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Culture and authority
Ovanesyan I.G. - Cults of Lenin and Stalin in Komsomol of the 1950s pp. 1-25


Abstract: The subject of this research is the policy and public work of Komsomol and manifestations of the cults of V. I. Lenin and I. V. Stalin during its implementation in the 1950’s. The author examines their influence upon the political culture of the Soviet youth. Special attention is given to the manifestations of cult in literature and visual art. At the same time, the author took into consideration the specificity of the youth consciousness justified by the age, as well as by the status of youth as a social group. It is highlighted that as a rule, young men and women stood out in their lack of life goals, indecisiveness of social orientations, and incompleteness of the process of formation of their own ideology. The Komsomol is being viewed as a sociocultural phenomenon. It is demonstrated that in fight against cult of personality, Komsomol (as well as the government) was not consistent. Not denying the direction of disenchantment of the personality cult itself, in the late 1950’s, Komsomol more often expressed intolerance towards the supporters of a radical rejection from the cult political behavior. Unlike the previous years, Lenin’s cult did not serve as an instrument of strengthening the cult of Stalin, but rather contributed into the strengthening of the Komsomol political leadership, as well as added “sacredness” to the political regime.
Panova O. - Integration of regional painters into royal administration during the rule of the first emperors of Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127) pp. 1-10


Abstract: This article analyzes the integration process of the painters from the states Later Shu (934-965) and Southern Tang (937-976) at the court of the Song Empire (960-1127). The subject of this research is the biographies of the painters, who after the formation of Song Empire, migrated from the regions Sichuan Jiangnan to the capital of Kaifeng Empire. The method of sociocultural approach is used in the course of this research. The goal is to examine the migration of the painters from the conquered states in the context of unification of the country. The author gives a brief characteristics to the peculiarities of development of the painting tradition in the states Later Shu and Southern Tan; reviews the migration process of the painters from the aforementioned regions to the capital of the new empire, and their integration at the court of the Song emperors. The conducted analysis demonstrates that during the unification of China, multiple painters together with the rulers of the conquered states, moved to Kaifeng and were invited to service as the court of Song Dynasty. An important role in the integration of painters from the conquered territories at the rule of new regime, was played by the Department of Painting, opened at the court of the Second Emperor Taizong (ruling period 976-997). The painters from the Later Shu were under a special patronage of the court, as they made a significant contribution to the creation of the royal style of painting of the Northern Song era.
Rutsinskaya I. - Institutional biography of the Soviet painter: experience of comparative study pp. 15-31


Abstract: This article is first to conduct a comparative analysis of the biographies of two prominent Soviet painters – A. M. Gerasimov and S. V. Gerasimov. Emphasis is placed on the vectors and stages of the institutional biography of the artists, rather than their creative and personal life. People of the same generation, same education, virtually same life length, they were inscribed into a single system of cultural institutions, sought to achieve career success as the Soviet painters. At the same time, Aleksandr Gerasimov became the personification of the Stalinist era in art, having received all the highest posts and awards in the country, while Sergei Gerasimov throughout the 1930s – 1950s, although was officially recognized as a talented master, caused suspicions among the country’s leadership due to "proclivity for formalism". Thus, being a fairly successful artist, pedagogue and administrator, he was significantly inferior to his namesake in hierarchical ranking. A long life (both masters lived for about 80 years) allows considering the variations of the fate of the “elite” Soviet painters at the turn of eras. The “Thaw” was the time of “overthrow” of one artist and the “rise” of the other. Previous tremendous career achievements of Aleksandr Gerasimov were interpreted as a reflection of unscrupulousness of the painter, and less grandiose successes of Sergei Gerasimov were perceived as a sign of his behavioral reservedness. The fates of two outstanding Soviet painters demonstrate the invariants of institutional biography of the Soviet artist. Different proportions of talent, conformism, ambitions, and strive to achieve material wealth became the key components that led to different formulas for career success and different perception of such success by the contemporaries.
Zavyalova N.A. - Agonality in Chinese culture: from Antiquity to present time pp. 16-23


