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Culture and Cult
Arapov A.V. - Metaphorical Language in Sacral Texts pp. 1-16


Abstract: The subject matter of the reserach is the metaphorical language in sacred texts. The term "metaphor" has an old story. Aristotle defined a metaphor as a figure of speech similar to comparison but in which there are no sheaves "as", "is similar" comparisons expressing an essence. The metaphor, unlike allegory, isn't intended for bit-by-bit interpretation, it can be understood only as whole. It has no the unambiguous key, allowing to receive the unique parallel deciphered text entirely expressing sense of a metaphor. The metaphor stores in itself diverse potentialities of the meanings which are staticizing in the course of her perception and interpretation. In work the social and philosophical analysis, the comparative analysis, the psychological analysis, and also general scientific methods are used. The comparative analysis allowed to define the general and special in structure and contents of sacral texts. Thanks to its application the main types of metaphors and the symbols which are universal for sacral texts of various traditions were revealed, and also to define specifics of their realization in various texts. Possibility of use of metaphors for the description Sacral, is based on analogy between Sacred and wordly, God and the person. The metaphor leans on known of empirical experience, just as a metaphysical discourse – on known of a rational reasoning. The metaphor and metaphysics recognizes that the relations of God and the person, God and the world can be described in terms taken of human life. Such opportunity, first, relies on analogy between the Creator and his creation which in medieval philosophy was called as "Analogia entis" - "analogy of life". If the person is an image and similarity of God, means and God can be considered in a certain degree just like the person. Secondly, possibility of a metaphor is based on possibility of dialogue between the person and God, carried out by means of a prayer and reading the Scriptus. If good luck it is possible to carry on dialogue, so it at least in a certain aspect is the personality. For the avraamicheskikh of religions the lichnostnost of God is self-evident. But even in an advayta-vedant the Brahman acts not only as the impersonal absolute, but also as personal God (Ishvara). And in those religions where it isn't supposed existence of uniform personal God, dialogue between the person and separate deities is possible. The known anthropomorphism of metaphors shouldn't confuse us. Actions of God understood as "You" or "personal God", are understood also as acts of man, comprehended through paradigms of human activity. For the religious person these paradigms are set by actions of God and other protagonists belonging to the transcendental world. For critically adjusted thinker opposite, the description of actions of the Deity is transfer to the transcendental sphere of the human relations. Anyway allocation of such paradigms of interpersonal interaction by means of which is lawful the relations of God and the world are described. We don't apply for the solution of metaphysical questions and we are limited only to the statement about correlation existence between paradigms of human activity and the human relations on the one hand and the description of actions of divine persons of sacral texts and their relations with people on the other hand. 
Skorobogacheva E.A. - The problem of correlation between the vector and archetypical in the culture of the Vyg wilderness pp. 1-27


Abstract: The subject of study is fine art the Vyg wilderness. The object of study is the fenomen of the old believers in the culture of the Russian North. During the work particular attention is paid to identifying the concepts of sustainability and modernization of the old believer traditions in the art of the North. It is proved that for all the controversy, the impact of old believers ' environment on the culture of Northern Russia has been positive, in particular, expanding the range of artistic traditions of the region. We have studied the factors contributing to the spread of Northern art beyond the marginal land: in the Urals, Siberia, the Volga region, Central Russia. In this article it is necessary to use an integrated and multidisciplinary approach. As a special methodology of study chosen by a holistic approach, which is based on the ideas of system analysis. When working on specific research tasks, the author relied on the following methods of research:1. art criticism analysis of works that it is important to understand figurative, ideological solutions, to identify their artistic language; 2. in matters of attribution and significant comparative technical and technological methods, allowing to reveal the typology and the specifics of a particular monument. 3. historical-ethnographic method promotes the study of old believers ' art samples and identify them all-Russian traditions, symbolic meanings. The main conclusions of the research are: 1. the importance of the Vyg desert as an artistic centre of the Russian North; 2. determination of the uniqueness of the phenomenon of the old believers in the historical-cultural and religio-philosophical environment, both the North and far beyond its borders; 3. identify the significant role of the old believers in the distribution of the Northern traditions in most regions of Russia.
Sokolova A.N., Khotko B.S. - Forms of manifestation of sacred thinking in the culture of modern Abkhazians pp. 17-25


