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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Man and Culture" > Contents of Issue 04/2021
Contents of Issue 04/2021
Symbol, word, speech, language
Skoropad T.A. - The Night of the AdEaters: Pelevin and Baudrillard pp. 1-9

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.4.35552

Abstract: The relevance of this work is substantiated by the fact that advertising as a special language of communication of modern society becomes the subject of research in different human sciences. Culturology, as complex field of humanities knowledge that encompasses sociocultural experience of the people reflected in traditions and norms, customs and laws, representations, assessments and actions, also studies various cultural phenomena. The author pursues the goal to interpret the phenomenon of popularity of advertising as a specific marker of consumer society. For achieving the set goal, analysis is conducted on the phenomenon of durability and popularity of the French show The Night of the AdEaters”. Research methodology is comprised of descriptive and systematic analysis of empirical facts in examining the role of advertising in postmodern society. Comparative method is used for drawing parallels between the works of J. Baudrillard and V. Pelevin from the perceptive of their criticism of consumer society. The author analyzes and characterizes modern consumer society, transformation of human values, and the important role allotted to advertising plays in this society. The conclusion is made that advertising becomes a part of everyday culture, impacts people’s life, contributes to formation of values system, mentality, worldview. In human mind, advertising transforms information into the image, and dictates the demands and interests, demonstrates ideals, helps formulating the goals.
Culture and cultures
Semenova O.V., Butovskaya M.L. - The dependence of the help of grandparents on the distance of household: on the example Russia, the United States, and Brazil pp. 10-33

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.4.36197

Abstract: The key goals of this research consists in assessment and comparative analysis of the help of family in large postindustrial societies. For this purpose, the author carries out a cross-cultural comparative study of the frequency of family contacts in the three countries: Russia, the United States, and Brazil. Based on the 2019 online survey, the author collected quantitative data on the involvement of grandparents into upbringing process of their grandchildren in Russia (N=620), USA (N=308) and Brazil (N=603). In addition to the basic biosocial demographic parameters, the survey included two target questions on the frequency of communication between grandparents and grandchildren. Intensive migration processes and the resulting distance of households between the two generations in the indicated countries substantially reduces the traditional help of grandparents in upbringing the younger generation. The acquired data demonstrate the significant differences that take place in these three countries, and their correlation with the peculiarities of the family lifestyle in other countries. For example, the help of grandparents in Brazil is much lower than in Russia. Comprehensive analysis is also conducted on the factors that reduce the involvement of grandparents in upbringing of their grandchildren in Brazil. The decrease in the frequency of family contacts may be associated with the intensive urbanization processes unfolding in Brazil over the few recent decades. At the same time, the acquired data may reflect the in-depth processes of feminization of migration from less developed regions of the world to more economically prosperous countries. The analysis of the observed consequences of accelerated urbanization in Brazil is of applied importance for understanding the future prospects for the development of modern family.
Culturology and cultural studies
Smirnova G.E. - Russian-speaking community of Great Britain today: stereotypical perception, new realities, and development prospects pp. 34-46

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.4.36213

Abstract: The subject of this research is the Russian-speaking community of Great Britain in the modern sociocultural context, which is traditionally characterized by distinct national, cultural and social disunity. The object of this research is the Russian world of Great Britain within the framework of modern Russian-British relations and sociocultural context of the country of residence. The attitude towards Russian-speaking immigrants from the former USSR republics was affected by multiple stereotypes. The current changes in foreign policy, deterioration of relations between the two countries, amendments to British legislation, Brexit, on the one hand, while economic cooperation and cultural exchange between the countries on the other hand, influence life of the community, forming a new context of being in a foreign cultural environment. The novelty of this research lies in the attempt to assess the impact of the ongoing social processes upon the image, public perception, and quantitative indicator of the Russian community in Great Britain, which is extremely relevant due to the absence of such data in the research literature. Based on the historical and analytical analysis of media materials, sociological surveys, legislative and diplomatic documents, it becomes evident that the number of Russian-speaking citizens who are ready to make Britain their place of residence has significantly reduced compared to the end of the previous century, and there are no prospects that this number would increase. The lifestyle these people is also undergoing changes due to the introduction of new laws in Great Britain. In the conditions of the overall deterioration of political situation, the contacts in economic and cultural spheres remain unchanged, creating a positive image of Russia in the eyes of the British people, as well as the presence of initiatives to improve cooperation between the two countries.
Culture and cultures
Khokhlova D. - Scenography of John Neumeiers ballet Anna Karenina: artistic aspects of the authorial Interpretation of the literary source pp. 47-58