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the cultural phenomenon of agonality – competitiveness, which is viewed an essential component of phylogenies, ontogenesis, and culturogenesis. The object of this research is the competitive practices and strategies of China from the ancient time to present. The subject is the specificity of China’s competitive advantage, its role in realization of the cultural succession. The author examines the Chinese legend about the origin of lunar calendar, treatise “The Art of War” by Sun Tzu, cultural doctrine of the current leader of PRC Xi Jinping “Chinese Dream”, as well as caricatures of the contemporary Chinese artists. The article also contains the elements of comparative analysis aimed at revealing the common mechanisms of competitiveness in the culture of Ancient Greece, Rome and China. The main method of research is the systemic-analytical approach to culture that allows disclosing the strategies of agonality, which manifested at various levels of culture. A conclusion is made that agonality is a powerful method of development of the world revealing itself not only in terms of fighting for life, but also in theatre, verbal folklore and visual art. The author underlines the ultimate importance of preparing the young generation to competitiveness in the adult world, as even during the leisure time a person recourse to a competition, desiring to prove his supremacy over the others. The results of research can be applied in various fields of culturology for examining the determinant of the Chinese national self-consciousness.
Chernyavskaya E.N. - The Obvious and the Secret in Architectural Symbols of Moscow pp. 18-34


Abstract: The author views the symbols of statehood that have been built in Moscow as the capital of Old Russia, Russia and the Russian Federation. These symbols include the Kremlin with Ivan the Great, Saint Basil's Cathedral, Cathedral of Christ the Savior, Tatlin's Tower, Palace of the Soviets and Moscow City International Business Center. Noteworthy that there were no significant symbols of statehoo in Moscow architecture in the 1920's and since 1960 till the 1980's when democratic ideas and functional architecture dominated. The author underlines that each architectural symbol presents the idea about the international role of the Russian state. 
Sannikov S. - Conceptual approaches to examination of the phenomenon of power in semiotics of culture: retrospective methodological overview pp. 20-29


Abstract: This article attempts to fill the gap associated with the insufficient knowledge on the existing approaches to examination of the phenomenon of power within the framework of semiotics of culture. The subject of the research is the cognitive problems of examination of the phenomenon of power in the works of representatives of the Western European School of semiotics of culture and relevant conceptual approaches to their solution. The object is the oeuvres of the classics specialized in semiotics of culture (semiology) of the XX century: E. Cassirer, R. Barthes, M. Foucault, J. Derrida, G. Deleuze, and J. Baudrillard. Methodological pivot from the positivist paradigm, within the framework of which “power” was studies as a political legal institution, towards postmodernist interpretation of power as a global system of the formation of reality, category of knowledge, and overall subordination to the discursive practices led to substantial expansion of methodological boundaries of the studies of the phenomenon of power. Power becomes an object of research in the context of broad range of disciplines, such as philosophy, history, sociology, linguistics, political anthropology, and culturology. In the conditions of such significant disciplinary diversity, special meaning attains the semiotics of culture as a methodological foundation for further disciplinary synthesis. The conducted analysis allowed detecting the key cognitive issues in examination of the phenomenon of power within the framework of the oeuvres of the indicated authors, and specify the relevant conceptual approaches to their solution. The result explicated the methodological prerequisites for emergence of the modern discipline of the semiotics of culture, which is capable of becoming a theoretical foundation for further analysis of the semiotic algorithms of power relations.
Kazakova Y.A. - Development of Legislation in the Sphere of Culture pp. 23-37


