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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Man and Culture" > Contents of Issue 03/2021
Contents of Issue 03/2021
Culture of the body
Pushkareva T.V., Ivanova E.Y., Shemyakina E.M. - The phenomenon of cosplay: cultural prototypes and trends pp. 1-17

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.3.34966

Abstract: The subject of this research is cosplay as a modern large-scale practice of copying and public demonstration of the costume, image and behavior of famous heroes of popular culture: movies, animated movies, comic strips, and video games within the framework of thematic festivals, processions, and clubs. This article provides scientific grounds for comprehensive analysis of the phenomenon of cosplay as a modern cultural form and practice through determining its cultural and historical prototypes, as well as artistic and social development. The empirical material contains the interviews with the Russian cosplayers, observations, publications in field-specific mass media, and digital broadcasting of cosplay events. The novelty of this work consists in revealing the cultural-historical prototypes of cosplay – totemic primitive festivities, medieval carnival, first forms of theater, as well as in outlining the artistic and social trends of cosplay, among which are the development of the language of modern visual culture and improvement of popular culture through creative materialization of the characters of screen culture. The author describes the socio-psychological mechanisms, which underlie the practice of cosplay and are close to the genetic foundations of the existence of theater: imitation and identification. The article carries out the typology of cosplay genres; determines the universal features and the specifics of the national forms of cosplay.
Audiovisual culture and art
Shesterik O.V. - Juxtaposition of ideology and counter-ideology in the dystopias of Russian cinematography pp. 18-31

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.3.33111

Abstract: The object of this research is a separate element of chronotope genre – the time in dystopia in Russian cinematography of the late XX century – early XXI centuries. The subject of this research is the ideological time – a part of screenwriting that reflects the worldview of the characters through verbal constructions. Special attention is given to juxtaposition of ideology (the system proclaimed by the author) and counter-ideology (the opposing system of the public majority), as well as the manifestations of “doublethink”. Detailed analysis is conducted on the characteristic of the author's position on the ideological questions and its correlation with the social and cultural situation in the Soviet and post-Soviet society. Leaning on the theory of “vertical” time, the author explores one of its chronological layers associated with the ideology of dystopia, which defines the scientific novelty of this research. The works of K. Lopushansky, A. Sokurov, and A. German Sr. demonstrate that there can be at least to perspectives on the events, which underlies the dramaturgical conflict. The conclusion is made that various parts of ideology of the characters may be attributed to time that is different from time of the author and the audience. Another conclusion indicates the diversity of humanistic ideologies that film directors resort to, as well as different ways of their expression by the characters. The acquired results can be implemented in the genre dramaturgy, film studies, and film criticism.
Sociology of culture, social culture
Khingeeva L. - Problems of the Buryat society of the late XIX early XX centuries (based on archival materials of the Republic of Buryatia and Irkutsk Region) pp. 32-45

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.3.31063

Abstract: In the late XIX – early XX centuries, the Buryat people were struggling to survive due to numerous social problems that had accumulated over time. The absence of basic sanitation, low cultural level and moral standards, widespread alcoholism led to mass infectious diseases and issues in reproductive health. The established menacing situation is described by the researchers, medical personnel, and representatives of the European academic science, who worked in the Baikal Region at that time. The goal of this article consists in giving an outlook on the situation from the perspective of Buryat society. The research employs the analysis of previously unpublished materials stored in the State Archive of the Republic of Buryatia and State Archive of the Irkutsk Region. This article is first to publish the notes of the little-known Buryat researcher Mangutkhan Malasagaev. He lived his entire life in the Baikal Region, was engaged in the traditional peasant activities, and thus can be considered a true representative of the Buryat people. His elementary education and lively analytical mind allowed him keeping records of his own observations, and thus leaving a range of manuscripts that describe and analyze various aspects of life of the Buryat people. The article presents his observations on social problems of the Buryat society.
Culture and civilization
Bykovskaya A.V. - The image of enthroned goddess in coroplast of the Early Hellenistic Bosporus pp. 46-68