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.4.36233

Abstract: The subject of this article is the artistic and staging solutions applied by John Neumeier in choreographing the ballet “Anna Karenina”. Their determination and analysis is carried out in order to reveal the semantic dominants in interpretation of L. Tolstoy's plotline and understand the ideological intention of the author, who is both a choreographer and a production designer. The research is based on the comprehensive approach. Using semantic analysis of the ballet, the author was leaning on the principles developed by theoreticians and historians of the choreographic theater – Dobrovolskaya, Krasovskaya, Lopukhov, Suriz. In the course of historiographical analysis, were used the lectures given by Neumeier prior to the Moscow premiere of “Anna Karenina”. The article also contains video materials from the archives of Hamburg “Ballettzentrum” and Moscow Bolshoi Theater. The method of overt observation (based on the personal experience of working with Neumeier on the role of Kitty) was also applied. Neumeier saturates the minimalistic and easily transformable design of the ballet with symbolic images (chair, bag, door, steam locomotive), as well as uses staging techniques such as layering of scenes and change of scenery in motion, exposure of the structure of decorations, creation of several scenic plans, use of videography. Detailed semantic analysis of scenography, which became the key research instrument, allows concluding that in his choreographic interpretation of L/ Tolstoy's novel, Neumeier actively uses staging techniques characteristic to drama theater, broadening the range of scenographic solutions for the ballet performance. The author was able to determine and decode the symbolism of the original expressive elements and images by in-depth analysis of the ideological concept of the performance.
Music and music culture
Serov I.E. - Music for the ballet The Twelve by Boris Tishchenko in the context of the revival of Russian symphonic style of the 1960s pp. 59-72

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.4.36269

Abstract: The subject of this research is the symphonic works of the prominent Russian composer of the late XX century Boris Ivanovich Tishchenko (1939–2010). The article analyzes the composer's first major ballet based on the poem “The Twelve” by A. Blok, which was requested in 1963 by the outstanding Soviet choreographer L. Yakobson for production design in the Kirovsky Theater in Leningrad. The author examines such aspects of the topic as Tishchenko's innovative role in the revival of Russian symphonic style in the second half the XX century, interrelation between music and poetry in the orchestral compositions of B. Tishchenko, as well as strong influence of the literary concepts upon the development of his symphonic style. Special attention is given to the topic of B. Tishchenko's succession of the great Russian symphonic tradition. The main conclusion lies in the thought that B. Tishchenko's ballet “The Twelve” is the first truly contemporary ballet performance in the Soviet musical theater. The author’s special contribution to this research consists in comprehensive examination of the works of the prominent Russian composer that have not receive due attention of the musicologists. The novelty lies in demonstration of the important role of Boris Tishchenko in the overall process of the revival of the Russian symphonic music of the 1960s on the example of the ballet of his early period. Developing his original artistic concepts, Tishchenko symphonized the ballet performance, paving the way for many Soviet composers in this direction.
Culture and civilization
Bocharova M. - Visual state symbols of Japan during the Meiji era pp. 73-90

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.4.35261

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the visual state symbols of Japan of the late XIX century (national flag, personal seal of the emperor, order and medal of honor, and military insignia). The aforementioned symbols are viewed as the attributes of the status. First institutionalized graphic symbols in the history of the country have emerged under the influence of European culture and actualized elements of the ”old” Japanese culture, primarily  from the emblems “mon” used to decorate and identify an individual or a family. This article explores the mechanisms of their emergence, as well as the mechanisms of evolution and introduction into the cultural environment based on the material of print mass-market production (postcards and Ukiyo-e woodblock prints). The author’s main contribution consists in comprehensive analysis of the state symbols of Japan of the late XIX century as the attributes of the status, which has been conducted for the first time. The flag, order and emblem of the emperor were used to demonstrate their direct affiliation to the department, as an attribute of a festive event, or indicate their authority. The research also employed postcards as a rarely used source for studying political symbols, or used in the context of ideology alone. The visual images of print production illustrate the reality of using state symbols, as well as within the framework of artistic techniques expand their use as the symbols.
Culture and cultures
Shigurova T.A. - Mordvinian (Moksha) womens costume of the Insar district of Penza province of the mid XIX century: local peculiarities pp. 91-105