Abstract: The concept of "sacred thinking" is examined in the context of terminological problems of contemporary science and the phenomenon of sociocultural practice of modern Abkhazians. The subject of this research is the sacred thinking in the discourse of national and foreign science. The authors suggest a hypothesis of the existence of distinct "sacred gene" as an ontological feature and sign of formation of the value-normative social markers of any human community. The conducted analysis allows determining the two components of "sacred thinking of the Abkhazians: religious and sociocultural, oriented towards preservation of ethnos and its adjustment to any historical metamorphoses. The article applies the method of comparative analysis of the notions of “sacred” and “sacred thinking” used in the contemporary scientific practice, as well as the method of generalization of empirical data that actualize the sacred thinking. The scientific novelty lies in assertion of the purposefulness of using the concept of “sacred thinking” in the modern scientific discourse due to its reference to the scientific subject. Therefore, the notion of “sacred thinking” manifests as a functional term that explains and specifies the examined phenomenon (action). At the same time, the present material can be perceived as a call for active collaboration of the experts of various “disciplinary fields” in search for the so-termed “sacred gene” participating in formation and development of any culture.
Limanskaya L.Y. - Faith, fear, laughter, and enthusiasm as the elements of cultural archetype in the history of Soviet art pp. 26-37


Abstract: The subject of this research is the socio-psychological functions of faith, fear, laughter, and enthusiasm in the semantic inversion of imageries of social realism, social art, and conceptualism. The goal of this work is to follow the dynamics of a cultural archetype within the history of the Soviet art, its historical links and transformations. The author pursues correlation between the images of faith, fear, laughter, and enthusiasm as the semantic codes that define the ideological orientation of development of art systems in the history of Soviet art. The method of semantic analysis of the cultural codes of social realism, social art, and conceptualism allows cognizing the role of the collective unconscious in establishment and transformation of the cultural archetypes in Soviet art. In this article the author poses a question about the role of emotional expressiveness of images in the Soviet art in a new way. The author demonstrates how the fear, laughter, and enthusiasm in the art of social realism and post-Soviet avant-garde unite into the symmetrically-opposing semiotic-culturological projections. The issue of semantic inversion in art from social realism to conceptualism the author associates with the analysis of the role of ideological reforms in establishment and development of a cultural archetype.
Egorov S. - The rejection of historical myth as the basis of identity (on the example of Soviet Protestants) pp. 30-39


Abstract: The subject of this research is the policy of formation of the identity of Russian Protestants during the Soviet period and modern Russia. Main attention is focused on such cultural phenomenon as historical myths, and their impact upon the establishment of personal identity by the representatives of Protestantism. Multiple myths about Protestants have emerged prior to formation of USSR, but during the Soviet time acquired particular meaning, complemented by the new Soviet myths. Methodological foundation contains documents collected and written by the employees of the Council on Religious Cult Affairs under the Council of Ministers of USSR. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that the Soviet historical myths about Protestants were considered as an independent vector of study, rather than in status of illustrations to the other storylines. The conduction analysis demonstrates that the refection of negative myths was and remains to be one of the key components of the identity policy of the Russian Protestants.
Kanokova F.Y. - Gender signs in sculptural and visual solutions of the stone-carved stelas of the Nogais pp. 35-41


Abstract:  The subject of this research is the sculptural and visual solutions of the stone-carved stelas of the Nogais in form of the tombstones. Carved headstones of anthropomorphic and stela forms were decorated with calligraphic carve, geometrical and floral ornaments, trine emblems “tamga”, with abundance of the Islamic symbols and subject compositions. The anthropomorphic headstones have the silhouettes of the traditional male headgear of Nogai people, while the subject compositions consists of the realistic images of male and female appurtenances, clothes, and tools. The topic of the research is highly relevant and revealed from the various perspectives by the modern ethnographers, historians, and experts of Nogai culture. The question of gender affiliation of the stone-carved stelas remains open within the reviewed materials. This article is first to conduct classification in accordance with the gender affiliation, as well as carry out hermeneutical reading of the figurative elements. The main results of the work are aimed at elimination of the established gap.  
Voronicheva O.V. - Specificity of comprehension of the Orthodox sacred places in Bryansk text pp. 75-82


Abstract: This article analyzes the cultural space of Bryansk from the position of reflection of the Orthodox life ans its impact upon the image and fate of the city, the foundation of which took place three years prior to the Christianization of Rus. The goal of the research consists in determination of specificity of representation of the image of Bryansk as the carrier of Christian values. Despite the variety of Christian themes, motives and images demonstrated in Bryansk text, the role of Orthodoxy in the establishment and development of the urban culture is yet to be understood. The author makes an attempt to read the Bryansk text, the sources of which include the historical myths, cultural landscape, language of the city, and literary texts that preserve the eventful four thousand year history of the topos. Semiotic reading of the Bryansk text considering its evolution, allowed determining the dominant images of the cultural space, which embody the Orthodox sacred places and reflect the fate of Christianity in Russia. Such places are the Pokrovskaya Hill with the temple complex, Svensky Uspensky Monastery, and others. The existence of godonyms formed from the names of the cathedrals testify about the structural and meaning-making role of the churches in urban space.
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