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.3.35728

Abstract: The subject of this research is the analysis of the composition of Bosporan terracotta with the image of enthroned goddess of the Early Hellenistic period (the late IV century BC – the late II century BC). The research material involves the figurines from the collection of the East Crimean Historical and Cultural Museum-Reserve of this type of iconography. Terracotta from the prewar excavations of the museum, as well as a number of figurines from the excavations in Porfmy are being published for the first time. The goal of this work is to highlight and analyze the characteristic traits of iconography of the enthroned goddess in the Bosporan coroplast, as well as their reveal their sacred meaning. Special attention is given to interpretation of the depicted attributes, which allow identifying the deity. Analysis of iconography testifies to the spread of the cult of Cybele in the III – II centuries BC. In the ancient coroplast, the image of this goddess is associated with such attributes as a tympanum, a young lion, and a cup. Such details can be traced in the Bosporan terracotta. However, by the turn of the III – II centuries, perhaps under the influence of the ideas of autochthonous population of the region, emerges a specific local iconography: new attributes, such as medallion with the head of a young line and a cone). Replication of the new image in the coroplast works underlines the popularity of the cult of the syncretic female deity among the overall population of the Bosporus.
Cultural heritage, tradition and innovation
Kananerova E.N. - The Problem of collectivization in Right-Bank Moldova in the Soviet historiography pp. 69-84

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.3.35816

Abstract: The object of this research is the Soviet historical paradigm in its development. The subject is the achievements of Soviet historians in studying postwar collectivization in Right-bank Moldova. The author dwells on the impact of objective and subjective factors upon the course of historical science during the Soviet period. The article traces the evolution of topics and assessments given in the articles, monographs and collective summary works dedicated to the history of the republic. The novelty of this study is consists in the analysis of the works of Soviet historians from the perspective of modern historical paradigm, which was founded by the scientific school of V. P. Danilov. Examination of the Soviet historiography of collectivization in Right-Bank Moldova allows making the following conclusions: 1) the key problem of Soviet historians consisted in the limited access to archival documents; 2) the agrarian historiography of the problem is often subjective and interprets the information from available archival documents and various statistical records through the prism of generally accepted Soviet ideological attitudes; 3) same as in studying collectivization of the 1920s – 1930s, the topics associated with the violations during collectivization and “dekulakization” remained under the ideological ban; 4) the specificity of historiography of collectivization in Right-Bank Moldova was the significant attention of historians to this problem in the late 1960s – 1970s, which the author believes is associated with L. I. Brezhnev, who was the First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in the 1951 –1952 and the conventional methods for organizing the collective farms in the republic.
Historical culturology and the history of culture
Shapiro B. - Boots and spurs: symbolic items of Russian cavalry in the reminiscences of Russian cavalrymen pp. 85-95

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.3.35669

Abstract: The subject of this research is the artifacts of material culture of Russian cavalry as a specific form with the capacity of symbolic and semantic content. The goal of this work lies in comprehensive examination of the process of symbolization of certain forms of material culture of Russian cavalry. The research employs archaeological material, historical journalism, memoir literature, including the works of the representatives of white émigré, such as Russian military-historical magazine “Le passé militaire” (Paris, 1952-1974) and literary-publicistic “The New Journal”. For obvious reasons, emphasis is placed on the symbolism and semantic aspect of the problem, despite a fair share of nostalgization and mythologization of historical reality. Most common principles ofresearch methodology are based on the culturological concepts of the representatives of Moscow-Tartu Semiotic School of Y. M. Lotman, B. A. Uspensky (reinterpretation of the Russian cultural history in the context of binary opposition), and V. N. Toporov (reconstruction of the archetypes of Russian culture). First and foremost, it refers to the possibilities of semiotic approach towards history, the object of analysis of which is interrelated historical texts and historical contexts. Such perspective on the problem has not been previously articulated in the historical culturology and history of culture. The history of material culture of the Russian cavalryman is described from the standpoint of culturological methodology of cognition for the first time. The conclusion is made that the process of poetization, mythologization, and symbolization of items of the Russian cavalry received demand in the extreme conditions of the turn of the XIX – XX centuries (the last years of the empire). The acquired results can be applied in the sphere of museology, which is focused not only in preservation of the artifact of material and intellectual culture, but also on fulfillment of their historical-cultural potential and historical uniqueness to the maximum.
Audiovisual culture and art
Nashikyan E.E. - Aging viewer of modern Russian television pp. 96-110