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.4.36337

Abstract: This article describes the uniqueness of the local version of traditional clothing of Moksha women who in the mid XIX century resided in the rural localities of Levzha, Perkhlyay, and Suzgarye in the Insar district of the Penza province. The characteristic attributes of women's costume of this period are reflected in the written sources of the Russian Geographical Society. The relevance of this research is defined by the absence of special works on the topic, as well as by the attempt to reconstruct the elements of traditional clothes of the mid  XIX century, which is the first time period used for mapping material culture of the Mordvinian people. The object of this research is the traditional costume of the Mordvinian women; while the subject is the local peculiarities of Moksha women’s costume of the Insar district of Penza province of the mid XIX century, which was characterized by silhouette of the shirt, original style of its wearing with a set of belt ornaments-pendants and loincloth. The goal of this research consists in the analysis of the local peculiarities of Mordvinian (Moksha) women's costume of the mid XIX century and its transformations until the early XX century. The novelty lies in the use previously unpublished handwritten materials of Russian Geographical Society are valuable for reconstructing the historical costume of Moksha women. It is established that in the traditional women’s costume of this territory was a unique phenomenon of material culture, resembling the complex processes of ethnogenesis of the Mordvinian people, hardworking nature of women, results of their creativity, and the national aesthetic canon. The article describes the style of wearing women's blouses shirt. The combination of basic elements of the local complex (shirt and lower waist clothing) allowed the women to wear a short version of the shirt, which did not constrain them in movement or physical work.
Liubivaia I. - The uniqueness of theatrical memoiristics of T. L. Shchepkina-Kupernik pp. 106-115

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.4.36299

Abstract: The subject of this research is the memoir heritage of Tatiana Lvovna Shchepkina-Kupernik. The novelty is defined by the absence of works dedicated specifically to the theatrical memoirs of Tatiana Lvovna Shchepkina-Kupernik. This article examines her memoiristics as part of the history of Russian theater, which allows the researchers to determine the author's contribution to the Russian theater studies. The goal of this consists in drawing attention of the audience and researchers to the memoiristics of Tatiana Lvovna Shchepkina-Kupernik, as well as in describing the role of her theatrical memoirs within the Russian literary studies and the history of Russian theater. Analysis is conducted on the key peculiarities of the memoir heritage of T. L. Shchepkina-Kupernik: stylistic uniqueness, attention to details of the theatrical culture, mastery of sculptural portraits. The author also reveals fascinating rare facts about the prominent figures of art and theatrical events of the late XIX – early XX centuries. The conclusion is made that the memoirs of T. L. Shchepkina-Kupernik represent a rich source on the history of Russian theatre. The details of theatrical culture, in-depth analysis of acting, portraits of the outstanding figures of Russian and foreign culture – all these facts makes her memoir heritage an invaluable material that contributes to the study of the Russian theatrical art.
Gender studies
Volkova V.B. - Representation of sexuality in Calvin Klein Jeans advertising campaigns (19802016): gender approach pp. 116-133

