Man and Culture - rubric Culturology and cultural studies
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Man and Culture" > Rubric "Culturology and cultural studies"
Culturology and cultural studies
Vorobev A.M. - Supervision and religious censorship in Imperial Alexander Lyceum during the period of 1811-1826 pp. 1-12


Abstract:   The subject of this research is the supervisory practice over the reading of religious literature by the lyceum students, which as a part of overall system of supervision in the Imperial Alexander Lyceum. Reading, including the non-educational material, was perceived as an intrinsic element of upbringing. Pedagogical censorship was extensively used as a regulatory reading practice of the students in educational facilities of the Russian Empire. Based on the materials from the library of the Imperial Lyceum in Tsarskoye Selo, the author analyzes the principles that determined the policy of enlightenment during the indicated timeframe. The work applies the historical and bibliographical methods, as well as the M. Foucault’s concept of the growing importance of supervision in the culture of Modern Times. Examination of the history of establishment of the content of library in Imperial Alexander Lyceum during the initial years of its existence, allowed the author for the first time in Russian science to meticulously analyze the question of implementation of censorship as a mechanism of formation of the reading circle for the students of the elite educational facility, which graduates had to fill the need of the empire in highly-educated officials. The attraction of the previously almost unstudied material demonstrated how the state educational policy during the ruling time of Alexander I affected the library of the secular educational facility.  
Balakireva T.A., Koloskov A.N. - Digital transformations in educational process: challenge of time pp. 1-9


Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of transformations in educational process during pandemic. Relevance of the selected topic is substantiated by the current cultural realities: contagion of coronavirus infection, quarantine, imposed restrictions, and thus, the need for restructuring communication channels in sociocultural reality, namely with regards to educational space. The goal consists in the analysis of new forms of communication, organizational education technologies that appeared in media space under the indicated circumstances. Characteristics is given to distance learning and communications means for its implementation. The author describes synchronous, asynchronous, and mixed learning techniques, as well as their substantive aspects. Such type of distance learning as online courses is being discussed. Particular attention is turned to the peculiarities of final academic assessment in the context of quarantine or self-isolation. In the conditions caused by pandemic, there emerges a need for more active usage of media space for arranging social, economic, and educational processes. The sphere of education, which is also related to health care of young generation, undergoes transformation taking into account the relevant sociocultural realities caused by pandemic. Such previously extracurricular forms of learning as synchronous, asynchronous, mixed, and online courses enjoy popularity, and even become essential. Final academic assessment in the conditions of imposed restrictions and distance learning acquires twofold meanings: on the one hand, there is a risk for distortion of perception of information in the course of graduate paper presentation, while on the other hand it forms a more comfortable psychological environment for the student due to being in a familiar environment. The newly established situation for culture and education in particular is the prime subject for researchers.  
Balash A.N. - Materials of V. S. Biblers lecture Culture and Museum by the Year 2000 in the context of relevant trends in development of museology pp. 22-28


Abstract: This article examines the text of V. S. Bibler’s lecture “Culture and Museum by the Year 2000”” (1977) published in the body of archival materials of the philosopher. In accordance with the research strategy of Bibler, the text carries a sketchy and incomplete character, and is open for interpretation. The author provides an analysis of relevance of Bibler’s idea for the modern museology in comparison with the concept of post-museum, used as an efficient model for describing the transformations of modern museum as a sociocultural institution. The article also studies Bibler’s ideas about the promising trends in development of museum as a cultural phenomenon in terms of the architectural and symbolic solution of the suggested concept. The author explores the indicated in the text model of spectator’s perception of the artworks in museum space that is presented as a transition of the visual image into the implicit speech of a spectator. The concept of comprehension as a “rapture” of composition and its cultural connotations is being reviewed. As the comparative material, the author analyzes the content of D. A. Prigov’s “Phantoms of Installations” that introduce the original visual concept of a museum, as well as determines the meaningful moments that allow pursuing correlation between the concepts of Bibler and Prigov. Installation “The Room of an Artist D. A. Prigov” in State Hermitage Museum is being considered as an example of visualization of the examined museum concepts. The author underlines the relevance of project of V. S. Bibler’s museum concept within the framework of the formulated by him concept of philosophical logics of culture. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that Bibler’s concept for the first tame is presented in the context of museological discourse, as well as interpreted as topical within the framework of discussions regarding the institutional specificity of post-museum in the modern cultural space.
Smirnova G.E. - Russian-speaking community of Great Britain today: stereotypical perception, new realities, and development prospects pp. 34-46


Abstract: The subject of this research is the Russian-speaking community of Great Britain in the modern sociocultural context, which is traditionally characterized by distinct national, cultural and social disunity. The object of this research is the Russian world of Great Britain within the framework of modern Russian-British relations and sociocultural context of the country of residence. The attitude towards Russian-speaking immigrants from the former USSR republics was affected by multiple stereotypes. The current changes in foreign policy, deterioration of relations between the two countries, amendments to British legislation, Brexit, on the one hand, while economic cooperation and cultural exchange between the countries on the other hand, influence life of the community, forming a new context of being in a foreign cultural environment. The novelty of this research lies in the attempt to assess the impact of the ongoing social processes upon the image, public perception, and quantitative indicator of the Russian community in Great Britain, which is extremely relevant due to the absence of such data in the research literature. Based on the historical and analytical analysis of media materials, sociological surveys, legislative and diplomatic documents, it becomes evident that the number of Russian-speaking citizens who are ready to make Britain their place of residence has significantly reduced compared to the end of the previous century, and there are no prospects that this number would increase. The lifestyle these people is also undergoing changes due to the introduction of new laws in Great Britain. In the conditions of the overall deterioration of political situation, the contacts in economic and cultural spheres remain unchanged, creating a positive image of Russia in the eyes of the British people, as well as the presence of initiatives to improve cooperation between the two countries.
Onegin N.S. - Museumification of the rooms of Nicholas II in the Winter Palace as a cultural-political project pp. 43-51