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.3.29475

Abstract: The study of the cultural effects of television is inseparable the study of cultural habits related to age, gender, and other basic parameters of the audience. Rapid technological changes in TV broadcasting lead to reconfiguration of audience and reflective attitude of the viewers to their own TV habits. Contrary to expectations, such changes, however, do not necessarily imply bringing younger audience or attraction of youth with technological innovations of television, but rather the audience remains loyal and “ages” along with the channels and programs. The article aims to explain why the viewers of major federal channels are of pre-retirement and retirement age, as well as why the number of young viewers decreases with each year, where do they go, and what do they watch. The subject of this research is the specificity of cultural habits with regards to Russian television. Research methodology employs statistical data analysis, building a functional model of media in culture, interpretation of cultural patterns of behavior and habits. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that the Russian television is examines from the perspective of correlation between technological innovations and habits of perception for the first time; this allows clarifying the sociocultural characteristics of the viewer in their dynamics, and cultural contexts of functionality of Russian TV as media. The conducted research has proven different structure of TV habits among different socio-demographic strata of the Russian audience. Within the framework this research, the author was able to determine socio-demographic groups with similar TV habits, as well as reflect the socio-demographic differentiation of the Russian TV audience.
Culture and cultures
Tedeeva T.T. - Cultural-historical meanings of the Third Rome pp. 111-127

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.3.32321

Abstract: In theoretical and sociopolitical discourses, the semantic construct “The Third Rome" is often used in denotative meaning of imperial ideology. At the same time, it has multivariate connotation, the disclosure of which in the cultural-historical context on the one hand allows deeper understanding of the semantic aspect of the construct, while on the other – more precisely characterizing the culture of different epochs. The object of this research is the historical process of saturation of the semantic construct “The Third Rome" with meaningful content. The subject of this research is the basic cultural- historical connotations the concept “The Third Rome”. The goal of this work is to establish correlation between the basic connotations of the concept under review and the historical cultures by means of culturological attribution. Alongside the general theoretical philosophical-analytical toolset, the author tests the method of culturological attribution in relation to cultural-historical meanings of the concept “The Third Rome" as intangible cultural artifacts. The novelty of this article consists in elucidation of the historical subjectivity of cultural meanings of the concept “The Third Rome”. Attribution of this concept to several historical cultures allows determining its multiple connotation, which at times are antipodal. The most common interpretation (“The Third Rome” as an empire) is applicable only to certain historical cultures.
Ethnology and cultural anthropology
Kannykin S.V. - Sociocultural substantiation of running in the traditional games and ethnosport pp. 128-142

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.3.33314

Abstract: The subject of this research is the determination of sociocultural specificity of running practices within the framework of traditional games and ethnosport. Despite considerable amount of works dedicated to the traditional games and ethnosport, scholars’ attention has not been previously drawn to sociocultural peculiarities of running as the most universal form of physical activity of the amateur participant or a professional athlete, which substantiates the relevance of the selected topic. Traditional games and ethnosport perform an important mission in modern world – they impart sports and competitive activity with humanism, instilling the elements of folk culture. Running, as a universal component of sports, becomes one of the means of consolidation, demonstration, and translation of ethnic values within the framework of traditional games. The author reveals the following peculiarities of running in the sociocultural situation of traditional games and ethnosport: running as an element of military games and traditional non-militarized team games; running as an element of mating ritual; running as am entertainment; utilitarian oriented running; substitute running. The ideological foundation of running in the context of traditional games and ethnosport is a myth; the considered form of running is humanistically oriented, as it does not suggest over limit body burden and full subordination of a person to sport; running is a method of psycho-emotional relief and helps to achieve harmony with the nature; it is gender-specific and often specialized running; it ensures solidarity of a social group; a form of expressing patriotism; an important element of event tourism; a substantial component of ethnopedagogy; an element of ethnic dance; an element of children's game’ a type of economic activity inherent to a particular nation.
Culture of the body
Kannykin S.V. - Running in everyday life and festive culture of the Renaissance and the Modern Age pp. 143-154