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.4.36304

Abstract: The subject of this research is the means of representing sexuality in advertising campaigns for Calvin Klein Jeans (1980 – 2016). The object of this research is the use of gender stereotypes (masculinity/femininity) in advertising as a way to manipulate collective consciousness for solution of marketing tasks. The aim of this article consists in determination of advertising strategies of the Calvin Klein brand for the period 1980 – 2016 and the techniques of representation of sexuality for the effective impact of advertising upon the target audience. Analysis is conducted on Calvin Klein Jeans advertising campaigns for the past 40 years by decade, revealing the methods of suggestive effect on the consumer for promoting the product. The main following conclusions were made: 1) selecting provocation as the advertising strategy since 1980 to the present, the Calvin Klein brand employs diverse methods of suggestive effect on the recipient, programming their needs and behavioral attitudes, thereby manipulating collective consciousness; 2) kinesic, proxemic, coloristic, phonatory, and speech means for representation of sexuality testify to the use of gender stereotype (masculinity/femininity) in order to produce effective impact upon the target audience; Calvin Klein Jeans advertising campaigns feature similar strategies for 40 years, which are intended to solve marketing tasks via provocation. The novelty of this research lies in the fact that the identified provocation techniques in Calvin Klein advertisings based on the use of gender stereotypes allowed creating the “portrait” of the brand and tracing the patterns in arrangement of advertising campaigns. The author's special contribution consists in analysis of the means for representation of sexuality used in jeans advertising, techniques influencing the recipient through arbitrary interpretation of gender stereotypes, as well as manipulative methods of creating Calvin Klein PR-campaigns.
Culture and Cult
Makeeva V.I. - Corinthian cult of Medea's children pp. 134-142

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.4.36407

Abstract: The myth of Medea and her children is commonly known as the story of the mother who kills her own children for the sake of vengeance to her husband. Most often, she is remembered from the eponymous tragedy of Euripides. However, different authors can describe other circumstances of the demise of children. In these variations of the story, Medea does not kill the children, but becomes the cause of their demise, trying to prevent them from it. According to one of the versions, she tries to make them immortal, but her attempts fail. Although, as a matter of fact the children of Medea acquire immortality in the form of cult. Another blames the Corinthians. Children seek salvation in the Temple of Hera Akraia, where they have been murdered by angered Corinthians. This story is reflected in the myths associated with the redemption cults. The murder entails condemnation of the community – pestilence, appeal to the oracle, sacrifices, and establishment of the permanent cult. The analysis of components of the cult and comparison with other cults, which consist of a combination of initiation rights and heroic offerings, suggests that the Corinthian cult of Medea’s children implied both, the mourning that requires redemption and initiation rites.
Culture and cultures
Ryzhkov K.L. - Internet memes as a new sociocultural phenomenon pp. 143-150

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.4.36432

Abstract: The subject of this research is the Internet meme as a phenomenon in modern culture, while the object is the study of global Internet environment for the existence of this phenomenon. The author explores the role of the Internet meme in culture in the context of globalization and Internet development; communication function of the Internet meme in modern society; as well as the use of Internet memes as informational and semantic signals that affect the existing media markets. Special attention is given to interrelation between the Internet meme as a cultural object and the Internet as a global environment for people’s communication worldwide. The main conclusions lies in determination of the role of the Internet meme in the modern social life, as well as its place in the cultural sphere. The author's special contribution lies in description of the mechanisms of impact of the Internet memes on media markets, as well as the market and information field of news, advertising, marketing, and propaganda. The relevance of this work is defined by the analysis of emergence of the Internet meme not only as a result of creativity, but also as a commercial product and means of information manipulation. The novelty of consists in examination and analysis of such aspects of the Internet memes as a phenomenon that have become significant in the last few years, which is proven by the active attention paid of businesses and the government.
Art and Art History
Mitnik M.A. - The art of exhibiting chandeliers as art objects in the open air pp. 151-159

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.4.36483

Abstract: This article examines the exhibition of chandeliers in the open air. The subject of this research is the projects that display the actual texture and functionality of the historical models of chandeliers, as well as their modern interpretations within the independent art projects that use structural and stylistic elements of chandeliers as part of the topic or material for the viewers’ reflection. For more in-depth analysis of the chandelier as the object of exposition in the open air, the author explored the websites and exhibition catalogues, methodological textbooks, articles and books that demonstrate methods of presenting the objects of decorative and applied art. Similar projects were found. Based on the extensive sampling, the author conducted typological analysis of such projects was carried out, considering the environmental effects and concepts, namely ecological, which underlie the particular solutions. The conclusion is made that open space of the city and garden allow displaying classical chandeliers and various interpretations of ceiling lighting to wide audience, emphasize the texture of the material, and demonstrate the aesthetics of lighting devices not as a historically reserved or subordinate to some household concept, but as aesthetics that expands the customary concepts associated with space.
Culture and cultures
Cheglakov A.D. - Assemblage technique in creating modern wooden sculptures pp. 160-167

