Man and Culture - rubric Theoretical culturology and the theory of culture
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Man and Culture" > Rubric "Theoretical culturology and the theory of culture"
Theoretical culturology and the theory of culture
Rozin V.M. - Thoughts of Architecture (the Dialogue Initiated by Alexander Rappaport pp. 1-34


Abstract: The author of the article discusses the origin and essence of architecture as well as its theoretical interpretation. The author disputes with Alexander Rappaport's statement about architecture being created already in the ancient world. According to the author of the article, the process of architectural development has passed the three main stages. At the first stage ancient people created sacral monuments allowing them to 'talk' to the gods or live in the afterworld. The second stage (the Early Modern Period) was the formation of architecture as it is as a kind of art, direction of designing  (architectural design) and applied science. The third stage (modern times) has led to the crisis of the architectural thought partly caused by the uncertaint reality and future of the mankind. The author also describes the nature and the main purpose of architecture and supports Alexander Rappaport's concept according to which the new theory of architecture should be viewed as the anthropological and culturological discipline. 
Chistyakova V.O. - Le cinéma in the categories of 'Space' and 'Time' in Culture (Experience of Theoretical Analysis) pp. 1-20


Abstract: The paper is focused on the categories of "place" (space) and "time" as categories of culture. Being qualitatively painted, they change in the context of these or those communication technologies (media). The major technology such is the cinema: it modifies space and time in perception of audience. The changed temporal substance as audience's experience in connection with the cinema was analyzed by a lot of scholars. In the present article we attempt to connect the concepts "location" and "temporal structure" in the point of cinema as cultural phenomenon. We use the phenomenology as research method allowing to describe a phenomenon of cinema as data of experience of the perceiving consciousness. Among the main conclusions of the research there is a thesis about the cinema as sensuous expression of possibility of the world as the whole. The cinema "gives the time", i.e. the present moment, "here and now", giving feeling of integrity. Remaining the part of the "space" of culture, that is taking its own "place" in it, the cinema creates the image of the world as integrity in which it is impossible "to take part" and, therefore, to make it the "part" of wider row of culture.
portnova t. - Ballet and Sculpture (Theoretical Description of Expressive Language of Plastic Arts Through Synchronic Analysis) pp. 16-31


Abstract: As research the most indicative couple of plastic arts - ballet art and a sculpture is chosen. Nature of interaction of a sculpture and dance in aspect of its division into types and types is comprehended.Important elements of interrelations of the ballet and sculpture are considered: volume and countervolume, silhouette and invisible borders, foreshortening and composition, treatment of light and shade and form, spatial interval and plastic image. The esthetic nature of the plastic beginning in some statements of famous choreographers of XIX and XX centuries reveals. Concepts the plastic language, sculptural dramatic art, visual style entered by the author into research allow to perceive elements of choreographic expressiveness, it is good to feel all volume of scenic and graphic and plastic information. Article is focused on acquaintance with the conceptual device and methodology of synthetic research, in relation to research of adjacent arts. The typological system method allowed to reveal features of expressive language of ballet art and a sculpture, and the comparative analysis to designate points of intersection between them. For the first time the comparative analysis of language analogies of these types of creativity, identity of means of expression, parallels in creation of artistic images by means of similar composition methods, plastic forms, technical means and style decisions is given. The author's concept of article is consolidated to conclusions about the importance of work of the choreographer and artist with space and the three-dimensional image, visual dramatic art and dynamics of acting skills, confirmed with a number of statements from archival sources and memoirs materials.
Ilivitskaya L.G. - Diagnostic model of the city: a chronotopic approach pp. 36-46


Abstract: The object of this research is the city viewed as a multilayered semantic phenomenon. The needs of transdisciplinary nature determine the vector of its analysis in light of the possibility of application of diagnostic approach, which incorporates the theoretical and practical aspects, cognitive and transformative sides. The goal consists in the development of diagnostic model of the city as a cultural phenomenon. The position is defended on the limitation of classical diagnostic search applicable to the so-called city. The prospects of its research correlate with the nonclassical interpretation of diagnostics, which views it as methodology of cognition. The basic method of this research is modelling. The development of diagnostic model of the city is founded on M. M. Bakhtin’s concept of chronotope. Namely chronotope is determines as the basic parameter underlying its construct. Incorporating the spatiotemporal parameters of the city and their cultural meanings, it allows recording the temporal-topos configurations in city motion, which reflect various qualitative states of its existence, set by the past, present and future. The author offers a ternary model of the city, consisting of historical-cultural, eventful, and innovative chronotopes. The formulated conclusions indicate that the proposed chronotopes can be viewed separately or following the principle of complementarity, which allows assessing the city from the perspective effective arrangement of urban space, as well as the presence of problematic fields therein.
Dzekh A.V. - Culturological potential of environmental ideas pp. 38-48