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.3.33028

Abstract: The subject of this research is determination of the peculiarities of running as a type of activity in the sociocultural situation of the Renaissance and the Modern Age of the Old and New World. The relevance of studying the socially important aspects of running in everyday life and festive, carnival culture of the XV – XIX centuries is substantiated by the fact that namely this period marks the onset of mental requests and revival of physical practices, which in 1896 would become the heart of the First Olympic Games, the beginning and culmination of which were the athletic competitions. The ancient ideal of kalokagathia at this time is instilled with the ideas of self-sufficiency and self-projectivity of a person, whose creative aspirations equally captivate the spirit and the body. Running develops physical and mental qualities that broaden human capabilities, being that instrument for existential growth through overcoming the boundaries of physical and spiritual “normality”, conditioned by the stereotypes and norms of everyday life. The author views running from the perspective of culturological concepts of “everyday life”, “festivity”, “carnival”, as well as the binary opposition sacred/profane. The fields of application of the acquired results include social philosophy, philosophical anthropology, and philosophy of sports. The novelty of this research consists in the interpretation of endurance running as an existential measurement of everyday life, the method of communication between different types of communities and population groups, and formation of the prototype of a “cultural body” of that time. Running is examined as a type of activity that is characteristic mostly to the lower, marginal social classes. Participation in the city festival in the format of a “carnival” running was a way to integrate into society, a manifestation of collective solidarity. Their buffoonery running distracted the audience from the everyday routine, becoming its counterpoint. The author also determines the contribution of the upper social classes to the development of running practices d: economic (funding of professional runners and material reward for the non-professional winners of the city festivals); practical (amateur running or other athletic practices as a component of a gentleman's everyday life); ideological (Renaissance humanists assumed that physical activity is a non-religious way to overcome time through maintaining physical well-being).
Cultural heritage, tradition and innovation
Alekseeva L.S. - Monastic and temple sacristies during the prerevolutionary period pp. 155-160

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.3.35752

Abstract: Throughout many centuries, the Russian Orthodox Church has been creating and preserving inestimable historical and cultural heritage, including the works of the ancient Russian art, ceremonial ware, and other artifacts. The second half of the XIX century marks the surge in preservation of monuments, and the Church takes active part in such activity. For the purpose of preservation of ecclesiastical antiquity were established the church museums. In the pre-revolutionary period, the museums functioned on the premises of theological academies and seminaries, dioceses, temples and monasteries, and other structural divisions of the Russian Orthodox Church. The group of church museums of that time is poorly studied. The subject of this research is the sacristy collections of temples and monasteries. On the example of sacristies under the major temples and monasteries of Novgorod, Pskov, Yaroslavl and Rostov, the article provides a retrospective overview of the activity of the large museums of antiquities. Based on the survived description of sacristies, the author analyzes the content of their collections. The content of such compilations was affected by the cultural and commercial ties of the cities. For example, the Novgorod sacristies preserve the items associated to the spread of Orthodoxy in Rus’, while the Yaroslavl museums of antiquities feature the monuments of later period. Based on the activity of the aforementioned collections, the conclusion is made that they carried out the functions of discovery, preservation, study, and translation of cultural heritage. Therefore, the prerevolutionary monastic and temple museums of antiquities performed the role of church museums. Further development of the group of church museums on the premises of temples and monasteries was hindered by the historical transformations of the XX century.
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