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.4.35982

Abstract: This article demonstrates the manifestation of assemblage technique in modern wooden sculpture. The author describes the essence of this method. Special attention is given to another novelty of avant-garde culture – organic art, according to the philosophy of which, the world is depicted as organic whole, the uniform system with its own laws. The pedagogical system of M. Matyushin allows demonstrating the natural bound of man and nature in the artworks. Based on the developed creative method, the author indicates that contemporary art may combine such avant-garde trends as organic art and assemblage. Another important methodology that is similar to assemblage technique, and simultaneously verges upon the practices of kinetic art, is the creation of sculptures with spinning elements. The synthesis of techniques and materials allows expanding the boundaries of art by introducing into inartistic materials. The fundamental idea of this approach is to enrich the context of existence of the artwork and its history. It is stated that wooden sculpture allows the artists to experiment. The ideas and plotlines of wooden sculptures embody the artistic diversity of decorative and applied arts.
Culture and authority
Balmatova T.M. - Crime and Punishment in coplas of cante flamenco pp. 168-181

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.4.33420

Abstract: The XXI century, marked by numerous achievements in various fields, became the time of systematic arrangement of not only cante flamenco, but the law enforcement agencies and procedures in Spain as well. These phenomena, which at first glance have no common ground, appear to be inextricably entwined, since in the folklore of Southern Spain are often mentioned the committed crimes and the imposed punishments. The object of this research is the coplas of cante flamencto that contain information about crimes against ethnic groups, prison conditions, family visits procedure, death penalty, correctional labor, physical punishment and other aspects of being in the penitentiary institutions of that time and interaction with the judicial and legal system. The subject of this research is the law enforcement and penitentiary practices in Spain of the XIX centuries. The texts of cante flamenco have not been translated into the Russian language; only some of them drew the attention of domestic researchers, which defines the relevance of conducting interdisciplinary research dedicated to the historical records on the judiciary, prisons and law enforcement practice in Spain of the XIX century, which were contained in coplas of cante flamenco. The goal of this article lies in determination of peculiarities of delivering information related to crimes and punishments in coplas of cante flamencto, and its correspondence to the historical realities of that time. The research is based on the cante flamento colletcions of A. Machado-Alvarez and M. Balmaceda published in 1881. It is established that the lyrics of flamenco songs accurately reflect the difficulties and flaws in various aspects of functionality of the judicial and legal system and penitentiary institutions during their integration into the state system.
Culturology and cultural studies
Karelina N.A. - Indigenous peoples of Canada: key indicators of the current stage of socioeconomic development pp. 182-192

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.4.36287

Abstract: The subject of this research is the socioeconomic situation of the indigenous peoples of Canada at the present stage of their development. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of such key socioeconomic indicators as life expectancy of the representatives of indigenous population, employment and unemployment rate, average annual income, level of secondary and higher education, command of native language, etc. An attempt is made to determine the major factors of socioeconomic development, measures of state support, as well as the existing problems and future prospects. The author notes correlation between the modernization of education of indigenous peoples and preservation of their languages and cultural traditions. Since the early 2000s, the socioeconomic situation of indigenous peoples of Canada has somewhat improved, considering high rate of population growth, as well as slight minimization of the gap with nonindigenous Canadians such key indicators as life expectancy, employment rate, level of education, and average annual income. First and foremost, it pertains to the indigenous peoples outside Indian reservations and Mestizo. The situation with indigenous peoples in Indian reservations and the Inuit remains complicated. Majority of the problems that slow down the pace of socioeconomic development are associated namely with these groups of indigenous peoples. In economic terms, there is a noticeable increase of self-employment among the indigenous population, the development of aboriginal tourism. Positive changes are associated with popularization of the indigenous culture, which ultimately leads to the fact that more and more of the indigenous people in the country seek to legitimize their descent. Considering a significant share of young representatives of indigenous population, the government of Canada takes measures on the development of new programs in the sphere of education and employment, which are aimed not only at improving the quality of life of the indigenous peoples, but also at preserving their ethnocultural heritage.
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