Abstract: In light of the current attempts to reconstruct the apartments of the Emperor Nicholas II in the Russian palaces with subsequent museumification, it seems relevant to refer to the historical-domestic exposition that existed in the rooms of imperial family in the Winter Palace during the period of 1922-1926 that is the object of research in this article. The subject of study is the factors of cultural, social, and political nature that affected the opening of the museum and its activity in the Winter Palace alongside the State Hermitage Museum and the State Central Museum of Contemporary History of Russia (former Museum of Revolution), as well as subsequent hasty closing of this exposition. Examination of the newly discovered archival materials and their comparison with the memoirs on the topic allowed to more carefully reconsider the specificity of functionality of the “Historical rooms” in Winter Palace, as well as determine the peculiarities of this exposition in the context of evolution of the museology in the 1920’s. As demonstrated in the documents, opening of the museum “The Historical Rooms of Alexander II and Nicholas II” has become possible due to the important factors of political, social, cultural and administrative character, and can be viewed as an agitation project of the Soviet government. In the course of this research, the author determined the causes of the opening of this exposition, describes the administrative issues, peculiarities of the work of museum guides, as well as the factors that led to the closing of the museum in Winter Palace.
Mokhtari S. - The role of the institution of temporary marriage in Iranian culture pp. 58-72


Abstract: In the history of Iran, the institution of temporary marriage is old-established. However, in different historical periods this institution had different forms and functions. Although temporary marriage did not receive public recognition among the Iranian people, this institution continues to exist in the Iranian society. The author attempts to determine the reasons for its perpetuation in the Iranian culture. Analysis is conducted on the dynamics of transformations of the institution of temporary marriage in the Iranian culture in different historical periods. The conclusions are acquired using the method of comparative-historical analysis of historical manuscripts and written testimonies. The author classifies and describes the three historical periods “Ancient Iran”, “The Initial Period of Islam prior to the Islamic Republic”, and “The Islamic Republic”. The results demonstrate that the institution of temporary marriage, which emerged on the basis of patriarchal culture of Iranian society, legitimately met individual needs, such as sexual desire, childbearing, livelihood; and social needs, such as inheritance, strengthening of social ties. In each historical period, this institution also performed special cultural functions revealed in the course of this research. There is yet no comprehensive and documented historical research, which would compare all historical periods in a single work.
Severina E.M. - Cultural concept in cognitive dimension pp. 81-93


Abstract: This article reviews the methodological principles of studying cultural concepts in the context of cognitive approach, possibilities for conducting reconstruction of certain fragments of linguistic worldview based on the material of digital text corpora. Leaning on the cognitive approach towards concept as a unit of structured and unstructured knowledge that forms cognition of a separate individual and culture as a whole, results of conceptual research of the texts of philosophers who view culture as symbolic creativity of a person associated with freedom (concepts of I. Kant, E. Cassirer, N. A. Berdyaev), the authors conducted reconstruction of certain fragments of the linguistic worldview and ordinary consciousness, correlated with the concept of “culture” in digital text corpora in the Russian and Anglo-Saxon cultures. Examination of the contexts of usage of verbal representations of the concept of “culture” in the digital text corpora of Russian language and different varieties of English language demonstrates that the crucial ideological values of Anglo-Saxon linguistic worldview are the following representations: culture is of instrumental nature; civilization is considered as the path development of humanity; freedom is viewed as an intrinsic right to freedom that should be protected, i.e. initial and inherent to a human. In the Russian-language texts, culture implies the value-based attitude towards world, mostly associated with the national culture; civilization is viewed in the context of a value-based attitude towards world, but as the path of development of humanity as a whole; freedom has value-based individual, personalistic connotation, supposed to be full, absolute, which is often understood as the liberty of action and choice. It is underlines that utilization of corpus methods allows reconstructing the techniques of formation of worldview, choice of value priorities, mechanisms of perception of surrounding reality in a specific culture from contexts of practical usage of the verbal manifestations of cultural concepts.
Karelina N.A. - Indigenous peoples of Canada: key indicators of the current stage of socioeconomic development pp. 182-192


Abstract: The subject of this research is the socioeconomic situation of the indigenous peoples of Canada at the present stage of their development. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of such key socioeconomic indicators as life expectancy of the representatives of indigenous population, employment and unemployment rate, average annual income, level of secondary and higher education, command of native language, etc. An attempt is made to determine the major factors of socioeconomic development, measures of state support, as well as the existing problems and future prospects. The author notes correlation between the modernization of education of indigenous peoples and preservation of their languages and cultural traditions. Since the early 2000s, the socioeconomic situation of indigenous peoples of Canada has somewhat improved, considering high rate of population growth, as well as slight minimization of the gap with nonindigenous Canadians such key indicators as life expectancy, employment rate, level of education, and average annual income. First and foremost, it pertains to the indigenous peoples outside Indian reservations and Mestizo. The situation with indigenous peoples in Indian reservations and the Inuit remains complicated. Majority of the problems that slow down the pace of socioeconomic development are associated namely with these groups of indigenous peoples. In economic terms, there is a noticeable increase of self-employment among the indigenous population, the development of aboriginal tourism. Positive changes are associated with popularization of the indigenous culture, which ultimately leads to the fact that more and more of the indigenous people in the country seek to legitimize their descent. Considering a significant share of young representatives of indigenous population, the government of Canada takes measures on the development of new programs in the sphere of education and employment, which are aimed not only at improving the quality of life of the indigenous peoples, but also at preserving their ethnocultural heritage.
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