Man and Culture - rubric Culture and science
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Man and Culture" > Rubric "Culture and science"
Culture and science
Ondar A.B. - Tuvan folk costume: problems of examination in the museum space pp. 1-6

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2017.6.24898

Abstract: Examination and preservation of the Tuvan national culture at the present time is one of the relevant directions in the cultural policy of the Tyva Republic and Russian Federation. Analysis of the scientific discourse has determined that the Tuvan culture, particularly the tradition of folk costume, remains insufficiently studied. The article makes an attempt to view the Tuvan ethnographic collections of clothes in the museums of Saint Petersburg, as well as provides the data on the history of formation of such collections and peculiarities of their examination based on the chronological method. The traditional costume complex of Tuvans is considered as a complex cultural phenomenon that contains the dichotomies on the grounds of the material and spiritual. The author substantiates that the authentic objects of historical-cultural heritage in form of the elements of Tuvan costume are retained in the museum collections of Russia, which reflects the modern sociocultural situation with noticeable ruination of the traditional manufacturing technologies of the costume components – clothes, headgear, shoes, and decorative elements, as well as loss of the knowledge on the décor semantics. The article suggests the periodization of formation of the Tuvan ethnographic collections of the late XIX – early XX centuries in the Russian museums that exhibit the elements of costume complex.
Tsvyk V.A., Savvina O.V. - Ethics of science and ethics of scientific publications pp. 8-22

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2017.3.19609

Abstract: The goal of this article is the analysis of current problems of the ethics of scientific publications. The authors examine the main principles of the ethics of scientific publications, as well as factors of emergence of violations in this sphere. It is stated that examination of the ethics of scientific publications must be realizes exceptionally in the context of science as a whole. Analysis of the ethical principles of a scholar and organization of activity among scholars within the framework of scientific institutions, demonstrates that violation of principles of the ethics of scientific publications result from the noncompliance of the high moral principles with the circumstances, which the scholars often are forced to work in. The article reviews the following major violation of the ethics of scientific publications: fabrication of data, plagiarism, self-plagiarism, pricing policy of journals, and others. The work indicates that despite the contradictions between the reality and ideal principles of ethics of a scholar, the scientific associates must lean on these principles in order to achieve success in their activity. Conclusion is made that the modern forms of reporting of scholars alongside the organization of scientometrics boost the increase in violation of the ethics of scientific publications.
Kimeeva T.I., Minenko G.N. - Artistic ethnic heritage and its conceptual field pp. 13-21

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2017.5.24671

Abstract: The object of this research is the artistic ethnic heritage as a cultural phenomenon. The subjectified results of artistic crafts existing in the traditional cultures, in modern era remain preserved only as the museum compilations. The study is based on the results of examination of the museum collections of the indigenous people of Siberia – the Shors and Bachatsky Teleuts in the 23 Russian museums and field research conducted in the habitat of these peoples by one of the authors of this article. The subject of the work is the determination of specificity of the structure of artistic culture of the Shors and Bachatsky Teleuts within the framework of analysis of the antecedent theoretical tradition. Using the structural functional method, the artistic ethnic culture correlated with various forms of economic activities of the indigenous people of Siberia, is being analyzed from the perspective of the following dimensions: information (spiritual-conceptual), institutional (organizational-structural), and morphological (zonal-visual). The main conclusion consists in the fact that due the ruination of the production technologies within the environment of existence of the subjects characterizing the artistic ethnic culture, the authors formulate the notion of the “object of artistic heritage”; indicate the methods of presentation of the objects of artistic heritage in the modern sociocultural space,  which include interpretation of the conceptual content of décor and decorating technologies, their reconstruction and translation.
Zubanova N. - Alexei Vasilyevich Filippov and the State Museum of Ceramics pp. 13-19

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.6.37013

Abstract: This article refers to previously unknown pages in the history of State Museum of Ceramics – its functioning as an industrial museum. The transformation of the Museum of Porcelain Art into the “industrial” State Museum of Ceramics took place in conditions of escalating discussion on the need for creating "industrial art” in the USSR. One of the initiators of such direction was the ceramic artist A. V. Filippov. His name earlier was not associated with the State Museum of Ceramics; however, Filippov contributed to the emergence of art-industrial laboratory in the museum structure, which not only experimented with manufacturing glazes and ceramic mixtures, but also set the production process. The novelty of this article lies in introduction into the scientific discourse of previously unknown archival documents, which allows tracing the history of origin of the art and ceramic laboratory. It was deemed that the structural division was opened in the State Museum of Ceramics. However, the laboratory was originally founded by A. V. Filippov at the Faculty of Ceramics of the Russian State Art and Technical School, then transferred to the Institute of Silicate Chemistry, and only in 1928 transferred from the Institute to the museum. The establishment of the laboratory has prompted a significant shift in the vector of development of the museum towards instusrial museum. It is also proven that Filippov developed the concept of exhibitory-manufacturing department in the museum, which included educational activity with interactive elements. These museum competencies would be in demand in the world museum practice only by the late XX century, which determines the activity of the State Museum of Ceramics during 1920s as innovative.
Seleznev A.V. - Periodization of history of the All-Union Society Knowledge based on the comparative and functional analysis of evolution of its target orientations, organizational foundations and structure pp. 17-33