Abstract: This article examines the influence of environmental ideas upon culturology and the definition of culture itself. The author briefly describes the process of establishment of environmentalism as an interdisciplinary approach, as well as to its key principles. Special attention is given to the research which can serve as an example of a successful integration of environmentalism into humanitarian sciences, as well as to the analysis of their heuristic value. The author demonstrates how overcoming the traditional thinking opposition of nature and culture, implemented within the framework of environmentalism, clarifies the methodological orientations of the cultural research and leads to formation of the new scientific directions and disciplines. The conclusion is made that the traditional conceptualization of the notion of culture through comparison with nature, decreases its relevance under the influence of the environmental concepts. An active process of search and formation of the new approaches towards the study of culture, which suggest the new ways of understanding of the human-nature relations, is taking place in the context of environmentalism.
Rybakova N.A. - The Essence of Teacher's Self-Actualization from the Point of View of the Humanitarian Approach pp. 42-51


Abstract: Object of research in this article is self-updating of the teacher. An object of research – its essence from the point of view of humanistic approach. The humanistic psychology which developed by 60th years of the XX century in the western science became a counterbalance to postulates of a freydizm and a behaviorism, peculiar by "the third force" in relation to them. This concept for the first time in the center of studying put the "complete" person, with all individual and unique features inherent in it. The author analyzes ideas of value of each person as persons, recognitions behind it of the right for free development and manifestation of own abilities which are still actual and intensively develop in modern science. The special attention is paid to self-updating consideration as the phenomenon opposed to a manipulyatorstvo. Method of research is the analysis of interpretation of concept of self-updating as psychological phenomenon in scientific literature, and also generalization on the basis of which the essence of this phenomenon comes to light. The main conclusions of the author are that self-updating is initiated by the corresponding congenital requirement which characterizes the highest level of the potrebnostny sphere of the person; self-updating is provided, mainly, with intra personal conditions though effective incentive for it are also conditions of an external order; self-updating isn't end in itself; adequate self-updating requires comparison of with Another, interaction with it; results of self-updating should be estimated as in individual, and social plans; sensibleness – an indispensable condition of adequate self-updating.Novelty of article consists that in it scientific experience of humanistic psychology concerning essence of self-updating of the personality and, specifically, the teacher is generalized. On the basis of the received results, the author considers self-updating of the teacher as the conscious process provided with the corresponding internal and external conditions, ability to interact with other people, an adequate self-assessment. Thus efficiency of self-updating has to be estimated both in individual, and in social plans.
Kumakova D.B. - Artistic research and the concept of art as a production of knowledge: origins and contradictions pp. 55-61


Abstract: The object of this research is the contemporary artistic practices formed in the field of art following the 1960’s. The subject of this research is the specificity of artistic research and the concept of “art as a production of knowledge”. Main attention is given to the social origins of this phenomenon, which the author sees in the development of immaterial labor and dematerialization of the work of art. The article also reviews the basic prerequisites for the formation of artistic research as an art practice, as well as determines its peculiarities. In the course of this research, the author applies the general scientific methods, such as: conceptualization, empirical material, interpretative method, method of systematicity in studying cultural occurrences, as well as dialectical approach that allows detecting contradictions and multidirectional trends within the phenomenon under consideration. The scientific novelty consists in determination of the key characteristics of artistic research as an art practice. The research result lies in multidimensional description of the new phenomenon of artistic live along with its impact upon the artistic environment, as well as demonstration of examples of the recent artistic research conducted in Russia.
Krushinovskaya E.G. - Technification of human body as a practice of removing biological restrictions pp. 65-76


Abstract:   This article is dedicated to comprehension of the idea of technification of body, as well as practical results and consequences of its implementation. The author examines the emergence of individual dimensionality of body, its relevant perception, as well as goals and meanings of the heightened technoscientific attention toward it. The idea of radical transformation of a human, is acquiring the status of feasible, and the purpose of such transformation consists in elimination of natural principles, and thus, predetermination of a human through gradual technification of body — imposition of high technologies for modification of its external and internal structure. A human is essentially opposed to the natural world, his initial biological “insufficiency” assigns the ability to transcend the givenness, which underlies the establishment and evolution of culture. Such circumstance in a certain way is the cause of instrumental attitude to the body, which is of biological origin. In the process of cultural development, body acquires the status of personal property, which means liberation from its nonhuman determination. In the modern context, the aforementioned trends supported by technological progress and transhumanist expectations, result in the fact that body as a "soma", as a local autopoietic biosystem is being abated. The elimination of the purpose of human body set by nature is interpreted as “self-sovereignty"; however, the abolition of natural determinism implies the emergence of technological determinism.  
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