstrated that in the Central and Western parts of Sakha Republic remains an “islet”, which is not overly affected by the transformation – the hunting. The article explores the questions regarding hunting activity of the Yakuts based on the ethnographic and field materials, accumulate in the territories of Olyokminsk, Vilyuysky, Verkhnevilyuysky and Nyurbniksky districts of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia). The study provides an ethnographic review of hunting methods, as well as certain rituals and pretenses associates with hunting activity in Yakutia. The authors also give characteristics to the changes in the traditional industry, as well as the attitude of modern hunters to their activity.
Riazanova E. - Change of food culture and traditions of Muslim Germans after religious conversion pp. 94-103


Abstract: Currently, more and more people all over the world change their religious identity. This research is dedicated to Germans who converted to Islam. The subject of this article is the adherence to the religious traditions, such as consumption of halal products, fasting during a holy month of Ramadan. The goal is to analyze the transformation of food culture and traditions of convert Germans. Special attention is given to observation of transition towards new food culture (refusal from pork and alcohol), as well as difficulties faced by the converts in the process. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that this article is first within national historiography to review the question of newly-converted Germans based on the field material collected by the author in the territory of Germany. The following conclusions were made: in religious alternation, a convert may disobey religious practices, such as food products prohibited in Islam (alcohol, pork), as well as avoid fasting; in religious conversion, it is a must to adhere to all rules prescribed in Quran (fasting, only halal products). Transformation of food culture is often accompanied by personal feelings, can be gradual or instantaneous.
Markova V.N. - Ethnic and diasporic self-consciousness of the Korean diaspora of modern Kazakhstan through the prism of sociocultural processes pp. 94-104


Abstract: This article focuses on the phenomenon of Korean diaspora in Kazakhstan – a unique phenomenon in the diaspora studies. Having a racial-anthropological homogeneity with the inhabitants of Korean Peninsula, the Koreans of Kazakhstan have lost multiple ethnic traits: native language, anthroponymy, blood relationships on their historical homeland. Despite this fact, the representatives of Korean ethnos identify themselves as part of the ancient Korean culture, honor their native traditions, and state their nationality as “Korean” in the population census. An important role in conveyance of culture and spiritual values of the diaspora is played by public organizations. The Assembly of the People of Kazakhstan, Association of the Koreans of Kazakhstan, State Republican Academic Korean Theater of Musical Comedy, and Korean House are the anchors that support the diaspora and contribute to preservation of historical belonging and self-consciousness. Methodological framework is comprised of historiographical analysis of the works of Korean studies scholars dedicated to the history of Korean diaspora in Central Asia, monitoring of the legislative framework of Kazakhstan and news agenda, interviews of individual representatives of the diaspora. The conducted research proves that diasporality is a more vital form of preservation of ethnocultural identity than the ethnic attribution by linguistic or anthropological principle. Living far from their historical homeland for centuries, the representatives of Koryo-Saram continue identifying themselves as Koreans. They have gone through the key stages of assimilation, integrated into the system of social relations, and consider themselves Kazakhs of Korean descent. As long as the indicated ethnocultural group acknowledges its uniqueness and difference from other ethnic groups of Kazakhstan, the diasporic self-consciousness, Korean diaspora and its institutions would exists.
Marfusalova V.P. - Functional and ethnocultural meaning of traditional garments of peoples of the North (on the example of winter clothing of the Evenki) pp. 103-109


Abstract: The subject of this research is traditional garments of the Evenki – an indigenous ethnic community of the North. The Evenki are widely scattered due to the nomadic lifestyle. At the same time, they preserve the sustainable ethnocultural cluster united as a single nation. The article examines winter outfitting of the Evenki, as well as analyzes the functionality of its elements, decorativeness and aesthetics. The classic winter garment consists of six parts fastened between each other with leather laces. It is meant for keeping them warm, and was created for convenience during the time of hunting or other activities. The Evenki retained and continue to develop such functional significance in their current daily activities. The clothing embroidery used to have sacred meaning and carried a specific information load that must be considered in making the modern traditional clothing. The research methodology is based on the analysis of literary sources, examination of the object of research from the perspective of historical-ethnographic value, practical implication and aesthetic value. The following conclusions were made: the functionality of garments of the nomadic peoples of the North is an important factor that requires comprehensive and systemic analysis for the purpose of its utilization in the current living conditions in Arctic region; traditional clothing of the Evenki is first and foremost meant for heat conservation and convenience during hunting and other activities; this functional significance is being preserved in the modern life activities; the décor used to carry sacred meaning, which must be taken into account in making the modern traditional garments.
Kannykin S.V. - Sociocultural substantiation of running in the traditional games and ethnosport pp. 128-142


Abstract: The subject of this research is the determination of sociocultural specificity of running practices within the framework of traditional games and ethnosport. Despite considerable amount of works dedicated to the traditional games and ethnosport, scholars’ attention has not been previously drawn to sociocultural peculiarities of running as the most universal form of physical activity of the amateur participant or a professional athlete, which substantiates the relevance of the selected topic. Traditional games and ethnosport perform an important mission in modern world – they impart sports and competitive activity with humanism, instilling the elements of folk culture. Running, as a universal component of sports, becomes one of the means of consolidation, demonstration, and translation of ethnic values within the framework of traditional games. The author reveals the following peculiarities of running in the sociocultural situation of traditional games and ethnosport: running as an element of military games and traditional non-militarized team games; running as an element of mating ritual; running as am entertainment; utilitarian oriented running; substitute running. The ideological foundation of running in the context of traditional games and ethnosport is a myth; the considered form of running is humanistically oriented, as it does not suggest over limit body burden and full subordination of a person to sport; running is a method of psycho-emotional relief and helps to achieve harmony with the nature; it is gender-specific and often specialized running; it ensures solidarity of a social group; a form of expressing patriotism; an important element of event tourism; a substantial component of ethnopedagogy; an element of ethnic dance; an element of children's game’ a type of economic activity inherent to a particular nation.
Fedorova A.R., Sleptsova A.A. - Reflection of the image of mammoth in spiritual culture of the peoples of Yakutia pp. 164-170


Abstract: The object of this research is the image of mammoth in spiritual culture of the peoples inhabiting Yakutia. Mammoth fauna has always, in one or another way, affected the social, economic and even political spheres of people’s life, and of course, it left an imprint on the spiritual life in form of the myths, legends and mythical images. These representations played a substantial role in spiritual culture of the peoples of Yakutia; therefore, this article attempts to view them in the folklore of mammoth archetype as a part of ethnic culture. There is scattered data regarding the representations of different peoples on mammoth fauna. Usually, such myths are described with the entire range of folklore of a particular ethnos, and were not viewed comprehensively in the common context. The novelty of this research consists in the attempt of collection, systematization and analysis of information on the role of mammoth in folklore of the peoples of Yakutia, as well as identification of the categories of images reflecting the traditional representations on mammoths and their regional peculiarities. It is concluded, that the representations of mammoth among the peoples of Yakutia can be divided into two categories: more realistic eastern (the Ykaghir and the Chukchi), and more mythical western (the Yakut, the Even, and the Evenks). For all of the listed ethnoses, mammoth is an important and sacred animal, who has chthonic traits, but also carries the religious mediation functions.  
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