Abstract: Under modern conditions of changes in kinds of cultural institutions, the problem of the cultural heritage preservation is growing very important. Therefore, in order to understand the most important goals of the government during the modern transition period, it is very important to take into account the history and experience of the governmet in state regulation of the sphere of culture. The topic of research is the public relations in the sphere of legal regulation of culture. The subject matter of research is the historical and legal analysis of formation, development and legal regulation of the sphere of culture in Russia. The purpose of the present research is to study the historical experience of the government in establishing the legal base of culture. The practical meaning of research is the creation of the integrated picture of development of relations between the government and the sphere of culture. In order to achieve the aforesaid goal, it is necessary to conduct analysis of all attempts performed by the governmental, scientific and social organizations in order to set forth the legal regulation of the sphere of culture as well as to define the role of the society in the process of formation of state cultural policy.
Popova O.V. - Sociocultural construction of a military man (on the example of pp. 32-49


Abstract: This article analyzes the process of socio-cultural construction in a military environment. The author has shown to demonstrate the evolution of the formation of human identity in a military environment and pointed the role military hazing in the process.Purpose of work is to demonstrate the conflict between the humanistic values of modern culture and values and archetypes, which are hidden behind the informal hazing (accepted in Russian reality a form of "dedovshchina").
Aleksandrov N.N. - The regularities of change of power in the XX century4 pp. 33-50


Abstract: The subject of this research is the regular succession of the change of types of power. It is being viewed with regards to the cycles of the change of elites in the XX century. The author primarily touches upon Russia, but also the questions of parallelism with multiple countries. The same combination of regularities could be observed in the number of other countries, but only concering separate historical periods. The examined regularity carries a rather universal character and manifests on the cycles of various level, although it can be more or less certain. The research is based on the existential systemogenetic approach, as well as theory of cycles. Both of these directions were developed by the author, as well as applied in examination of other topical areas back in 1990’s.  The conducted analysis of the forms of power in the XX century in Russia along with the extensive global context, establishes a new point of view upon the dependence of politics upon the mentality and culture. It manifests as a rigid mental program. This article contains the analysis of the past and present, as well as creates opportunities for the cyclic forecast.
Alekseev-Apraksin A.M., Bogdanova R.Y. - Modern problems of single-industry towns and their cluster history pp. 34-44


Abstract: The article is devoted to single-industry towns and the possibilities of solving their problems, including with the help of a cluster development model. The relevance of this topic is due to the catastrophic state of single-industry towns in Russia and the need to find ways out of the current situation. The Government of the Russian Federation actively supports the development of special programs and projects to support single-industry towns, but most of the measures taken have shown their inconsistency. The article examines the history of the formation of single-industry towns, the means of their territorial organization and the methods of regional development used. Relying on official statistical data, the authors draw attention to the fact that in modern conditions it becomes impossible to develop only the economic sphere, without taking into account social, geographical, cultural, environmental and other factors. The paper shows the necessary conditions for the development of single-industry towns, the possibilities of their actualization and prospects. The conclusion is made about the need to provide residents with opportunities for self-organization, cluster opportunities to get out of the crisis, the need to study the cultural potential of a particular topos and search for approaches to its versatile development.
Rutsinskaya I. - Classification of Stalins images in Soviet art of postwar era pp. 47-53


Abstract: Works of the Soviet visual art of the 1940’s – early 1950’s, dedicated to the Great Patriotic War, were incorporated to a rigid hierarchical system. The highest position within it belonged to images of the chieftain. The requirements of the official order, same as personal pursuits of the artists-Stalinists, predetermined the creation of the largest amount of storylines for demonstrating all guises of Stalin-the commander and Staling – “the great organizer of victory”. As a result was formulated a distinct visual narrative, which main episodes are easily susceptible to classification. The article is first to explore the most popular storylines and compositional patterns, which visualized the myth of Stalin – brilliant strategist and commander. The sources for this research became the widely known and practically unknown oeuvres of the Soviet painting and graphics of the Stalin era, majority of which are not in the center of attention of art historians and culturologists. Iconographic transformation of Stalin’s images are viewed in unity with stylistic changes of artworks of the postwar period.
Yakimov K.A. -
A brief course of the history of All-Union Communist Party as a factor of evolution of public moods of the youth of the late 1930s
pp. 51-65