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2018.1.25597

Abstract: The subject of this research is the evolution of target orientations of the cultural-educational activity of the All-Union Society “Knowledge”, transformation of the conceptual approaches towards integration of the Soviet intelligentsia into nonprofit organization that was called to raise the general cultural level of population, distribute the political and scientific knowledge in Soviet Union. Special attention is given to the question of the impact of target orientations upon the functions realized by the indicated nonprofit organization in Soviet society, as well as upon the organizational foundations and structure of the All-Union Society “Knowledge” itself. Leaning on the analysis of transformation of the goals and tasks, organizational foundations and structure of the All-Union Society “Knowledge”, established in various editions of the Charter of the organization, the author defines the key periods in the history of one or another cultural-educational organization. The author developed the theoretical concept of analysis of the activity of All-Union Society “Knowledge”, having suggested the original periodization of its history divided into three periods: 1947-1954; 1954-1982; 1982-1991. In accordance with the highlighted periods, took place the changes in conceptual approaches towards the educational and organizational activity of the All-Union Society “Knowledge”, understanding of its goals and tasks, which leads to transformation of the organizational foundations and structure of this Society.
Osipova N.V. - On the Question of Logical Culture of a Higher School Teacher pp. 21-41

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2015.2.15041

Abstract: The research object of the present article is the logical culture. The subject of the research is the logical culture of a teacher at a higher school. The author defines concept of logical culture of the person, considers its criteria, main from which are observance in intellectual and speech activity of fundamental laws of logic. Special attention is paid to the analysis of fragments from various manuals on philosophy, religious studies, concepts of modern natural sciences. Owing to relevance of the questions which are brought up in article it can be interesting and useful to teachers of the highest and average educational institutions both in theoretical, and in practical aspects.Research method in this article is the analysis of educational texts regarding violation of laws of logic in them. The main conclusions of the author are that the logical culture assumes observance of fundamental laws of logic in thinking and the speech, in oral and written texts, especially if they have educational value, that is are addressed to pupils in the form of lectures, textbooks, manuals, etc. However in the careful analysis it is noticeable that in texts of such books there are essential defects caused by unconscious violation of laws of logic. Novelty of article consists that in it an attempt of the analysis regarding violation of logical laws of educational texts which are a source of knowledge is made and have to be a standard for imitation in all aspects.
Pupysheva N.V., Boronoev V.V. - Pulse diagnostics of the Tibetan medical tradition: the experience of objectification of the basic principles of pulse diagnostics using a pulse diagnostic device. pp. 35-55

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.6.34260

Abstract: The study shows the experience of objectification of the basic characteristics of pulse waves in the diagnosis of the pulse of the Tibetan medical tradition. An experienced doctor – specialist in Tibetan pulse diagnostics can assess the functioning of the body (twelve internal organs and three psychophysiological systems) by feeling the pulse at six palpation points on the radial arteries of both wrists of the patient. The purpose of the study is to "teach" a pulse diagnostic device to recognize the diagnostically relevant characteristics of pulse waves. This study is an attempt to objectify the basics of pulse diagnostics. Although pulse diagnostics has always been a subjective art of a talented doctor, its basic knowledge can become part of an objective science, since it is based on real physical phenomena. Method. The article presents a method for measuring the pulse with a pulse diagnostic device in conditions that create certain predictable reactions of the body to an external stimulus, contributing to the calming of the rlung (wind) system in this case. A group of volunteers took part in the experiment. Conclusion. Such experiments provide material for the analysis of pulse waves obtained under specially created conditions, which contributes to the development of software for a pulse diagnostic device and confirms that the objectification of the basic provisions of pulse diagnostics of Tibetan medicine is possible, albeit to a limited extent. Similar studies based on the material of the Tibetan medical tradition have not been conducted anywhere else. The work consists of three parts: the first part is an extensive introduction, which provides information about Buddhist medicine and pulse diagnostics, without which it is difficult to understand the essence of the experiments conducted; the second part is devoted to the actual experimental measurements of the pulse using a pulse diagnostic device; the third part is the conclusion and conclusions drawn from the experiments conducted.
Tun D. - The peculiarities of development of culturology in Russia and China pp. 49-64

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.4.33469

Abstract: The subject of this research is the peculiarities of development of culturology in Russia and China. Based on comparative analysis of the studies dedicated to history, religion, language and mentality of both countries, the author reveals the key characteristics of cultural peculiarities of Russia and Chin. The interest towards this topic is substantiated by the existing cross-cultural contacts between Russia and China at various levels, as well as the factors and role of contiguity of different cultures in the period of globalization and cultural integration. The goal of this research consists in comparative analysis of the peculiarities of development of Chinese and Russian culturology. The author determines the peculiarities of development of the Russian and Chinese cultures, which allows forecasting the future and potential of both. The conclusion  is substantiated that Russian culture bears the traits characteristic to Western civilizations, while Chinese culture is typically Eastern. It is established that the peculiarities of development of culturology in Russia are closely related to education, and thus are of integrative nature (a combination of philosophical, sociological and psychological positions). The specifics of culturology in China is reflected in the fact that it is based on the ideas of Marxism, Neo-Confucianism and axiology. The conducted research contains the scientific novelty, since many scholars justifiably place emphasis on the cross-cultural dialogues. Namely these processes contribute to deepening the existing knowledge on peculiarities of Russian and Chinese cultures.
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