Abstract: This article examines the main components of propaganda of the study of the “Brief course of the history of All-Union Communist Party ” inside the organization, as well as among the youth outside the union in Tambov Oblast. The author analyzed the fundamental methods of the study of the “Brief course” among the young generation, as well as the attitude of young men and women towards the history of the All-Union Communist Party, and the consequences of the influence of the falsified history upon the consciousness and public moods of the youth. The relevance of this topic is substantiated by the necessity to cover the historical role of Komsomol in propagandaof the “Brief course of the history of All-Union Communist Party” in the youth environment, as well as the importance of considering the experience of establishment of public consciousness in the conditions of the cult of personality. The geographical framework of the research include the territory of Tambov Oblast. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that for the first time the study of the attitude of the youth towards the “Brief course of the history of All-Union Communist Party” is built upon the resource base of the State Archive of Sociopolitical History of Tambov Oblast. The author makes a conclusion that the examination of the “Brief course of the history of All-Union Communist Party” produced a significant effect upon the establishment of mass interest of the youth in the reading of the history of the All-Union Communist Party, behind which there was often the lack of need for studying the “Stalin encyclopedia”.
Tsibenko V., Pogulyaeva E. - Creation of Circassian written language in Russia and Turkey in the context of nation-building (XIX early XX century) pp. 51-61


Abstract: The subject of this research is the creation of Circassian written language in the Russian and Ottoman Empires. Based on the theory of the British scholar M. Billing, this article demonstrates that the process of creation of writing was an integral part of Circassian nation-building during the XIX – early XXI century in the conditions of the absence of own national state. The study leans on the historical, ethnographic and linguistic works of the Russian researchers of that time period, materials of the Circassian newspaper "Guaze" published in the Ottoman Empire at in the early XX century, and the research results of the Soviet, Russian, and foreign (including Turkish) scholars. The Circassian case was taken as an example for several reasons: Circassians are currently undergoing an active phase of nation-building; they live in their historical homeland (North Caucasus) and in diaspora (mainly Turkey); they feature competitive national projects, which allows tracing the dependence of linguistic processes on the national processes. It is established that the creation of writing has become an important phase of Circassian nation-building. In the conditions of interaction with the Russian and Ottoman society, Circassians started to develop their own written language; however, depending on their living conditions and sociopolitical situation, they chose different alphabets, which were perceived as cultural orientation. Writing was developed by Circassians for different languages: universal Adyghe or Kabardian in Russia, universal Adyghe, Adyghe-Abkhaz-Abaza, universal Caucasian, Ubykh in Turkey; different dialects were compiled accordingly. These first attempts of creating written language, which were largely of external nature in Russia, which laid the groundwork for the subsequent variative development of the development of Circassian nationalism that manifests in the command of native languages by the Circassians in Caucasus and diaspora, as well as in communication between Russian and Turkish Circassians.
Bykova I.I. - To the question of creation of Great Imperial Crowns in Russia in the XVIII century pp. 54-75


Abstract: The object of this research is the Great Imperial Crowns of the Russian monarchs in the XVIII century. The goal consists in clarification of the circumstances of creation and existence of the Great Imperial Crowns in Russia during this period, determination of their artistic peculiarities, and analysis these regalia as the works of jewelry art with consideration of stylistic evolution. For achieving the goal, the complex method based on the synthesis of art and historical-cultural approaches is applied. The author refers to a range of sources: unpublished archival documents, memoirs of the contemporaries, and visual material. This article presents a first comprehensive study on creation of the Great Imperial Crowns in Russia. The examines archival documents allow specifying names of the artists who created these regalia, many of which are introduced into the scientific discourse for the first time. The analysis of artistic image of Great Imperial Crowns is carried out. The research demonstrates that in the XVIII century this image transformed under the influence of stylistic preferences in the Russian art culture, as well as due to succession of the court jewelers who belonged to different jewelry schools. Up until Paul I of Russia, who made these regalia hereditary, the Great Imperial Crowns were usually taken apart after the coronation ceremony they were made for.
Markova V.N. - Korean diaspora as the subject of ethnic policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan (1991 2020) pp. 64-71


Abstract: This article examines Korean diaspora as the subject of ethnic policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The manifestations of the growing importance of national and ethnic affiliation as the identity important markers of the individuals and groups in the modern Kazakh society actualized the need for taking special measures and development of the doctrine of interaction of peoples within the multinational state. The research of the ethnic policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan through the prism of Korean diaspora allowed considering the crucial aspects and mechanisms of implementation of the state strategy of interethnic regulation. Comparison is conducted on the the legal and factual components of the work of the Assembly of People of Kazakhstan – the central body for ethnic affairs. The author reviews the humanitarian initiatives of the Association of Koreans of Kazakhstan as a structural part of the Assembly. The article analyzes not only domestic legal documents, but also the report of the United Nations Independent Expert on Minority Issues. The work is divided into the following logical parts: familiarization with the key principles and principal bodies of the ethnic policy of Kazakhstan; overview of the activity of ethno-cultural Korean societies; coverage of the topics of national language; examination of representation of the diaspora in different government branches and structures. This work is first to conduct a systematic historical research on the place and role of Koryo-saram in the ethnic policy of Kazakhstan. It is demonstrate that Korean diaspora, or Koryo-saram, is a vivid example of positive experience of the state strategy aimed at harmonization of interethnic relations. Using all necessary legal and infrastructural resources, Koreans manage to maintain and cultivate interest to their native culture, while being an organic part of Kazakhstan's democratic society.
Gribov R.V. - Managing culture in the USSR on the example of human resource policy in oil and gas industry of Saratov region (1960-1980) pp. 152-157


Abstract: The subject of this research is the transformation of management culture of the USSR under the influence of human resource policy. The goal of this article is to analyze the key features of the management culture and determine the gap between the economic goals and management priorities in historical perspective of the Russian society based on the example of formation of human resource policy in the oil and gas industry of Saratov region during the 1960-1980s. The change in the state structure or technological system is accompanied by transformations in not only management practices, but also deeper symbolic structures pertaining to such notion as management culture. The main conclusions of this research are associated with determination of potential barriers, which impeded formation of efficient economic situation in the oil and gas complex of the stated period: 1. absence of qualified personnel in the conditions of constant changes of the material and technical base; 2. transfer of best personnel to development of West Siberia and countries of the socialist camp as part of socialist duties; 3. constant involvement of personnel in non-core activities (subbotniks, congresses). Due to bureaucracy, lack of quality forecasting and inefficient usage of resources, the socialist system lead to the decay of traditional for Russia management system.
Balmatova T.M. - Crime and Punishment in coplas of cante flamenco pp. 168-181


Abstract: The XXI century, marked by numerous achievements in various fields, became the time of systematic arrangement of not only cante flamenco, but the law enforcement agencies and procedures in Spain as well. These phenomena, which at first glance have no common ground, appear to be inextricably entwined, since in the folklore of Southern Spain are often mentioned the committed crimes and the imposed punishments. The object of this research is the coplas of cante flamencto that contain information about crimes against ethnic groups, prison conditions, family visits procedure, death penalty, correctional labor, physical punishment and other aspects of being in the penitentiary institutions of that time and interaction with the judicial and legal system. The subject of this research is the law enforcement and penitentiary practices in Spain of the XIX centuries. The texts of cante flamenco have not been translated into the Russian language; only some of them drew the attention of domestic researchers, which defines the relevance of conducting interdisciplinary research dedicated to the historical records on the judiciary, prisons and law enforcement practice in Spain of the XIX century, which were contained in coplas of cante flamenco. The goal of this article lies in determination of peculiarities of delivering information related to crimes and punishments in coplas of cante flamencto, and its correspondence to the historical realities of that time. The research is based on the cante flamento colletcions of A. Machado-Alvarez and M. Balmaceda published in 1881. It is established that the lyrics of flamenco songs accurately reflect the difficulties and flaws in various aspects of functionality of the judicial and legal system and penitentiary institutions during their integration into the state system.
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